A field study of Hummingbird Behavior during June 2007 at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica

Metadata also available as

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kerin Bentley
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
A field study of Hummingbird Behavior during June 2007 at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Online_Linkage: <http://science.nature.nps.gov/nrdata>
Description:
Abstract:
Hummingbirds are known to change their foraging behavior based on food availability and nectar abundance. They can act as indicators for environmental change for the tropical wet rainforest. For the first time, this study examines hummingbird daily activities in the forest of Estación Biologíca de La Suerte in Costa Rica. A database of 353 observation events is presented. The overall goal is to quantify the frequency of selected behaviors, (i.e. Drinking, Vocalization, Nesting, Social Interactions, Hovering, Sitting), and the amount of time spent performing them. In addition, the preferred type of forest environment is also examined (i.e. forest level and exposure). This data is collected May 28 til June 12 2007, and represents a student project in the framework of a field school of the course 'Rainforest Ecology'.
Purpose:
This study is intended to assess whether there is a behavior daily routine, a concept never before studied at La Suerte, Costa Rica.
Supplemental_Information:
Kricher, J. 1997. A Neotropical Companion. Princeton University Press, Princeton New Jersey, USA.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20070530
Ending_Date: 20070616
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
The Small and Large Forests at La Suerte Biological Field Station, in Costa Rica.
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 83.77
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 83.77
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 10.43
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 10.43
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Hummingbirds
Theme_Keyword: Hummingbird Behavior
Theme_Keyword: Study of Hummingbirds
Theme_Keyword:
Hummingbird Selected Behavior Hummingbird Behavior and Time of Day
Theme_Keyword: Rubiacaeae Palicourea sp.
Theme_Keyword: Heliconia Imbricata
Theme_Keyword: La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica
Theme_Keyword: Chalybura urochrysia
Theme_Keyword: Amazilia saucerrottei
Theme_Keyword: Thaluranis colombica
Theme_Keyword: Florisuga mellivora
Theme_Keyword: Klais guimeti
Theme_Keyword: Florisuga mellivora
Theme_Keyword: Anthracothorax prevostii
Theme_Keyword: Phaethornis superciliosus
Theme_Keyword: Phaethornis longuemareus
Theme_Keyword: Glaucis aenea
Theme_Keyword: Amazilia tzacatl
Theme_Keyword: Rufous-tailed Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: Bronzy Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Little Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Long-tailed Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Green Breasted Mango
Theme_Keyword: Violet-headed Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: White Necked Jacobin
Theme_Keyword: Crowned Woodnymph
Theme_Keyword: Steely-vented Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: Red-footed Plumeleteer
Theme_Keyword: Nectivore
Theme_Keyword: Nectar feeder
Theme_Keyword: Nectivorial foraging
Theme_Keyword: Annoaceae
Theme_Keyword: Ocotea babosa
Theme_Keyword: Lauraceae
Theme_Keyword: Inga marginata
Theme_Keyword: Leguminosae
Theme_Keyword: Forest Level
Theme_Keyword: Forest Exposure
Theme_Keyword: Behavior Time
Theme_Keyword: Drinking
Theme_Keyword: Hovering
Theme_Keyword: Sitting
Theme_Keyword: Flying
Theme_Keyword: Nesting
Theme_Keyword: Social Interaction
Theme_Keyword: Vocalization
Theme_Keyword: Flower
Theme_Keyword: Kerin Bentley
Theme_Keyword: Falk Huettmann
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: National Park Service Theme Category Thesaurus
Theme_Keyword: Hummingbirds
Theme_Keyword: Hummingbird Behavior
Theme_Keyword: Study of Hummingbirds
Theme_Keyword:
Hummingbird Selected Behavior Hummingbird Behavior and Time of Day
Theme_Keyword: Rubiacaeae Palicourea sp.
Theme_Keyword: Heliconia Imbricata
Theme_Keyword: La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica
Theme_Keyword: Chalybura urochrysia
Theme_Keyword: Amazilia saucerrottei
Theme_Keyword: Thaluranis colombica
Theme_Keyword: Florisuga mellivora
Theme_Keyword: Klais guimeti
Theme_Keyword: Florisuga mellivora
Theme_Keyword: Anthracothorax prevostii
Theme_Keyword: Phaethornis superciliosus
Theme_Keyword: Phaethornis longuemareus
Theme_Keyword: Glaucis aenea
Theme_Keyword: Amazilia tzacatl
Theme_Keyword: Rufous-tailed Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: Bronzy Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Little Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Long-tailed Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Green Breasted Mango
Theme_Keyword: Violet-headed Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: White Necked Jacobin
Theme_Keyword: Crowned Woodnymph
Theme_Keyword: Steely-vented Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: Red-footed Plumeleteer
Theme_Keyword: Nectivore
Theme_Keyword: Nectar feeder
Theme_Keyword: Nectivorial foraging
Theme_Keyword: Annoaceae
Theme_Keyword: Ocotea babosa
Theme_Keyword: Lauraceae
Theme_Keyword: Inga marginata
Theme_Keyword: Leguminosae
Theme_Keyword: Forest Level
Theme_Keyword: Forest Exposure
Theme_Keyword: Behavior Time
Theme_Keyword: Drinking
Theme_Keyword: Hovering
Theme_Keyword: Sitting
Theme_Keyword: Flying
Theme_Keyword: Nesting
Theme_Keyword: Social Interaction
Theme_Keyword: Vocalization
Theme_Keyword: Flower
Theme_Keyword: Kerin Bentley
Theme_Keyword: Falk Huettmann
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: Hummingbirds
Theme_Keyword: Hummingbird Behavior
Theme_Keyword: Study of Hummingbirds
Theme_Keyword:
Hummingbird Selected Behavior Hummingbird Behavior and Time of Day
