Presence and Absence of Trees Used by Sloths (Bradypus variegatus; Choleopus hoffmanni) in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, July 2012

Metadata also available as

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Carrie Reilly
Publication_Date: 20120730
Title:
Presence and Absence of Trees Used by Sloths (Bradypus variegatus; Choleopus hoffmanni) in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, July 2012
Edition: 1
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: database
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Sloth Project
Issue_Identification: 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Maderas Rainforest Conservancy
Publisher: Carrie Reilly
Description:
Abstract:
It is well known that rainforests are in grave danger of deforestation, global warming and faunal extinction. Among the detrimental results occuring in the rainforest sloths may be a stressed and likely declining species,hence, becoming closer to being endangered. Costa Rica recieves 1000-2000 mm of rainfall per year and is considered a tropical deciduous forest. Both brown's throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus; taxonomic serial number TSN 624888) and Hoffman's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni TSN 624909) are found in La Suerte Biological Station in Costa Rica.Furthermore, Ometepe Biological Station in Nicaragua appears to contain no sloth species whatsoever (but habitat is available and animals occur on mainland nearby). Ometepe is an island with two large volcanic mountains and the forests are overall dry. Although arboreal, sloths are able to swim quite well. Through the use of presence and absence plots, a pattern of the ecological niches used by sloths was described. The following data were collected at presence and random plots: day,Month,Year,Presence/Absence, Circumference,Diameter, Estimated Height m, Distance to Hiking Trail m, Distance to edge m,Type of Edge, Moss coverage, Canopy coverage, Height of sloth in tree, Species of sloth, Decimal Latitude (WGS84), Decimal Longitude (WGS84), Altitude, Nearest Big Tree, Estimate Age, Genus of Tree, Arrow liana present, Bromeliad present, Fungi present, Fern, Shrub, Plant, Small trees, Grass, Location name, Observer name, Comments. This dataset is in MS Excel and describes 9 sightings of sloths and 20 absence plots.
Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the trees used by the sloths to suggest the impact of human intervention and deforestation on the sloths. Sloths, like most neotropical animals, could be endangered. Sloths are an important animal to study for ecosystems; they are the only mammal known, to contain one extra cervical bone. The extra bone allows the animal to rotate it's head 90 degrees to look out for predation and neighboring trees. This study looked at ecological and biological factors of sloths and their niche habitat. Here we looked at the diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree used by the sloths; which gave rise to the question of tree usage being correlated to the arm length of sloths. We surveyed trees in Ometepe in which we believed would be an ideal niche for sloths. Along with interviews we found out that sloths were never known to be on the island of Ometepe. The overall question of why were sloths not found in Ometepe when they are found in northern and southern areas of the island.
Supplemental_Information:
Goffart, M. Form and Funtion in the Sloth. Oxford 1971. Pergamon Press.

Emmons, LH. Neoptrocial Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, 1990.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20120707
Ending_Date: 20120730
Currentness_Reference: observed
Status:
Progress:
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Biological Stations of La Suerte (Costa Rica), Tortuguero (Costa Rica) and Ometepe (Nicaragua)
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 83.71662
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 85.54858
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 11.43738
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 10.43972
Bounding_Altitudes:
Altitude_Minimum: 3.000
Altitude_Maximum: 140.000
Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Sloth
Theme_Keyword: Costa Rica
Theme_Keyword: Nicaragua
Theme_Keyword: Bradypus variegatus
Theme_Keyword: Choloepus hoffmanni
Theme_Keyword: Brown's three-toed sloth
Theme_Keyword: Hoffman's two-toed sloth
Theme_Keyword: Ometepe
Theme_Keyword: La Suerte
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Biological Station La Suerte
Place_Keyword: Costa Rica
Place_Keyword: Biological Station Ometepe
Place_Keyword: Nicaragua
Place_Keyword: Central America
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Taxonomic_Keywords: Brown-throatd three-toed sloth
Taxonomic_Keywords: Bradypus variegatus (TSN 624888)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Hoffmann's two-toed sloth
Taxonomic_Keywords: Choloepus hoffmanni (TSN 624909)
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Taxonomic_Keywords: Inga
Taxonomic_Keywords: Cecropia
Taxonomic_Keywords: Laxoplumeria
Taxonomic_Keywords: Mosuitoxylon
Taxonomic_Keywords: Enterolobium
Taxonomic_Keywords: Lonchocarpus
Taxonomic_Keywords: Cocos
Taxonomic_Keywords: Mangifera
Taxonomic_Keywords: Ananas
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Classification_System_Modifications: ITIS
Identifier:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: see author
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:
City:
State_or_Province:
Postal_Code:
Contact_Voice_Telephone:
Taxonomic_Procedures:
When detected in the field, species was identified by author. Ideally, a photo was taken, too.
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Mammalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Theria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Eutheria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pilosa
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Folivora
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bradypodidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bradypus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bradypus variegatus
Applicable_Common_Name: Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth
Applicable_Common_Name: Brown-throated Sloth
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Megalonychidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Choloepus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Choloepus hoffmanni
Applicable_Common_Name: Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: see authors and addresses
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:
City:
State_or_Province:
Postal_Code:
Contact_Voice_Telephone:
Data_Set_Credit:
Carrie Reilly (data collector, student) Maderas Rainforest Conservancy Rainforest Ecology class, by Falk Huettmann
Security_Information:
Security_Classification_System: None
Security_Classification: Unclassified
Security_Handling_Description: None
Native_Data_Set_Environment: IBM PC MS Excel
Analytical_Tool:
Analytical_Tool_Description:
Garmin GPS is a device in which uses three satellites to pinpoint the location of user. The device gives you readings of longitude, latitude and altitude.
Tool_Access_Information:
Tool_Access_Instructions:
Click menu, then click use location, and take down the longitude, latitude, and altitude coordinates.
Analytical_Tool:
Analytical_Tool_Description:
Meter Tape helps give accurate readings, in meters, of the circumference of the trees surveyed.
Tool_Access_Information:
Tool_Access_Instructions:
Pull the tape around the tree, at base height, until it meets up with the 0m point and record the measurements.

