Rapid Biodiversity Assessment GRID Sampling in the Bismarck Mountain Range, Papua New-Guinea, December 2007

Metadata also available as

Metadata:


Contact_Information:
Contact_Address:
Address: MANDATORY IF APPLICABLE for Data Store

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Falk Huettmann 1, Dirk Nemitz 2, 2007. 1. EWHALE lab, Biology and Wildlife Dept. Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks. 2. Centre for Nature Conservation, University of Goettingen, Germany and Isaac Centre for Nature Conservation, Lincoln University, New Zealand.
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Rapid Biodiversity Assessment GRID Sampling in the Bismarck Mountain Range, Papua New-Guinea, December 2007
Other_Citation_Details: NA
Online_Linkage: NA
Description:
Abstract:
This data set contains Rapid Biodiversity Sampling data from a GRID. It includes raw count data for 440 bird observations and 238 insect observations from 30 sampling plots in the Bismarck Mountain Range, Papua New-Guinea. All bird observations carry a radial distance from observer information and were collected according to DISTANCE Sampling point transects. Respectively, a DISTANCE trapping web protocol, allowing for detectability correction in abundance estimates, was applied for ground-living insects. Each plot was visited three times according to the PRESENCE software to obtain occupancy. These data have been data-mined by the author (Nemitz 2008) using RandomForest, Distance Sampling and PRESENCE. All species names are verified according to current ITIS taxonomy. A more detailed biological analysis is coming forward, and will be published elsewhere. Comparable Biodiversity GRID data so far is available for 5 other regions (Nicaragua, Central Alaska, Russian Far East, Costa Rica, Northern Alaska). Data from the other study sites are also available online. For details please contact authors.
Purpose:
These GRID data were collected in order to develop low cost rapid biodiversity assessment methods corrected for detectability. Data from this site are compatible with 5 other locations at 2007 and 2008, where the same data were collected following an identical protocol. Findings from this study would allow to learn more about the state of biodiversity and multiple-species monitoring.
Supplemental_Information:
The sampling sites are geo-referenced. DISTANCE Sampling abundance estimates, PRESENCE occupancy estimates and Random Forests predictive modeling were done for a master thesis (Nemitz 2008) and are underway for publication; other analysis findings of this study are currently in progress and will be reported elsewhere. All DISTANCE sampling and PRESENCE project files are available from the authors. For details, please contact authors.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20071223
Ending_Date: 20071227
Currentness_Reference: Current for 2007
Status:
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned for this dataset 2007
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Bismarck Range, Papua New Guinea
Bounding_Coordinates:
Bounding_Altitudes:
Altitude_Minimum: 800
Altitude_Maximum: 800
Altitude_Distance_Units: m
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Park Service Theme Category Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity Monitoring
Theme_Keyword: GRID Sampling
Theme_Keyword: DISTANCE Sampling
Theme_Keyword: PRESENCE
Theme_Keyword: Occupancy
Theme_Keyword: Random Forests
Theme_Keyword: Predictive Modeling
Theme_Keyword: Multiple-Species Survey
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity
Theme_Keyword: Mountains
Theme_Keyword: Probosciger aterrimus
Theme_Keyword: Cacatua alba
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity Monitoring
Theme_Keyword: GRID Sampling
Theme_Keyword: DISTANCE Sampling
Theme_Keyword: PRESENCE
Theme_Keyword: Occupancy
Theme_Keyword: Random Forests
Theme_Keyword: Predictive Modeling
Theme_Keyword: Multiple-Species Survey
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity
Theme_Keyword: Mountains
Theme_Keyword: Probosciger aterrimus
Theme_Keyword: Cacatua alba
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity Monitoring
Theme_Keyword: GRID Sampling
Theme_Keyword: DISTANCE Sampling
Theme_Keyword: PRESENCE
Theme_Keyword: Occupancy
Theme_Keyword: Random Forests
Theme_Keyword: Predictive Modeling
Theme_Keyword: Multiple-Species Survey
Theme_Keyword: Biodiversity
Theme_Keyword: Mountains
Theme_Keyword: Probosciger aterrimus
Theme_Keyword: Cacatua alba
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Park System Unit Name Thesaurus
Place_Keyword: Bismarck Range
Place_Keyword: Papua New Guinea
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Park System Unit Code Thesaurus
Place_Keyword: Bismarck Range
Place_Keyword: Papua New Guinea
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Bismarck Range
Place_Keyword: Papua New Guinea
Taxonomy:
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (<http://www.itis.gov>)