Theme_Keyword: Rubiacaeae Palicourea sp.
Theme_Keyword: Heliconia Imbricata
Theme_Keyword: La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica
Theme_Keyword: Chalybura urochrysia
Theme_Keyword: Amazilia saucerrottei
Theme_Keyword: Thaluranis colombica
Theme_Keyword: Florisuga mellivora
Theme_Keyword: Klais guimeti
Theme_Keyword: Florisuga mellivora
Theme_Keyword: Anthracothorax prevostii
Theme_Keyword: Phaethornis superciliosus
Theme_Keyword: Phaethornis longuemareus
Theme_Keyword: Glaucis aenea
Theme_Keyword: Amazilia tzacatl
Theme_Keyword: Rufous-tailed Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: Bronzy Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Little Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Long-tailed Hermit
Theme_Keyword: Green Breasted Mango
Theme_Keyword: Violet-headed Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: White Necked Jacobin
Theme_Keyword: Crowned Woodnymph
Theme_Keyword: Steely-vented Hummingbird
Theme_Keyword: Red-footed Plumeleteer
Theme_Keyword: Nectivore
Theme_Keyword: Nectar feeder
Theme_Keyword: Nectivorial foraging
Theme_Keyword: Annoaceae
Theme_Keyword: Ocotea babosa
Theme_Keyword: Lauraceae
Theme_Keyword: Inga marginata
Theme_Keyword: Leguminosae
Theme_Keyword: Forest Level
Theme_Keyword: Forest Exposure
Theme_Keyword: Behavior Time
Theme_Keyword: Drinking
Theme_Keyword: Hovering
Theme_Keyword: Sitting
Theme_Keyword: Flying
Theme_Keyword: Nesting
Theme_Keyword: Social Interaction
Theme_Keyword: Vocalization
Theme_Keyword: Flower
Theme_Keyword: Kerin Bentley
Theme_Keyword: Falk Huettmann
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: La Suerte Biological Field Station
Place_Keyword: Small Forest at La Suerte
Place_Keyword: Biological Field Station
Place_Keyword: Large Forest at La Suerte Biological Field Station
Place_Keyword: Cariari region
Place_Keyword: Costa Rica
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Taxonomic_Keywords: Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl)
Taxonomic_Keywords: White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Red-footed Plumeleteer (Chalybura urochrysia)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Steely-vented Hummingbird (Amazilia saucerrottei)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Violet-headed Hummingbird ((Klais guimeti
Taxonomic_Keywords: Bronzy Hermit (Glaucis aenea)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Red-footed Plumeleteer (Chalybura urochrysia)
Taxonomic_Keywords: White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Crowned Woodnymph (Thaluranis colombica)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Green Breasted Mango (Anthracothorax prevostii)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Long-tailed Hermit (Phaethornis superciliosus)
Taxonomic_Keywords: Little Hermit (Phaethornis longuemareus)
Taxonomic_Keywords: collection
Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
Taxonomic_Keywords: single species
Taxonomic_Keywords: animals
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Unknown
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Classification_System_Modifications:
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) online at <http://www.itis.gov/>
Taxonomic_Procedures: field guide was used: Birds of Costa Rica
Taxonomic_Completeness:
All birds that could be observed and identified were included in this dataset.
General_Taxonomic_Coverage:
All birds that could be observed and identified were included in this dataset.
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Aves
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Apodiformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Trochilidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Phaethornithinae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Glaucis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Glaucis aeneus
Applicable_Common_Name: Bronzy Hermit
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Phaethornis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Phaethornis longuemareus
Applicable_Common_Name: Ermitaño enano
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Phaethornis superciliosus
Applicable_Common_Name: Long-tailed Hermit
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Trochilinae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Amazilia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Amazilia saucerrottei
Applicable_Common_Name: Steely-vented Hummingbird
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Amazilia tzacatl
Applicable_Common_Name: Colibrí cola rojiza
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Anthracothorax
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Anthracothorax prevostii
Applicable_Common_Name: Green-breasted Mango
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chalybura
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chalybura urochrysia
Applicable_Common_Name: Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Florisuga
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Florisuga mellivora
Applicable_Common_Name: White-necked Jacobin
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Klais
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Klais guimeti
Applicable_Common_Name: Violet-headed Hummingbird
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Thalurania
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Thalurania colombica
Applicable_Common_Name: Violet-crowned Woodnymph
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None. Suggest to refer to methods and contact authors for accurate use and interpretation of data and findings.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kerin Bentley
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:
City:
State_or_Province:
Postal_Code:
Contact_Voice_Telephone:
Data_Set_Credit: La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Excel
Analytical_Tool:
Analytical_Tool_Description: none used, other than Excel
Tool_Access_Information:
Tool_Access_Instructions:

