Inferred Dominance in Free-ranging Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) based on Proximity and Interactions in Nicaragua, Ometepe Island in December 2004 / January 2005.

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kim Jochum, Falk Huettmann and Lisa Paciulli
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Inferred Dominance in Free-ranging Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) based on Proximity and Interactions in Nicaragua, Ometepe Island in December 2004 / January 2005.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Online_Linkage: <http://science.nature.nps.gov/nrdata>
Description:
Abstract:
This data set contains information regarding dominance hierarchy in Manteled Howling Monkeys; the observations were taken 30th Dec. 2004 5th Jan. 2006.Three to five hours of data was collected each morning Two different sampling methods were employed: Instantaneous scan sampling methodology (Altmann, 1974) was used at ten minute intervals. The following data were recorded: time, location, gender, age (adult, subadult, juvenile, infant), activity (sitting, feeding, walking, standing, hanging), identification code if possible, group spread, distances between each individual in sight and if they sat on the same tree or another one. In between instantaneous data collection, continuous event sampling methodology (Altmann, 1974) was used for all group interactions. Three categories were chosen as fight, play and approach retreat. The interactions observed were classified in: male- male contact, male-female contact, male-subadult-contact, male-juvenile contact, female-female contact, female-subadult, female-juvenile contact, subadult-subadult contact, subadult-juvenile contact and juvenile-juvenile contact. This project is part of a fieldschool and the data were collected by a student (Kim Jochum) for a forthcoming thesis project; publications are planned. For more details see also <http://www.lasuerte.org/>
Purpose:
The purpose of the dataset is to investigate a method for determining dominance hierarchy in Alouatta palliata applicable to different mammal species based on low and opportunistic sample sizes. This dataset is part of a forthcoming German M.Sc. Thesis by Kim Jochum dealing with recognition abilities of individuals tested across several animal species world-wide using marginal and opportunistic behavior datasets.
Supplemental_Information:
Alcock J., 2005. Animal behavior. Sinauer Associates, Inc.. Sunderland, Massachusetts U.S.A.. Crockett C.M. and Pope T., 1988. Inferring patterns of aggression from red howler monkey injuries. Amer. J. Primatology. 15, 289-308. Clarke M. R., Glander K. E. and Zucker E. L., 1997. Infant-nonmother interactions of free-ranging mateled howlers (Aloatta palliata) in Costa Rica. International Journal of Primatology. Vol.19, No.3. De Waal F. B. M., 1987. Dynamics of social relationships. Mammals. D 04672. Primates. Y 25458. Dunbar R. I. M. and Cowlishaw G., 1992. Mating success in male primates: dominance rank, sperm competition and alternative strategies. Animal behavior. 44, 1171-1173. Glander E.G., 1980. Reproduction and population growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 53, 25-36. Glander K.E., 1991. Dispersal patterns in Costa Rica mantled howling monkeys. International Journal of Primatology. Vol.13, No.4. Jurmain R., Nelson H. and Kilgore L., 2004. Essentials of physical anthropology. 5th ed. St. Paul, West Publ. Co. Milton, K., 1979. Factors influencing leaf choice by howler monkeys: A test of some hypotheses of food selection by generalist herbivores. American Naturalist. 114, 362-378. Milton, K., 1980. The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys: A Study in Primate Economics. Columbia University Press. New York. Paul A., 1997. Breeding seasonality affects the association between dominance and reproductive success in non-human male primates. Folia Primatology. 68, 344-349. Strier K. E., 2003. Primate behavior ecology. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, New York. Young O. P., 1983. An example of apparent dominance-submission behavior between adult male howlers. Primates. 24(2), 283-287.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: Unknown
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference: Current
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:
Currently no maintenance. Future publication planned and in progress.
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -85.5
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -85.5
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 11.45
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 11.45
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Ometepe Island, Nicaragua
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: dominance hierarchy
Theme_Keyword: Alouatta palliata
Theme_Keyword: howling monkey
Theme_Keyword: mantled howling monkey
Theme_Keyword: Proximity
Theme_Keyword: Interactions
Theme_Keyword: Tropical Forest Ecology
Theme_Keyword: Tropical Wildlife Ecology
Theme_Keyword: Animal activities
Theme_Keyword: Behaviour Study
Theme_Keyword: Research
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Park Service Theme Category Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: dominance hierarchy
Theme_Keyword: Alouatta palliata
Theme_Keyword: howling monkey
Theme_Keyword: mantled howling monkey
Theme_Keyword: Proximity
Theme_Keyword: Interactions
Theme_Keyword: Tropical Forest Ecology
Theme_Keyword: Tropical Wildlife Ecology
Theme_Keyword: Animal activities
Theme_Keyword: Behaviour Study
Theme_Keyword: Research
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: dominance hierarchy
Theme_Keyword: Alouatta palliata
Theme_Keyword: howling monkey
Theme_Keyword: mantled howling monkey
Theme_Keyword: Proximity
Theme_Keyword: Interactions
Theme_Keyword: Tropical Forest Ecology
Theme_Keyword: Tropical Wildlife Ecology
Theme_Keyword: Animal activities
Theme_Keyword: Behaviour Study
Theme_Keyword: Research
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Ometepe Island
Place_Keyword: San Ramon
Place_Keyword: Machete Forest
Place_Keyword: Nicaragua
Place_Keyword: Central America
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Park System Unit Name Thesaurus
Place_Keyword: Ometepe Island
Place_Keyword: San Ramon
Place_Keyword: Machete Forest
Place_Keyword: Nicaragua
Place_Keyword: Central America
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Park System Unit Code Thesaurus
Place_Keyword: Ometepe Island
Place_Keyword: San Ramon
Place_Keyword: Machete Forest
Place_Keyword: Nicaragua
Place_Keyword: Central America
Access_Constraints: By arrangement with data owner and contributing parties.
Use_Constraints: Discuss with data owner and contributing parties.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kim Jochum, Falk Huettmann, Lisa Paciulli
Contact_Organization: IWF Vetenarian University of Hannover, Germany
Contact_Address:
Address:
Stiftung Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15
City: Hannover
State_or_Province: Lower Saxony
Postal_Code: 30173
Contact_Voice_Telephone: + 49 (0) 511-856-7568
Data_Set_Credit:
Kim Jochum, Falk Huettmann, and Lisa Paciulli, La Suerte/Ometepe fieldschool
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Field notes, Microsoft Works Spreadsheet
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Milton, K.
Publication_Date: 1980
Title:
The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys: A Study in Primate Economics.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Taxonomic_Keywords: howling monkey
Taxonomic_Keywords: howler monkey
Taxonomic_Keywords: mantled howling monkey
Taxonomic_Keywords: mantled howler monkey
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Applicable_Common_Name: animals
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Applicable_Common_Name: chordates
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Applicable_Common_Name: vertebrates
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Mammalia
Applicable_Common_Name: mammals
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Theria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Eutheria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Primates
Applicable_Common_Name: primates
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cebidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Alouattinae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Alouatta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Alouatta palliata
Applicable_Common_Name: Howling Monkey