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Annelida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Clitellata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Oligochaeta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Haplotaxida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lumbricina
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lumbricidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arthropoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chelicerata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arachnida
Applicable_Common_Name: arachnids
Applicable_Common_Name: aracnídeo
Applicable_Common_Name: araignées
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Araneae
Applicable_Common_Name: spiders
Applicable_Common_Name: aranha
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Acari
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Acariformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hexapoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Entognatha
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Collembola
Applicable_Common_Name: snow flies
Applicable_Common_Name: springtails
Applicable_Common_Name: colêmbolo
Applicable_Common_Name: collemboles
Applicable_Common_Name: puces des neiges
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Insecta
Applicable_Common_Name: insects
Applicable_Common_Name: hexapoda
Applicable_Common_Name: inseto
Applicable_Common_Name: insectes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pterygota
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Neoptera
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Coleoptera
Applicable_Common_Name: beetles
Applicable_Common_Name: coléoptères
Applicable_Common_Name: besouro
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Adephaga
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Carabidae
Applicable_Common_Name: ground beetles
Applicable_Common_Name: carabes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Polyphaga
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cucujiformia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cucujoidea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Coccinellidae
Applicable_Common_Name: ladybird beetles
Applicable_Common_Name: coccinelles
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Curculionoidea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Curculionidae
Applicable_Common_Name: snout beetles
Applicable_Common_Name: weevils
Applicable_Common_Name: charançons
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Elateriformia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Elateroidea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Elateridae
Applicable_Common_Name: click beetles
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Scarabeiformia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Scarabaeoidea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Geotrupidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Diptera
Applicable_Common_Name: mosca
Applicable_Common_Name: mosquito
Applicable_Common_Name: gnats
Applicable_Common_Name: mosquitoes
Applicable_Common_Name: true flies
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Nematocera
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Culicomorpha
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Culicidae
Applicable_Common_Name: mosquitoes
Applicable_Common_Name: maringouins
Applicable_Common_Name: moustiques
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hemiptera
Applicable_Common_Name: true bugs
Applicable_Common_Name: hemipterans
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hymenoptera
Applicable_Common_Name: abelha
Applicable_Common_Name: formiga
Applicable_Common_Name: vespa
Applicable_Common_Name: ants
Applicable_Common_Name: bees
Applicable_Common_Name: wasps
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Apocrita
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Aculeata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vespoidea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Formicidae
Applicable_Common_Name: ants
Applicable_Common_Name: fourmis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepidoptera
Applicable_Common_Name: butterflies
Applicable_Common_Name: moths
Applicable_Common_Name: papillons
Applicable_Common_Name: papillons de nuit
Applicable_Common_Name: Borboleta
Applicable_Common_Name: Mariposa
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Orthoptera
Applicable_Common_Name: grasshoppers
Applicable_Common_Name: locusts
Applicable_Common_Name: criquet-locustes
Applicable_Common_Name: locustes
Applicable_Common_Name: sauterelles
Applicable_Common_Name: gafanhoto
Applicable_Common_Name: grilo
Applicable_Common_Name: crickets
Applicable_Common_Name: katydids
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Palaeoptera
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ephemeroptera
Applicable_Common_Name: mayflies
Applicable_Common_Name: phémères
Applicable_Common_Name: efêmera
Applicable_Common_Name: efeméride
