Michael O. Navarro, Ph.D. is Assistant Professor of Marine Fisheries
Limited Progress in Improving Gender and Geographic Representation in Coral Reef ScienceDespite increasing recognition of the need for more diverse and equitable representation in the sciences, it is unclear whether measurable progress has been made. Here, we examine trends in authorship in coral reef science from 1,677 articles published over the past 16 years (2003–2018) and find that while representation of authors that are women (from 18 to 33%) and from non-OECD nations (from 4 to 13%) have increased over time, progress is slow in achieving more equitable representation. For example, at the current rate, it would take over two decades for female representation to reach 50%. Given that there are more coral reef non-OECD countries, at the current rate, truly equitable representation of non-OECD countries would take even longer. OECD nations also continue to dominate authorship contributions in coral reef science (89%), in research conducted in both OECD (63%) and non-OECD nations (68%). We identify systemic issues that remain prevalent in coral reef science (i.e., parachute science, gender bias) that likely contribute to observed trends. We provide recommendations to address systemic biases in research to foster a more inclusive global science community. Adoption of these recommendations will lead to more creative, innovative, and impactful scientific approaches urgently needed for coral reefs and contribute to environmental justice efforts.
Essential market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) embryo habitat: A baseline for anticipated ocean climate change.The market squid Doryteuthis opalescens deposits embryo capsules onto the continental shelf from Baja Californiato southern Alaska, yet little is known about the environment of embryo habitat. This study provides a baseline of environmental data and insights on factors underlying site selection for embryo deposition off southern California, and defines current essential embryo habitat using (1) remotely operated vehicle–supported surveys of benthos and environmental variables, (2) SCUBA surveys, and (3) bottom measurements of T, S, pH, and O2. Here, embryo habitat is defined using embryo capsule density, capsule bed area, consistent bed footprint, and association with [O2] and pH (pCO2) on the shelf. Spatial variation in embryo capsule density and location appears dependent on environmental conditions, whereas the temporal pattern of year-round spawning is not. Embryos require [O2] greater than 160mmol and pHT greater than 7.8. Temperature does not appear to be limiting (range:9.9°C–15.5°C). Dense embryo beds were observed infrequently, whereas low-density cryptic aggregations were common. Observations of dense embryo aggregation in response to shoaling of low [O2] and pH indicate habitat compression. Essential embryo habitat likely expands and contracts in space and time directly with regional occurrence of appropriate O2 and pH exposure. Embryo habitat will likely be at future risk of compression given secular trends of deoxygenation and acidification within the Southern California Bight. Increasingly localized and dense spawning may become more common, resulting in potentially important changes in market squid ecology and management.