ScholarWorks@UA

ScholarWorks@UA is University of Alaska's institutional repository created to share research and works by UA faculty, students, and staff

  • Needs Assessment Related to COVID-19 with Special Populations: Brief Report

    Garcia, Gabriel; Mapaye, Joy; Van Wyck, Rebecca; Cueva, Katie; Snyder, Elizabeth; Meyer, Jennifer; Miller, Jenny; Hennessy, Thomas (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-07-28)
    A total of 754 adult respondents from the Municipality of Anchorage (MOA) participated in a needs assessment survey conducted between May 25, 2020 and June 30, 2020. The survey aimed to reach out to specific populations: immigrants and refugees (N=246), non-immigrant racial/ethnic minority groups (N=163), and people with disabilities (N=93) each had a large enough sample size to include in this report. The survey also aimed to reach out to LGBTQ+ populations, however, we did not collect enough surveys from people who identified as LGBTQ+ to have reliable information. Key findings from the survey included: Understand Information from MOA • Most (94%) reported being knowledgeable/somewhat knowledgeable about the Municipality’s emergency orders and changes related to COVID-19 • Most (93%) reported that the Municipality’s policies related to COVID-19 are clear/very clear. Less Risk Behaviors • Immigrants and refugees, and people with disabilities, were significantly more likely to engage in COVID-19 related protective behaviors (wearing mask, physical distancing, etc.) compared with other survey respondents. More Worried • In terms of mental health, racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants and refugees reported significantly higher levels of worry in terms of household finances, losing employment, having self or members of their household being infected by coronavirus, and having enough to eat compared with other survey respondents. Information Preferences • All three examined groups preferred receiving information about COVID-19 through Internet, television, texting, and email. • A majority of respondents for each examined demographic group reported that their primary source of information about COVID-19 were general media sources (i.e., KTUU, KTVA, ADN) and official sources of information in Alaska (health departments, Dr. Zink, governor, mayor). A majority of immigrants and refugees in the sample (81%) also got their information from social sources (family, friends, social media).
  • COVID-19 Survey in the Municipality of Anchorage, July 16-18: Highlights

    Garcia, Gabriel; Mapaye, Joy; Van Wyck, Rebecca; Cueva, Katie; Snyder, Elizabeth; Meyer, Jennifer; Miller, Jenny; Hennessy, Thomas (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-08-06)
    A population-based cell phone survey on COVID-19 was conducted among Anchorage residents (N = 600) from July 16 to July 18, 2020. This was the second population-based cell phone survey conducted in the Municipality on COVID-19; the first one (N = 996) was conducted May 6-10, 2020. Between the first and second population-based cell phone surveys, four online surveys were conducted every two weeks with a panel of respondents from the first cell-phone survey. In total, six surveys have been done in Anchorage so far. Key findings from the most recent survey are as follows:  Most of the respondents reported practicing physical distancing and good hygiene. o Most (74%) did not have any visitors in their home the day before the survey. o Most (74%) did not have physical contact of any kind with someone who didn’t live with them. o While most (66%) reported not going to or attending events indoors (i.e., church, bar, restaurant, house party) last weekend, this distancing behavior was abided by less than the previous ones listed above. o Most (79%) reported wearing their mask all or most of the time when they were outside their home. o Most (68%) reported wearing a mask all or most of the time when they were within six feet of someone not from their household. o Most (76%) reported washing or sanitizing their hands every time or most of the time after touching things that people outside their household may have touched.  Most reported not being worried or only slightly worried about: transportation (88%), having enough to eat (84%), losing employment (78%), household finances (71%), and not being able to connect with friends and family (62%).  Most reported being worried or very worried about: sending children back to school (64%), other friends and family members being infected by coronavirus (56%), and themselves or members of their household being infected by coronavirus (52%).  Most (75%) felt that the Municipality’s response to the outbreak has been good or very good  Most (84%) felt that the Municipality’s policies related to coronavirus have been clear or very clear  Most (92%) strongly support or mildly support the Municipality’s mask mandate.  Most (53%) reported that they are often or sometimes confused by information on COVID-19. COVID-19 RELATED RISK BEHAVIORS increased among those who: o Had lower perceived threat of COVID-19  Those who had significantly lower perceived threat of COVID-19 included men and those with lower perceived susceptibility to COVID-19.  Those with lower perceived susceptibility included men and whites. o Reported lower perceived benefits of wearing a mask
  • COVID-19 Survey in the Municipality of Anchorage, June 16-18: Highlights