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Myriapoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chilopoda
Applicable_Common_Name: centipedes
Applicable_Common_Name: centopéia
Applicable_Common_Name: quilópode
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Diplopoda
Applicable_Common_Name: millipedes
Applicable_Common_Name: gongolo
Applicable_Common_Name: piolho de cobra
Applicable_Common_Name: millipèdes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Aves
Applicable_Common_Name: Birds
Applicable_Common_Name: oiseaux
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bucerotiformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bucerotidae
Applicable_Common_Name: Hornbills
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ciconiiformes
Applicable_Common_Name: Herons
Applicable_Common_Name: Ibises
Applicable_Common_Name: Storks
Applicable_Common_Name: aigles
Applicable_Common_Name: aigles pêcheurs
Applicable_Common_Name: albatros
Applicable_Common_Name: alcidés
Applicable_Common_Name: cigognes
Applicable_Common_Name: cormorans
Applicable_Common_Name: perviers
Applicable_Common_Name: faucons
Applicable_Common_Name: flamants
Applicable_Common_Name: goélands
Applicable_Common_Name: grèbes
Applicable_Common_Name: hérons
Applicable_Common_Name: huarts
Applicable_Common_Name: huîtriers
Applicable_Common_Name: ibis
Applicable_Common_Name: pélicans
Applicable_Common_Name: pétrels
Applicable_Common_Name: pingouins
Applicable_Common_Name: pluviers
Applicable_Common_Name: totipalmés
Applicable_Common_Name: tubinares
Applicable_Common_Name: Auks
Applicable_Common_Name: Penguins
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Accipitridae
Applicable_Common_Name: Eagles
Applicable_Common_Name: Hawks
Applicable_Common_Name: Kites
Applicable_Common_Name: aigles
Applicable_Common_Name: buses
Applicable_Common_Name: perviers
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Falconidae
Applicable_Common_Name: Caracaras
Applicable_Common_Name: Falcons
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Falco
Applicable_Common_Name: Falcons
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Columbiformes
Applicable_Common_Name: Doves
Applicable_Common_Name: colombes
Applicable_Common_Name: pigeons
Applicable_Common_Name: Pigeons
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Columbidae
Applicable_Common_Name: Doves
Applicable_Common_Name: colombes
Applicable_Common_Name: pigeons
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Galliformes
Applicable_Common_Name: Fowls
Applicable_Common_Name: Gallinaceous Birds
Applicable_Common_Name: gallinacées
Applicable_Common_Name: volaille
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Passeriformes
Applicable_Common_Name: Perching Birds
Applicable_Common_Name: passereaux
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hirundinidae
Applicable_Common_Name: Swallows
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Monarchidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Paradisaeidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Troglodytidae
Applicable_Common_Name: Wrens
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Turdidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Piciformes
Applicable_Common_Name: Woodpeckers
Applicable_Common_Name: pic-bois
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Picidae
Applicable_Common_Name: Woodpeckers
Applicable_Common_Name: Wrynecks
Applicable_Common_Name: fourmiliers
Applicable_Common_Name: pic-bois
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Psittaciformes
Applicable_Common_Name: Parrots
Applicable_Common_Name: perroquets
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Psittacidae
Applicable_Common_Name: Cockatoos
Applicable_Common_Name: Lories
Applicable_Common_Name: Macaws
Applicable_Common_Name: Parrots
Applicable_Common_Name: aras
Applicable_Common_Name: cacatoès
Applicable_Common_Name: perroquets
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cacatuinae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cacatua
Applicable_Common_Name: Cockatoos
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cacatua alba
Applicable_Common_Name: White Cockatoo
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Probosciger
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Probosciger aterrimus
Applicable_Common_Name: Palm Cockatoo
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Psittacinae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Aratinga
Applicable_Common_Name: Parakeets
Access_Constraints:
The authors and EWHALE/UAF remain the owners of this dataset. However, this data can be distributed or utilized by interested parties.
Use_Constraints:
The authors and EWHALE/UAF remain the owners of this dataset. This data can be distributed or utilized by interested parties. However, it is important to interprete the data and findings in the context of the overall study and the methods outlined. Please refer to Citation for directions on how to cite when using the data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization:
