• The Treeline Ecotone In Interior Alaska: From Theory To Planning And The Ecology In Between

      Wilmking, Martin; Juday, Glenn Patrick (2003)
      Treelines have been the focus of intense research for nearly a hundred years, also because they represent one of the most visible boundaries between two ecological systems. In recent years however, treelines have been studied, because changes in forest ecosystems due to global change, e.g. treeline movement, are expected to manifest first in these areas. This dissertation focuses on the elevational and latitudinal treelines bordering the boreal forest of interior Alaska. After development of a conceptional model of ecotones as three-dimensional spaces between ecosystems, we offer a historical perspective on treeline research and its broader impact in the Brooks Range, Alaska. Dendrochronological analysis of >1500 white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench [Voss])) at 13 treeline sites in Alaska revealed both positive and negative growth responses to climate warming, challenging the widespread assumption that northern treeline trees grow better with warming climate. Hot Julys decreased growth of ~40% of white spruce at treeline in Alaska, whereas warm springs enhanced growth of others. Growth increases and decreases appear at temperature thresholds, which have occurred more frequently in the late 20th century. Based on these relationships between tree-growth and climate as well as using landscape characteristics, we modeled future tree-growth and distribution in two National Parks in Alaska and extrapolated the results into the 21 st century using climate scenarios from five General Circulation Models. In Gates of the Arctic National Park, our results indicate enhanced growth at low elevation, whereas other areas will see changes in forest structure (dieback of tree-islands, infilling of existing stands). In Denali National Park, our results indicate possible dieback of white spruce at low elevations and treeline advance and infilling at high elevations. This will affect the road corridor with a forest increase of about 50% along the road, which will decrease the possibility for wildlife viewing. Surprisingly, aspect did not affect tree growth-climate relationships. Without accounting for opposite growth responses under warming conditions, temperature thresholds, as well as meso-scale changes in forest distribution, climate reconstructions based on ring-width will miscalibrate past climate, and biogeochemical and dynamic vegetation models will overestimate carbon uptake and treeline advance under future warming scenarios.
    • Three Varieties of Native Alaskan Grasses for Revegetation Purposes

      Mitchell, Wm. W. (Agricultural Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska, 1979-12)
      Management objectives of some revegetation plantings encourage the use of native species. Where reinstatement of a native flora is desired, the inclusion of suitable native materials can hasten the process. Further, properly adapted native plants may provide a persistent, winterhardy cover requiring little management. The use of poorly adapted introduced grasses can result in stand decimation, such as that experienced along southcentral Alaska’s roadsides after the severe winter of 1975-1976 (Klebesadel, 1977). Tests have revealed, however, that not all indigenous materials are suitable for revegetation purposes. Some have been insufficiently winterhardy for general use, as apparently their ability to persist in their native habitat is related to the particular set of conditions in which they occur. Susceptibility to diseases or failure to persist well in a dense stand militates against the use of certain native types. Growth form also must be considered. If the objective of a planting is to maintain a fairly uniform , turf-like growth, then tall, coarse-growing plants should be avoided. Patience is required in the use of native plants in that their seedling vigor is often low compared to that of m any commercially available cultivars, and the natives may be suppressed when seeded along with more vigorous cultivars. The investigations on revegetation in conjunction with the Prudhoe Bay oil field and trans- Alaska pipeline activities have resulted in the release o f three cultivars derived from indigenous Alaskan materials. Many o f the collections for these cultivars were made prior to 1969 and some date back to 1966. The establishment of this material in small nurseries at the Palmer Experiment Station prior to the oil field activity enabled seed to be obtained for the early testing programs. The three cultivars were developed primarily for revegetation purposes and are particularly important to arctic rehabilitation efforts (Mitchell, 1978) where the need for additional material is most pressing. One cultivar, Tundra, is recommended strictly for arctic use. The other two, Alyeska and Sourdough, can be applied throughout mainland Alaska in appropriate situations. The latter two may also have application as forage grasses in areas where other available materials may be poorly adapted.
    • Three Year Summary of Investment, Cost and Income for Dairy Farms in Alaska