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The accuracy is based on observation of species within the family Trochilidae, specifically Hummingbirds, in both the Small Forest and Large Forest locations at La Suerte Biological Field Station.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Focus is on 11 hummingbird species (based on what could be indentified in the field), other species occur in the area.
Completeness_Report:
The study at La Suerte Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, was completed during the dates of May 30, 2007 through June 16, 2007.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: na
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Identifier:
Methodology_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Methodology_Keyword: Kerin Bentley
Methodology_Description:
observation and collection

Methods (as taken from the study report): This study was performed at La Estación Biologíca de La Suerte in Pococí, Limón, Costa Rica at 83.77 degrees longitude and 10.43 degrees latitude. The field station at La Suerte is located on the Caribbean side of Costa Rica in the Río Frío district at approximately 50m (150ft) elevation. La Suerte has been both a farm and a plantation in the past but has been managed as a conservation site for over 12 years. The regeneration process has produced two forests. The 'Small Forest' is classified as a primary forest or jungle. The 'Large Forest' is classified as a secondary forest or jungle. The Small Forest is c. 28 hectares in size. The Large Forest is c. 100 hectares in size. The weather conditions in the rainy season, the season during which this study was conducted, are hot, humid and drier than usual. Rainfall usually occurs in the evening and night. La Suerte accumulates approximately 4000 mm of precipitation per year (Clark et al, 1990).