EWHALE lab- Biology and Wildlife Dept., Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Contact_Address:
Address: 419 IRVING I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 001 907 474 7882
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fffh@uaf.edu
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dirk Nemitz
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
An assessment of sampling detectability for global bioidversity monitoring: results from sampling GRIDs in different climatic regions, Master thesis 5 Dec 2008 (unpublished)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: Consistent methods were used, see protocol
Completeness_Report: Dataset is complete for 2007
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field & Lab
Methodology_Identifier:
Methodology_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Methodology_Keyword: DISTANCE Sampling
Methodology_Keyword: PRESENCE / Occupancy
Methodology_Description:
BIODIVERSITY GRID For efficiency reasons a systematic sampling approach was chosen. First of all an equally spaced GRID was implemented: 25 points were arranged in five rows and five columns in order to cover a consistent area but also to have a known spatial neighbor relationship among all plots. The distance between plots was 100 m, resulting in a total GRID size of 500 m x 500 m. While the final GRID system ideally covers the globe systematically without intentional placement, for these initial studies the GRIDs were placed in a way that roughly half to two thirds of the plots fell inside a forested area, the remaining plots at the forest edge or inside the cultural landscape. This survey setup enables other studies on the same data set to make realistic and representative statements about fragmentation effects. The only exception is GRID in Barrow in northern Alaska, where naturally only one habitat type, arctic tundra, occurs. Additionally, five points were randomly placed within the GRID to be able to model the influence of random patterns on the results and their spatial relations (Figure 8). The coordinates of each plot were obtained from a regular hand-held GPS receiver and re-visited by using the Go to function. All plots as well as the path between them were marked with decomposing flagging tape to make recognition in the field easier. A simple schematic map was drawn by hand for each field work participant to ensure that plots are found when the GPS does not receive signals, as was often the case in dense forest settings. BUDGET CONSTRAINTS The biodiversity GRID is meant as a method for cost-efficient rapid biodiversity assessment that allows for an analysis of spatial relations as well. All methods involved have to work in relatively short time, with low costs and little demand of technological equipment. There is no objection to include more sophisticated methods in add-on protocols, but they are discouraged for the main protocol to keep the inhibition threshold for decision makers low. Trained taxonomists were not available, as they rarely are for many ecosystems. All notes regarding the observed species were made as precisely as possible, although most of the observers were not trained especially in tropical ornithology or entomology. Data collection followed the motto the more detail the better, but it was not intended to refuse data because of lacking taxonomic details. If the observer did not readily know the correct scientific name of a specimen, a common name or, in lack of knowledge of a common name, a short description was noted. This original field note is referred to as the narrative name of an observation respectively of a species, whenever possible to correct name according to current ITIS taxonomy was tracked down and added. Such process is common when dealing with large numbers of species and in largely unexplored environments, where huge fractions of the biodiversity remains still unknown, or where appropriate taxonomic guide books are missing. This resulted in good abundance and occupancy estimates, but in less detailed taxonomic data. Such is the characteristic in rapid biodiversity assessments on shoestring budgets, which allow for a first impression and provide detailed information for deeper investigation if desired. This type of rapid assessment additionally serves as a pilot study for further assessments. In the present study the focus lies on spatial global coverage, instead of local detail. ANIMAL SPECIES DATA COLLECTION In the ideal case, the protocol should result not only in information about the presence or absence of species, but also in an estimate of population size. The DISTANCE sampling approach uses the concept of a detection function based on distance of the observed object from the observer to estimate population density. It plays a central role in this study and is used in a number of ways. At each of the 30 plots (25 systematic and 5 random), five minute point transect DISTANCE sampling counts for birds were conducted within 360 degrees. A short settle-in period of one minute was