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Species identification was identified by the author, plant identification was done by the author and an amateur.
Logical_Consistency_Report: Data are consistent.
Completeness_Report: Data is complete.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: GPS was used +/- 30m.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report: GPS was used +/- 50m altitude.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
The data was collected the following way:

Walking in the forest on trails and opportunistically. And once a sloth was found (or reported to the author), the following habitat features were collected at a presence site:

Day,Month,Year,Presence/Absence, Circumference,Diameter, Estimate Height m, Distance to Hiking Trail m, Distance to edge m, Type of Edge, Moss coverage, Canopy coverage, Height of sloth, Species of sloth, Latitude, Longitude, Altitude, Nearest Big Tree, Estimate Age, Genus of Tree, Arrow liana present, Bromeliad present, Fungi present, Fern, Shrub, Plant, Small trees Grass, Location name, Observer name, Comments For random locations, the same data were collected at absence plots.

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Data was collected in the field with use of a notepad and then transfered to a computer using an excel sheet.
Process_Date: Unknown

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference:
Sloth Nicaragua Costa Rica Ometepe La Suerte

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.0001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.0001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: World Geodetic System of 1984
Ellipsoid_Name: World Geodetic System of 1984
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.25722210088
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988
Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
Altitude_Encoding_Method: Attribute values

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Project Maderas
Entity_Type_Definition: Data of presence absence of sloths
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Carry Reilly
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Tree Number
Attribute_Definition: tree number
Attribute_Definition_Source: author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Day
Attribute_Definition: Day
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Month
Attribute_Definition: Moth
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Year
Attribute_Definition: Year
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Present
Attribute_Definition: Pres abs of sloth
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Circumference
Attribute_Definition: Circumference of tree
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Diameter
Attribute_Definition: Diameter of tree
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Estimate Height m
Attribute_Definition: Tree height estimated in meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Distance to Hiking Trail m
Attribute_Definition: Distance to hiking trail in meters, estimated
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Distance to edge m
Attribute_Definition: Distance to nearest edge in meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Type of Edge
Attribute_Definition: Edge type
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Moss coverage
Attribute_Definition: MOss coverage on tree in percent
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Canopy coverage
Attribute_Definition: Estimate canopy coverage in percent
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Height of sloth
Attribute_Definition: Height of sloth on tree in meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Species of sloth
Attribute_Definition: Sloth species, scientific name
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Latitude
Attribute_Definition: Decimal degrees of latitude
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Longitude
Attribute_Definition: Decimal degrees of Longitude
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Altitude
Attribute_Definition: Altitude in meters from GPS
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Nearest Big Tree
Attribute_Definition: Nearest Big Tree in meters
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Estimate Age
Attribute_Definition: Estimated Tree Age in years
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Genus of Tree
Attribute_Definition: Tree Genus
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Arrow liana
Attribute_Definition: Arrow Liana present on tree or not
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Bromeliad
Attribute_Definition: Bromeliad present on tree or not
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Fungi
Attribute_Definition: Fungi present on tree or not
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Fern
Attribute_Definition: Fern present in understory, or not
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shrub
Attribute_Definition: Shrubs in understory
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Plant
Attribute_Definition: Plants present under the tree
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Small trees
Attribute_Definition: SMall trees available near tree
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Grass
Attribute_Definition: Grass available under tree
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Location
Attribute_Definition: Name of Location
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observer
Attribute_Definition: Name of Observer
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Comments
Attribute_Definition: Comments re. the detection and tree
Attribute_Definition_Source: Author

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person:
Carrie Reilly (or contact Maderas Rainforest Conservancy or supervisor)
Contact_Organization: Maderas Rainforest Conservancy
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: Maderas Rainforest Conservancy
City: Miami
State_or_Province: Florida
Postal_Code: 30000
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:
Resource_Description:
MS Excelsheet for the presense/ absense of sloths at the Biological station of La Seurte and Ometepe.
Distribution_Liability: No
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Version_Number: see Format Specification
Format_Specification: MS Excelworksheet
File_Decompression_Technique: No compression applied
Transfer_Size: 1
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: www
Fees: No fees
Ordering_Instructions: Contact authors during business times
Turnaround: Usual workday
Technical_Prerequisites: IBM PC

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20120729
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Carrie Reilly, Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization: University of Alaska- Fairbanks
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 419 Irving 1
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 9074747882
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: FHUETTMANN@ALASKA.EDU
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999

Generated by mp version 2.8.25 on Wed Sep 05 11:37:12 2012