To collect data, the hummingbird first needs to be detected in direct view. The hummingbird then is watched until it started a new behavioral activity while in view. As soon as the hummingbird commences that activity, the stop watch is started. The stop watch used for this study is a Timex: Ironman Triathlon digital wrist watch. Once the hummingbird stops this activity, the stop watch is immediately stopped and the time is recorded. This entire activity can be termed hereafter as an "event". Each event is then described as any of the following: Drinking, Vocalizing, Sitting, Hovering, Flying, Chasing, Being Chased, Playing, Nesting or Fighting. Playing is defined as two or more birds switching off between chasing and being chased within their social interaction event. Fighting is defined as aggressively violent attacks on another hummingbird. Drinking is defined as any time the beak contacted the flower for nectar. Hovering is defined as a maintained stationary aerial position. Nesting is defined as any time a bird entered, left or maintained a nest.

Once the behavior time is recorded, the behavior type is recorded. If the event is "Drinking", then the number of times the individual contacted the flower is recorded. The time of day is observed as a span of time spent observing the individual. This span usually lasts 60 seconds. The type of species is recorded as well as gender if the gender is obvious by coloration. If the species is unknown but the coloration is apparent, then the body description is taken for later classification using A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica by Stiles and Skutch (1989). If the individual remains unclassified even after consulting the literature, then it is termed as "Unidentified". If the angle of viewing prevents species identification, it also was termed as "Unidentified". It is known that the neck area of males, called gorgets, are dull at certain angle and so their coloration can only be fully realized at angles of direct sunlight (Kricher 1997, page 261). Also events at sunset (around 6pm) can make it too dim for classification.

The plant species is also recorded, if a plant species is involved in the event. If a plant is unknown, then the sample is taken back to the La Suerte library for later identification using textbooks and literature. Photos for later identification were taken if a plant sample could not be attained. The plant height and flower height of that plant are approximated in meters. The forest level is determined as ground level, subcanopy level and canopy level. The Ground Level is defined as less than six meters. The Subcanopy Level is defined as six to 12 meters. The Canopy Level is above 12 meters. The exposure level is also measured by approximating how many angles of direct viewing were possible. The options are "None", "Slight", "Moderate", "Exposed" and "Very Exposed". "None" are defined as being in thick forest so the individual stayed in view with great difficulty. "Slight" is defined as approximately 90 degrees of direct view to the individual. "Moderate" is defined as approximately 180 degrees of direct view. "Exposed" is defined as approximately 270 degrees of direct view. "Very Exposed" is defined as approximately 360 degrees of direct view. Lastly, the trail location is recorded as well as any extra comments on the event.

Observation periods or survey efforts, were not uniform on a daily basis due to weather conditions or class schedule; however, all times of day between 5am and 6:30pm were accounted for more than once to provide enough data to assess if a general hummingbird schedule of activity exists. If a data entry of an event was not clearly or not entirely captured in the observation, the data was not recorded.

It must be realized that not all behaviors were captured. This type of sampling, continuous sampling, means that only one observation can be properly recorded at one time (Martin and Bateson 2005, page 89). This can be an issue if more than one individual is in the area. It affected the study by inhibiting the collection of data regarding the overall amount of activity in the area. If more than one hummingbird was performing the same activity at the same time, then one event was lost so that the other hummingbird could be studied. Also, some actions start out of view or cannot be anticipated, such as vocalization or social interactions that start in direct view but quickly end out of sight. Vocalization was recorded only when the watch started as soon as the chirping began. The social interactions that continue beyond viewing were not included as well.

Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kerin Bentley
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:
Process_Step:
Process_Description: No process steps have been described for this data set
Process_Date: Unknown