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Data on all individuals visible was collected, ranging from 2 to 8 individuals at a time.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Methodology is consistent throughout. One principle data collector Kim Jochum, supervised by Falk Huettmann and Lisa Paciulli, and following the scientific references mentioned.
Completeness_Report: Consistent methods.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Field notes recorded in notebook and inserted into Microsoft Works Spreadsheet.
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Time: 2 weeks
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kim Jochum
Contact_Organization: Kim Jochum
Contact_Address:
Address: Rauschenweg 10
City: Neunkirchen,
State_or_Province: Saarland
Postal_Code: 66539
Country: Germany
Contact_Voice_Telephone:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
This study was conducted in a secondary growth, tropical dry forest on Ometepe Island in Lake Nicaragua (11 24N, 85 50 W) which experiences two distinct seasons: wet (March through October) and dry (November through February). The rainforest, where we observed mantled howling monkeys, is a secondary growth dry forest with disturbances, close to agricultural fields and cattle. The data was collected during two weeks of December through January. For the mantled howling monkeys, no permanent groups were noticable, rather life in fission and fusion. Several individuals were noticed and followed. The maximum number of individuals for which data was collected on at a time are app. eight individuals. Four individuals were observed on several days and could be distinguished from others; one adult female with infant, one juvenile female and two adult males. The monkeys were located by early morning vocalizations of the males starting at dawn. Two different sampling methods were employed to increase the chances of determining the howling monkey dominance hierarchy. First, instantaneous scan sampling methodology (Altmann, 1974) was used at ten minute intervals. The following data were recorded; the time, location, gender, age (adult, subadult, juvenile, infant), activity (sitting, feeding, walking, standing, hanging), identification code if possible, group spread, distances between each individual in sight and if they sat on the same tree or another. See Appendix A for operational definitions. Secondly, in between instantaneous data collection, continuous event sampling methodology (Altmann, 1974) was used for all group interactions. Three categories were chosen as fight, play and approach retreat. An approach retreat was defined as every interaction when two individuals have been closer than one meter to each other. The interactions observed were classified in: male- male contact, male-female contact, male-subadult-contact, male-juvenile contact, female-female contact, female-subadult, female-juvenile contact, subadult-subadult contact, subadult-juvenile contact and juvenile-juvenile contact. Obtained data were noted in a hardcopy fieldnote book, and after the project transferred into a digital database (Excel sheet).