      Saunders, A. Dale; Gazaway, H.P.; Marsh, C.F. (University of Alaska Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1960-05)
    • "Throw All Experiments to the Winds": Practical Farming and the Fairbanks Agricultural Experiment Station, 1907-1915

      Pigors, Rochelle Lee (1996-12)
      The objective of this thesis was to compile a succinct but comprehensive history of the establishment and progress of the Fairbanks Experiment Station from 1905 to 1915, and determine the station's influence on agriculture in the Tanana Valley. An extensive survey of the University of Alaska Fairbanks' archive records, experiment station documents at the National Archives of the Alaska Range in Anchorage, annual reports of the experiment station, Fairbanks newspapers, and the Congressional Record was completed and the literature evaluated. It was concluded that agriculture in Alaska was seen as a secondary industry to mining and fishing and was generally dismissed by Congress. Some Alaskans, however, took up the call for agriculture when mining slowed down and established an agricultural college, which renewed people's hopes for agriculture and saved the Fairbanks station from fading into history.
    • Time, Temperature, and Solar Energy Received By Crops at Palmer, Alaska

      Allen, Lee D. (Agricultural Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska, 1978-07)
    • Timothy in Alaska: Characteristics, History, Adaptation, and Management

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1997-10)
      This report (a) summarizes the characteristics of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) as a forage species, (b) reviews briefly the history of its use in the U.S., and the history of timothy evaluations and culture in Alaska, (c) compares winterhardiness of alpine timothy (P. alpinum L.) with common timothy, (d) compares physiological and morphological characteristics of timothy cultivars from widely divergent latitudinal origins and relates those characteristics to winter survival, (e) compares planting dates and different seeding–year harvest dates for seeding– year forage production and effects on subsequent winter survival and productivity, and (f) evaluates forage production of established timothy under a broad array of harvest schedules and frequencies, and compares the effects of those harvest treatments on subsequent winter survival and first–cut forage yield the following year. All experiments were conducted at the University of Alaska Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska.
    • Tomatoes: Varieties and Culture for Alaska Greenhouses

      Dinkel, D. H. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1966-03)
      Since 1949 considerable effort has been expended in finding tomato varieties satisfactory for summer production under glass in Alaska. At the same time needed cultural practices were developed from experience. These studies were focused chiefly on the demands of small , home-operated greenhouses, of which a great number have from time-to-time existed in the State. In late 1965 a large commercial greenhouse, planned for year-round production, started operations in the Kenai Peninsula. Little or no experience has accumulated in Alaska about winter production of fruit in such a structure. Information on adapted summer varieties may or may not prove helpful.
    • Total and Merchantable Volume of White Spruce in Alaska

      Malone, Thomas; Liang, Jingjing; Packee, Edmond C. (Society of American Foresters, 2012-12-20)
      White spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) is a valuable commercial species found in interior and southcentral Alaska. Numerous regional and local volume tables or equations exist; however, no statewide model exists or has been tested for accuracy. There is a demand for an accurate model to determine the cubic-foot volume of white spruce trees in Alaska. Multiple models were developed for white spruce to estimate total and merchantable cubic-foot volume to a 2-, 4-, and 6-in. top. These multiple-entry (diameter and height) models were developed for both inside and outside bark volume from a 6-in. stump. The models were tested on a regional basis at various geographic locations and were shown to be highly accurate. The Alaska models chosen have R2 at or near 0.99 and mean square error from 0 to 0.16 for all models. These models are shown to be superior to other white spruce models in Alaska.
    • Toward Arctic transitions and sustainability: modeling risks and resilience across scales of governance