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference:
Maps provided by La Suerte Biological Field station of the Small and Large Forests
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Kerin_Bentley_Raw_Data_LaSuerte_2007
Entity_Type_Definition: Excel sheet
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Event Number
Attribute_Definition:
Number of Event Observation. A Number of Event Observation (1,2,3...etc.) was assigned to each data point as it was collected over the course of the study. This is for organizational purposes only.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Beginning_Date_of_Attribute_Values: 20070525
Ending_Date_of_Attribute_Values: 20070616
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Day
Attribute_Definition:
The day of the event was observed. The day in the month was recorded as soon as the data were observed.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Month
Attribute_Definition:
Month of the data point observation. The month of the data were recorded as soon as the event was observed.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Year
Attribute_Definition: The year during which the data were collected.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Trail Label
Attribute_Definition:
The Trail marker delinated by La Suerte Biological Field Station. These trail markers were positioned every few meters to mark the location on the trail. This was recorded to mark the site where an event was observed.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Longitude
Attribute_Definition:
Vertical Marker on the Earth's surface determined by a Global Positioning System. The longitude was collected as one reading since the GPS did not work very well within the Forests. This reading was taken at the La Suerte Biological Field Station Main House.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Latitude
Attribute_Definition:
Horizontal markers along the Earth's surface determined by a Global Positioning System that shows how far away the GPS is from the equator. The latitude was taken as one reading since the GPS did not work in the Forest. This was taken at La Suerte Biological Field Station Main House.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Forest Name
Attribute_Definition:
The Forest Name is the delination of which forest the data event was observed. The data were observed in either the Small Forest or Large Forest. This was recorded at the time of each event observation.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Study Location
Attribute_Definition:
The place in Costa Rica where the data were collected. This Study Location was La Suerte, Costa Rica at the Field Station.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Species Name
Attribute_Definition:
The common name of the hummingbird performing the event observed. The common name was recorded as soon as the individual hummingbird observed could be identified.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Scientific Name
Attribute_Definition:
The Latin name given to a individual classified as Genus, Species. The scientific names for the hummingbirds observed were found in A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica, by F. Gary Stiles and Alexander F. Skutch, 1989. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Start Time
Attribute_Definition:
The Start Time marks the beginning of the window of observation for the hummingbird individual. It also serves to point out what time of day the event was observed.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observation Interval (sec)
Attribute_Definition:
How long in seconds an individual was observed. This is not just the amount of time an event was peformed and timed. This also includes the total amount of time observing the individual in order to observe an entire behavioral event.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Behavior Type
Attribute_Definition:
The Behavior Type is the kind of selected behavior of hummingbirds that was observed. Behavior type includes the following possibilities: Drinking, Nesting, Hovering, Sitting, Vocalization, Fighting, Playing, Chasing, Chased, Flying
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Behavior Time (sec)
Attribute_Definition:
The Behavior Time is how long the hummingbird is observed performing the timed individual event in seconds. The behavior time (sec) does not include any observation of hummingbirds that is not timed.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Plant Species
Attribute_Definition:
If a hummingbird event occurred on a plant then the plant species latin name was recorded, if it was possible to be identified.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Approximate Plant Height (m)
Attribute_Definition:
The total height of the plant that the hummingbird interacted with approximately in meters.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Approximate Flower Height (m)
Attribute_Definition:
How high the flower exists where the hummingbird drank or performed the behavior.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Feeding: # Events
Attribute_Definition:
For the behavior of drinking, Feeding # Events marks how many times the hummingbird contacted the flower in order to drink.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Forest Level
Attribute_Definition:
Forest level is where in the forest strata the hummingbird performed the behavior event. This could be either at ground level, subcanopy level or canopy level.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Forest Exposure
Attribute_Definition:
Forest Exposure marks how exposed to direct view the hummingbird is while it performs the behavioral event. The possibilities are None, Slight, Moderate, Exposed, and Very Exposed.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Observer
Attribute_Definition: Who observed and recorded the data event.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Comments
Attribute_Definition:
Any extra information that could be seen, including gender or pregnancy
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kerin Bentley

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kerin Bentley
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 6416 Westport Drive
City: Wilmington
State_or_Province: North Carolina
Postal_Code: 28409
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: KerinBentley@gmail.com
Distribution_Liability: Kerin Bentley
Standard_Order_Process:
Fees: None

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070616
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kerin Bentley and Falk Huettmann
Contact_Organization: EWHALE lab
Contact_Position: University of Alaska-Fairbanks
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 419 Irving I
City: Fairbanks
State_or_Province: Alaska
Postal_Code: 99775
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +1 907 474 7882
Contact_TDD/TTY_Telephone: +1 907 474 7882
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999

Generated by mp version 2.8.25 on Sun Mar 09 21:24:48 2008