granted prior to counting to allow for the snapshot character of DISTANCE sampling, especially meeting the assumption that presence of the observer does not introduce bias by causing responsive movements of animals. Following common practice the point counts took place only in the morning between 5:30 and 10 am. Birds are known to show higher activity at this time, which generally increases detectability and maximizes inventory accuracy. Each bird seen or heard was noted, including an estimate of the radial distance from the observer. Double counts were avoided by the observers attention and the relatively short counting period. Observers decided to make two adjustments: - in study area on Sakhalin Island, Russia seabird observations were excluded from plot A1; - in study area in Barrow, Alaska the survey time was reduced from five to four minutes. The second method of DISTANCE sampling used was a trapping web. 17 pitfall traps with a diameter of 9 cm each were arranged in a DISTANCE sampling trapping web design to estimate ground-living insects. This sampling method is very labor-intensive and could not be implemented at all 30 plots given the short time period available. Thus, four of the plots were systematically selected to capture the general patterns of species and abundances within the GRID: B2, D2, B4 and D4 (underlined in Figure 8) to gather at least some information about ground-living insects. Trapping webs were usually checked every 24 hours; and records were taken every 48 hours. In between check dates the cups were emptied without recording to avoid correlation in time between trapping events, and obtain spatially independent results. Because of the low number of traps and more available work force it was decided to add a third circle of traps at 3 m from the centre in study areas in Russia, Papua New Guinea and Barrow, Alaska. This increased the total number of pitfall traps in these areas to 25. The third application of DISTANCE sampling was an add-on sampling protocol using DISTANCE sampling line transects, conducted at each of the 30 plots. Transects with a length of 10 m and traversing the plot at its centre were surveyed to estimate numbers of butterflies, amphibians and reptiles. DISTANCE sampling point counts for birds and trapping webs for ground living insects were repeated three times. These repetitive visits further allow for an analysis with the software PRESENCE, which gives an estimate of general occurrence of a species in the area in a point-based sense. PRESENCE generates a detection function based on multiple visits under the assumption that the population is closed, meaning that no animals leave or enter the area of interest between several visits. Repetitions were not realized for the add-on protocol for DISTANCE sampling line transects. VEGETATION & ENVIRONMENT Additionally, basic data about the plot environment was collected. If at all possible, the GPS coordinates were noted. A plot picture and a canopy picture were taken with a digital camera to give a general impression of the area and also allow for an analysis of light conditions in other studies on the same data set, e.g. remote sensing investigations. All pictures are available from the authors. A short description of the ecosystem was noted as well (for example: pasture, forest interior, forest edge). Height and diameter at breast height were recorded for all trees within 5 m of plot centre. Estimates were noted regarding canopy cover percentage, understory cover percentage, shrub cover percentage (at 1.35 m height), bare soil percentage, duff coverage percentage, leaf browsing percentage, and number of flowers visible. The thickness of epiphytes, hemi-epiphytes, mosses and lichen was noted in categories (none, low, medium, high). Presence/absence of identified plant species or plant families was noted, as well as remarkable animal tracks (e.g. land crab holes, large mammal tracks, etc). Those are referred to as Covariates 1 to 32 in all six study areas, but the actual meaning is different in each. Detailed lists and the full protocol are available from the authors. The covariates can have one of four effects: 1. affecting habitat quality (presence/ absence of a species) 2. affecting detectability (detection/ non-detection of a species that is present) 3. affecting both of the above 4. affecting none of the above.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Buckland et al
Publication_Date: 2001
Title: Introduction to DISTANCE sampling
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: MacKenzie et a.
Publication_Date: 2005
Title: Occupancy estimates and modeling
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Breiman
Publication_Date: 2001
Title: Statistical modelling: the two cultures
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Huettmann & Nemitz
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: Biodiversity GRID Sampling Protocol
Process_Step:
Process_Description: No process steps have been described for this data set
Process_Date: Unknown