      Blair, Berill; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren; Kofinas, Gary P.; Eicken, Hajo; Haley, Sharman; Meek, Chanda (2017-08)
      The Arctic region has been the subject of international attention in recent years. The magnitude of impacts from global climate change, land-use change, and speculations about economic development and accessible polar shipping lanes have intensified this focus. As a result, the potential to manage complex ecological, social and political relationships in the context of changes, risks and opportunities is the focus of a large and growing body of research. This dissertation contributes to the expanding scholarship on managing Arctic social-ecological systems for resilience by answering the question: What conditions improve cross-scale learning and resilience in nested social-ecological systems experiencing rapid changes? Using the framework of social-ecological systems and the drivers of change that can transform fundamental relationships within, three studies profile the spatial and temporal dimensions of learning and risk perceptions that impact nested social systems. The first study presents a spatial and temporal analysis of scale- and level-specific processes that impact learning from risks. It draws on four cases to underscore the need for a plurality of risk assumptions in learning for resilience, and sums up essential resources needed to support key decision points for increasing resilience. Two additional studies present research conducted with northern Alaska communities and resource managers. In these studies, I analyzed the extent to which perceptions of risks scale horizontally (between same-level jurisdictions), and vertically (between levels in a dominant jurisdictional structure). These examples illustrate the need for innovative institutions to enhance cross-scale learning, and to balance global drivers of change with local socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological interests. Based on findings of the dissertation research I propose recommendations to optimize the tools and processes of complex decision making under uncertainty.
    • Toward the Integration of Economics and Outdoor Recreation Management

      Jubenville, Alan; Matulich, Scott C.; Workman, William G. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1986-01)
      The general theme of this bulletin is that improved management of public-sector recreational resources is a multidisciplinary task. To this end, we attempt to integrate elements of outdoor recreation management theory and economics. The bulletin is written for both resource managers and researchers. For the former, our intent is to emphasize the importance of being aware of economic implications-at least conceptually-of management actions that influence the character and availability of recreational opportunities. To researchers involved in developing recreation management theory, we draw attention to the parallel between recreation management theory and the traditional managerial economic model of the firm. To economists, particularly those involved in developing and applying nonmarket valuation techniques, we draw attention to the types of decisions faced by resource managers. We argue that the most important resource allocation issues are of the incremental variety, so nonmarket valuation should also yield incremental values. These values alone, however, are not sufficient economic input into rational public choice analysis. The missing link , or nexus, between outdoor recreation management theory and economic analysis is the integration of supply and demand, as called for by traditional managerial economics. Collaborative research to develop recreation supply response functions akin to agricultural production functions is an essential step that is missing from both literatures. Theoretical and applied work assume greater practical importance if they feed information into this broadened framework. It is our hope that this bulletin will bring the disciplines closer to that realization.
    • Tree Fruits for Alaska

      Babb, M. F. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1959-03)
      This circular has been prepared with three major objectives in mind. 1) to define areas in which tree fruit culture is possible in Alaska and the types of fruit that can be grown in each, 2) to name and describe the varieties that at the present time seem more desirable for planting in Alaska, and 3) to point out the m?-in problems limiting tree fruit culture and suggest, rather than discuss, the probable means by which they may one day be solved. Fulfilling the first two of these objectives was a relatively simple matter, since it was only a matter of defining and description. But the third objective was not-and is not-so easy of attainment. In what may be an oversimplification, it has been stated that there are two main problems, winter hardiness and earliness of maturity, and methods have been indicated by which, it is believed, each may be overcome. However the very problems themselves are not as simple as they have been made to appear. That of winter hardiness is one of the most widely debated and investigated subject in plant science. And the characterization of the second as "earliness of maturity" makes it sound too simple, for actually the factor involved, as it applies to fruit growing in Alaska is aiding or hastening natural earliness of maturity. This is a far more complex matter. In describing the solutions of these problems, mention has been made of such factors as pruning and training, fertilization, furnishing protection to increase available heat, and limiting the water supply to the trees during the period of fruit maturation. Each of these subjects has also been the subject of numerous investigations and some of them have been the subject of textbooks. The discussion of them here has been limited to simple statements as to their merit in achieving specific objectives. Most of the statements made are based on research in Alaska. In one particular, however, they have knowingly been extended beyond the domain of research-supported conclusion. This is in advocating the withholding Qr decreasing water available to the trees during the maturation of the fruit. Some will disagree with this recommendation, for it runs counter to what is considered good orchard management in commercial fruit producing regions of the world. In these an ample water supply is advocated for this period to increase fruit size and heighten, though not to increase, coloration. In Alaska both considerations should be waived in favor of obtaining reasonable yields of fruit, suitable for culinary purposes.In all three regions of Alaska where tree fruit production is at all possible, lack of winter hardiness in the trees and failure of fruit to mature properly are the two chief limiting factors.