    Garcia, Gabriel; Mapaye, Joy; Van Wyck, Rebecca; Cueva, Katie; Snyder, Elizabeth; Meyer, Jennifer; Miller, Jenny; Hennessy, Thomas (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-07-09)
    An online survey of a panel of 295 Anchorage residents 18 years old and older was conducted June 16-18, 2020. This was the fourth survey since May 2020 conducted by the Municipality of Anchorage (MOA) regarding COVID-19 related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The first survey in the series was a population-based cell phone survey of Anchorage residents conducted May 6-10. The second (May 20-22) third (June 2-4) and fourth (June 16-18) surveys were conducted online with a panel of participants from the first survey. Key findings from the fourth survey included:  Most respondents (72%) wore a mask most or all of the time outside their home.  Most (90%) spent time outside their home the day before the survey.  Most (64%) supported mandating wearing masks either “now” or “later.”  Almost half (47%) had physical contact with someone not in their household.  Most (76%) came within six feet of someone not from their household.  Most (91%) felt somewhat knowledgeable or very knowledgeable about MOA COVID-19 emergency orders.  COVID-19 related risk behaviors increased among those who: o Had less than a college degree o Were younger (<45 years) o Had lower perceived threat of COVID-19 o Were less likely to bring a mask when they went out o Were less likely to wash or sanitize hands when touching things touched by others. Compared with previous surveys, more respondents are leaving their homes and coming into physical contact with others. However, most survey respondents also reported wearing masks outside their home, supported a mandate to wear masks, and did not have physical contact with others. KEY MESSAGES As a whole, panel respondents reported positive COVID-19 mitigation behaviors. Messaging could continue to employ the need for personal responsibility to reduce risk, while emphasizing community/societal responsibility and benefit. Integrated communications with key education partners (ASD, UAA, APU, etc.) could also help reach groups associated with COVID-19 related risk behaviors. To encourage increased receptiveness to mitigation behaviors, messaging could try to incorporate affinity group imagery and rhetorical framing.
  • Second COVID-19 Panel Survey in the Municipality of Anchorage: Highlights

    Garcia, Gabriel; Mapaye, Joy; Van Wyck, Rebecca; Cueva, Katie; Snyder, Elizabeth; Meyer, Jennifer; Miller, Jenny; Hennessy, Thomas (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-06-19)
    A panel survey of 309 Municipality of Anchorage residents was conducted via phone June 2-4, 2020. This survey was a follow-up to both a representative survey conducted May 6-10 and a panel survey conducted May 20-22. Although most Anchorage businesses have opened, the second panel survey showed that: • Most respondents (64%) did NOT have physical contact with people not in their household. • Most (70%) wore a mask most or all of the time outside their home. • Most reported being not worried or only slightly worried in many aspects of their life, having good or very good morale in their household (70%), and having low or moderate stress in their household (62%). • Perceived threat of COVID-19 significantly increased from the second to third survey. COVID-related risk behaviors remained high for certain groups including men, younger people (<45 years), those who identified as Republican, and those with children. These groups had lower perceived threat of COVID-19, lower knowledge of the COVID mandates and MOA Emergency Orders, and lower level of clarity regarding Municipality policies related to COVID compared to their counterparts. However, caution should be taken when interpreting findings related to political affiliation given that it is a complex concept that may be an indicator for other factors, including individuals’ ideology, which was not asked about in the survey. These findings mirror national research showing that ideological and political differences may play a role in perceptions and behaviors related to COVID-199 . In order to help increase perceived threat of the virus and decrease COVID-related risk behaviors, messaging from those in the same ideological and political group could help with receptiveness of the message. KEY RECOMMENDATION: Messaging as a whole should continue to focus on the continued threat of COVID-19, personal responsibility to reduce risk, and Alaskans’ ability to succeed in defeating the virus.
  • Addendum to the COVID-19 Panel Survey Report Highlights: Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Behaviors Related to COVID-19

    Garcia, Gabriel; Mapaye, Joy; Van Wyck, Rebecca; Cueva, Katie; Hennessy, Thomas (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-06-10)
    Additional analysis with the panel survey data was conducted to identify which modifiable and demographic factors were independently associated with risk behaviors related to COVID-19 (i.e., demographic groups less likely to practice physical distancing and good hygiene). We found that as the respondents’ level of perceived threat of COVID-19 and age decreased, the COVID-related risk behavior increased. Groups who had lower levels of perceived threat of COVID-19 included people with low socioeconomic status (SES), those who had children in their household, and those who lacked clarity regarding the Municipality’s policies related to COVID-19. These findings suggest that efforts to decrease overall risk of COVID-19 in Anchorage should consider developing education and communication strategies that heighten awareness of the seriousness and threat of COVID-19 to public health. These strategies could be designed to reach out specifically to people from low SES groups, as well as those with children in their households. Additionally, communication strategies could improve the community’s understanding of policies related to COVID-19.

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