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0
Longitude_Resolution: 0

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Observations
Entity_Type_Definition: Characteristics of animal observations and trappings
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_IDNo
Attribute_Definition: Unique observation identifier
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Region_Label
Attribute_Definition: Unique GRID identifier
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Region_Area
Attribute_Definition: Observed are in square meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Year
Attribute_Definition: Year of survey
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Type
Attribute_Definition:
Type of survey

Bi = DISTANCE sampling point transect, mainly for birds

DT = DISTANCE sampling line transect, mainly for butterflies, reptiles and amphibians

TW = DISTANCE sampling trapping webs, mainly for ground-living insects

Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TI_Connection
Attribute_Definition: Database field to connect tables, no value for user
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Vi_Connection
Attribute_Definition: Database field to connect tables, no value for user
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SL_Connection
Attribute_Definition: Database field to connect fields, no value for user
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Label
Attribute_Definition:
Unique identifier for each plot within a GRID

5 lines from A to E 5 rows from 1 to 5

Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Visit Effort
Attribute_Definition:
Survey effort of each visit.

For Observation_Type = Bi: survey time in minutes

For Observation_Type = DT: length of transect in meters

For Observation_Type = TW: trapping time in minutes

Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Visit
Attribute_Definition: Numeration of visits at each plot
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Radial Distance
Attribute_Definition:
Radial distance from observer to observed animal for DISTANCE sampling
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Cluster size
Attribute_Definition: Number of animals observed per observation
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Narrative
Attribute_Definition:
Common name, taxon or description of animal as known by observer
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Ident
Attribute_Definition: Type of identification (aural/visual)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Status
Attribute_Definition: Dead or alive
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_CupLabel
Attribute_Definition: Unique identifier for each single trap of a trapping web
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Comment
Attribute_Definition: Additional comments as needed
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Plots
Entity_Type_Definition: Local plot attributes, especially vegetation
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TI_Connection
Attribute_Definition: Database field to connect tables, no value for user
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TIRegion_Label
Attribute_Definition: As Region_Label
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TIPoint Transect_Label
Attribute_Definition: As Point Transect_Label
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_GPSNorth
Attribute_Definition: GPS northing
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_GPSeast
Attribute_Definition: GPS easting
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Plot type
Attribute_Definition: Type of plot (systematically or randomly selected)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Habitat
Attribute_Definition:
Qualitative statement of observer about habitat, habitat type (e.g. pasture or forest)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_EpiphytesCat
Attribute_Definition:
Density of epiphytes in four categories (none, low, medium, high)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_MossLichenCat
Attribute_Definition:
Density of moss and lichen in 4 categories (none, low, medium, high)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_MossPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by moss
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_LichenPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by lichen
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_BareSoilPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by bare soil (no vegetation)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_DuffCoverPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by duff
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_ShrubsPerc135cm
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by shrubs at 1.35m height
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_CanopyPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by canopy
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_UnderstoryCoverPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by understory/ 2nd canopy
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_LeafBrowsingPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of leaf biomass showing signs of browsing
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_FlowersNo
Attribute_Definition: Number of flowers visible from plot
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Leafs
Attribute_Definition: .
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_DistNextLake
Attribute_Definition: Distance to next lake in meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_DiamNextLake
Attribute_Definition: Diameter of nearest lake in meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_MetersForestEdge
Attribute_Definition: Distance to forest edge
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_MetersForestTrail
Attribute_Definition: Distance to nearest forest trail
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_CanopyTreesNo
Attribute_Definition: Number of trees at plot reaching into the canopy
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_HighestTreeM
Attribute_Definition: Height of highest tree at plot in meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_HighestDBHcm
Attribute_Definition:
Diameter at breast height of biggest tree at plot in centimeters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_OpenWaterPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by open water
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_GrassPerc
Attribute_Definition: Percentage of ground covered by grass
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_EpiphytesLow
Attribute_Definition:
Binary field: low density = 1 any other = 0
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_EpiphytesMed
Attribute_Definition:
Binary field: medium density = 1 any other = 0
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_EpiphytesHi
Attribute_Definition:
Binary field: high density = 1 any other = 0
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_MossLichenLow
Attribute_Definition:
Binary field: low density = 1 any other = 0
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_MossLichenMed
Attribute_Definition:
Binary field: medium density = 1 any other = 0
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_MossLichenHi
Attribute_Definition:
Binary field: high density = 1 any other = 0
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate01
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate02
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate03
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate04