      Mitchell, W.W. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1989-03)
      Trials conducted with entries of oats, barley, and triticale on the university tract in 1987 and 1988 provided the first research information on triticale for forage use at Pt. MacKenzie. Triticale is a hybrid resulting from a cross between wheat and rye. The rye ancestry would confer greater acid tolerance than is possessed by wheat alone. In previous trials with cereals on the moderately to strongly acidic soils of Pt. MacKenzie, the better yielding oat varieties have out produced barley (Mitchell 1983 and unpublished data).
    • Turfgrass in the North

      Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2008
      Research at SNRAS in sports turf vegetation, landscaping, disease prevention and resistance, and the economic and agricultural impact of subarctic turfgrass and sporting greens.

      Mitchell, Allen; Gavlak, Ray; Hall, Beth; Evers, Timothy (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2003-09)
      There are currently more than 20 public golf courses in Alaska that suffer varying degrees of winter turf injury from diseases, ice suffocation, and winterkill. For example, during the winter of 2001–2002, essentially every green and many fairways in Alaska suffered some degree of winter injury resulting in significant expense to reseed. The current study evaluated and compared new varieties and species against Nugget and Arctared on sand-based greens and soil-based fairways. We also assessed overseeding with rough bluegrass and bentgrass as a remedial treatment to establish playable greens.
    • Two Thousand Years of Peonies: Lessons for Alaska Peony Growers

      Zhang, Mingchu (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2013)
      The UAF School of Natural Resources & Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural & Forestry Experiment Station have been working for the last decade on a long-term project exploring the potential for the cut flower market in the 49th state—which looks to have significant potential.
    • Urban use of Alaskan farm products

      Johnson, Hugh A. (University of Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1953-09)
    • Use of Alaska–Grown Whole Seed Canola in Dairy Cattle Diets-Year 2

      Randall, Kirsten; Dofing, Stephen; Brainard, Donald J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1995-05)
    • Use of Canola in Dairy Cattle Diets: Year 3

      Randall, Kirsten; Dofing, Stephen M.; Brainard, Donald J. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1996-02)
      This report presents results from the third and final trial of a three-year study by the Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station (AFES) investigating the use of Alaska-grown whole-seed canola in dairy cattle diets.
    • Use of native Alaskan materials for farm and home construction

      Branton, C. I.; Fahnestock, C. R. (University of Alaska, Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1953-11)
    • Using GIS-based and remotely sensed data for early winter moose (Alces alces gigas) survey stratification

      Clyde, Karen J. (2005-05)
      Stratification of moose survey areas is a key step to reduce population estimation variance. In the Yukon and Alaska, use of fixed-area grids for early winter moose counts combined with the increasing availability of GIS and remotely sensed data provide the opportunity to develop standardized and repeatable habitat-based stratifications. I used univariate comparisons, stepwise regression and AIC modeling to describe moose distribution as a function of landscape level variables for an area in west central Yukon during 1998 and 1999. Results quantified early winter habitat use of upland shrub habitats and support previous observations for early winter moose habitat use in Alaska, Minnesota and Montana. Number of patches, in association with areas of alpine and shrubs, were found to be highly influential for survey blocks where moose are expected to be present and in high numbers. Overall, model performance based on relative abundance of moose was less predictive than for blocks where moose were present or absent. Spatial resolution of GIS and remotely sensed data used in this study (25 m grid cells) provided sufficient spatial detail to generate correlations between moose presence and habitat for a first level stratification.