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Trail Net in Machete Forest
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Mantled Howling Monkey dominance hierarchy
Entity_Type_Definition: Measurement of proximities and interactions
Entity_Type_Definition_Source:
Scientific references, Kim Jochum, and Falk Huettmann, Lisa Paciulli
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation category
Attribute_Definition: Seperates the Distance Data from the Interaction Data
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: 1 or 2
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Date
Attribute_Definition: Date data recorded
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Day, Month, Year
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Time
Attribute_Definition: Local time
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: hour, minute
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Focal animal 2
Attribute_Definition:
Focal Animal 1 from which the distance to Focal Animal 2 was qualified
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: unrepresentable domain
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Sex 1
Attribute_Definition: Male, female gender of animal 1
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: male, female
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Age 1
Attribute_Definition: determined age of focal animal 1
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Adult, Subadult, Juvenile, Infant
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Body Size 1
Attribute_Definition: determined body size of focal animal 1
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: On a scale 1 to 10
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Activity 1
Attribute_Definition: Activity of animal 1
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
walking, sitting, feeding, standing, hanging, looking, laying, reaching, vocalisating
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Location 1
Attribute_Definition:
Tree the focal animal 1 is sitting on compared to focal animal 2
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: same tree, different tree
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Distance (m)
Attribute_Definition:
Distance determined between focal animal 1 and focal animal 2 at scan time
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: in meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Focal Animal 2
Attribute_Definition:
Focal Animal 2 to which the distance was determined from Focal Animal 1
Attribute_Definition_Source: not available
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: unrepresentable domain
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Sex 2
Attribute_Definition: determined sex of focal animal 2
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: male female
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Age 2
Attribute_Definition: determined age of focal animal 2
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Adult, Subadult, Juvenile, Infant
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Body Size 2
Attribute_Definition: determined body size of focal animal 2
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Age as scale 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Activity 2
Attribute_Definition: determined activity of focal animal 2 at scanning time
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
walking, sitting, feeding, standing, hanging, looking, laying, reaching, vocalisating
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Location 2
Attribute_Definition:
Tree the focal animal 2 is sitting on compared to focal animal 1
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: same tree, different tree
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Identity
Attribute_Definition: Recognized Individual Identification Code
Attribute_Definition_Source: Defined by Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: unrepresentable domain
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Interaction Classification
Attribute_Definition:
Definition: fight, play, approach retreat. An approach retreat was defined as every interaction when two individuals have been closer than one meter to each other.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Fight, Play, Approach retreat, Contacting
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Interaction Time
Attribute_Definition: Length of specific Interaction
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: hour, minute
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Interaction Categorisation
Attribute_Definition: Categorising of Interaction Classifications
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
for Approach retreat: Travelling together, Approach, chase off, Distance Displacement; for Play: backlash, playbite, playfight, grabbing; for Coacting: group movement; for Fight: Jump on, Grabbing
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Interaction Assessment
Attribute_Definition:
neutral reaction of both individuals being part of the interaction or one wins over the other one
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Positiv-Negativ, Neutral
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Interaction Who in Age category
Attribute_Definition: description of who interacted with whom
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Adult, Subadult, Juvenile, Infant
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Interaction Who in Body Size category
Attribute_Definition: description of who interacted with whom
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Interaction
Attribute_Definition:
descriptive description of the interaction which occured at a certain time
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: na
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Statement now
Attribute_Definition:
descriptive opinion on interaction categorisation and evaluation while working with the dataset
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kim Jochum
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: na

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kim Jochum, Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization:
University of Alaska, Institute of Arctic Biology, Biology and Wildlife Department
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 419 IRVING I - EWHALE lab
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907 474-7882
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 907 474-6967
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fffh@uaf.edu
Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the University of Alaska, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the accuracy or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from a server, and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. It is also strongly recommended that careful attention be paid to the contents of the metadata file associated with these data. La Suerte Fieldschool, The Universities of Alaska (U.S.) and Hannover (Germany) shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Excel
Fees: None

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20060121
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Falk Huettmann and Kim Jochum
Contact_Organization:
University of Alaska, Institute of Arctic Biology, Biology and Wildlife Department
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 419 IRVING I - EWHALE lab
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775-7000
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 907 474-7882
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 907 474-6967
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fffh@uaf.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: <http://nrdata.nps.gov/profiles/NPS_Profile.xml>
Profile_Name: NPS NR and GIS Metadata Profile

Generated by mp version 2.8.25 on Thu Feb 01 09:22:23 2007