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate05
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate06
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate07
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate08
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate09
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate10
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate11
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate12
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate13
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate14
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate15
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate16
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate17
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate18
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate19
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate20
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate21
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate22
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate23
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate24
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate25
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate26
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate27
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate28
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate29
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate30
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Point Transect_Covariate31
Attribute_Definition:
Presence/ absence of a specific landscape feature, e.g. holes of a specific animal, feces or a specific plant species
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Species_List
Entity_Type_Definition: List of species encountered
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SLRegion_Label
Attribute_Definition: As Region_Label
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SLObservation_Type
Attribute_Definition: As Observation_Type
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SLObservation_No
Attribute_Definition:
Total number of observations of this particular species/ narrative
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SLObservation_Narrative
Attribute_Definition: As Observation_Narrative
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolKingdom
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: kingdom
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolPhylum
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: Phylum
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolSubphylum
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: subphylum
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolClass
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: class
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolOrder
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: order
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolFamily
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: family
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolGenus
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: genus
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_BiolSpecies
Attribute_Definition: Taxonomy: species (only 2nd part of species name)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SL_Connection
Attribute_Definition: Database field to connect fields, no value for user
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Visits
Entity_Type_Definition: Specifications of visit
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ViRegion_Label
Attribute_Definition: As Region_Label
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Vi_Type
Attribute_Definition: As Observation_Type
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Vi_Point Transect_Label
Attribute_Definition: As Point Transect_Label
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Vi_Point Transect_Visit
Attribute_Definition: As Point Transect_Visit
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Observer
Attribute_Definition: Name of the person conducting the surveys of this visit
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Vi_Observation_Year
Attribute_Definition: As Observation_Year
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Month
Attribute_Definition: Month in which the survey took place
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Day
Attribute_Definition: Day on which the observation took place
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_FullDate
Attribute_Definition:
Full date on which the observation took place in format yyyymmdd
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_Dawn
Attribute_Definition: Dawn time on the day of observation (calculated)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_StartTime
Attribute_Definition: Start time of the survey
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation_MinSinceDawn
Attribute_Definition: Minutes between calculated dawn time and start of survey
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TI_Connection
Attribute_Definition: Database field to connect tables, no value for user
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Vi_Connection
Attribute_Definition: Database field to connect tables, no value for user
Attribute_Definition_Source: Nemitz and Huettmann

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization:
EWHALE lab- Biology and Wildlife Dept., Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Contact_Address:
Address: 419 IRVING I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 001 907 474 7882
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fffh@uaf.edu
Distribution_Liability:
The authors and the hosting institutions shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. These data and related graphics (i.e. GIF or JPG format files) are not legal documents and are not intended to be used as such. The information contained in these data is dynamic and may change over time. The data are not better than the original sources from which they were derived. It is the responsibility of the data user to use the data appropriately and consistent within the limitations of geospatial data in general and these data in particular. The related graphics are intended to aid the data user in acquiring relevant data; it is not appropriate to use the related graphics as data. The authors give no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of these data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from an NPS server and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. Although these data have been processed successfully on computer systems at the University of Alaska, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the utility of the data on other systems for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data.
Standard_Order_Process:
Fees: None

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20081008
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization:
EWHALE lab- Biology and Wildlife Dept., Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Contact_Address:
Address: 419 IRVING I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 001 907 474 7882
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fffh@uaf.edu; dirk@naturecon.de
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: <http://nrdata.nps.gov/profiles/NPS_Profile.xml>
Profile_Name: NPS NR and GIS Metadata Profile

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