• Law Enforcement Selection Practices in the U.S.A. and Canada

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-04)
      Selection practices in law enforcement have been said to be one of the most complex facets of personnel management. In an effort to document the state of this complexity internationally, the study presented provides state of the art information about police personnel practices in the USA and Canada.
    • Law Related Education Project: Final Report

      Balnave, Richard (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08-11)
      This report describes a cooperative project beween Anchorage School District (ASD) and the Criminal Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage, to develop a law-related curriculum for 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade classrooms. The pilot program was implemented in March through June 1976 in 20 ASD classrooms with approximately 800 children. The curriculum used was the "Law in Action" series by Linda Riekes and Sally Mahe Ackerly (West Publishing Company, 1975), using the units on "Lawmaking" (5th grade), "Youth Attitudes and the Police" (6th grade), "Courts and Trials" (7th grade), and "Juvenile Problems and the Law" (8th grade). Feedback from the pilot program led to the writing of supplementary teacher's manuals for each of the four units, reflecting improvements to the original lessons, supplementary classroom activities, supplementary media, and inclusion of Alaska-specific content such as Alaska laws and community resources. Complete "classroom kits" were deposited in ASD's Instructional Materials Center for continued use by ASD teachers interested in providing legal and justice education to their students.
    • Lawmaking: Teacher's Manual

      Balnave, Richard; Anchorage School District (Anchorage School District; Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08)
      In 1976, Anchorage School District (ASD) and the Criminal Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage, collaborated to develop a law-related curriculum for 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade classrooms, with teacher's manuals written to supplement the basic texts chosen for the program, the "Law in Action" series by Linda Riekes and Sally Mahe Ackerly (West Publishing Company, 1975). This teacher's manual for the unit taught to fifth-graders, "Lawmaking," focuses on how our laws are made. The teacher's manual reflects improvements to the original lessons, supplementary classroom activities, supplementary media, and inclusion of Alaska-specific content such as information about the Alaska Legislature and other legal bodies in Alaska, the steps in the passage of a law in Alaska, and Alaska community resources. Supplementary material in this teacher's manual does not cover every lesson in the original "Law in Action" unit.
    • Learning Group Formation Factors in a Career and Technical Education Networking Program

      Plunkett, George R. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04)
      Team based learning based on the transformation of permanent student groups into powerful learning teams is widely and successfully used as an instructional strategy in postsecondary career and technical education. Failure of groups to reach the learning team status is a major learning drawback of this approach. Factors affecting the transformation of groups to teams are applied consistently to the whole class, with the exception of group formation and membership. Career and technical education populations differ from other postsecondary populations and examination of group formation factors may result in improvement of student results.
    • Legal Culture Blindness and Canadian Indian Law

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1989-04)
      This paper explores the special problems that specialists in federal Indian law in the United States face when they attempt to understand the legal position of indigenous peoples in Canada, make comparisons and offer assistance and advice. Although the roots of Canadian Indian law in British Crown policy are similar to those of the United States, the evolution of United States and Canadian Indian law occurred in patterns which were as distinctly different as has been the evolution of each country. Although some comparisons can be made between the two patterns of legal development, especially in the realm of policy changes directed at indigenous populations, the core of each legal relationship is very different, especially as it relates to federalism, the constitutional process and role of the courts, and public land issues. Therefore, while models of Indian legal achievements in one country are often used to induce governmental change in the other, especially in Alaska among the United States and in Canada, generally, advocates and United States specialists must exercise extreme caution to avoid legal culture blindness based on a lack of appreciation of the very different historical development of each nation.
    • Legal Education for a Frontier Society: A Survey of Alaskan Needs and Opportunities in Education, Research and the Delivery of Legal Services

      Havelock, John E. (University of Alaska, 1975)
      Alaska is the only state of the United States that does not have a law school. This 1975 study, commissioned by the Alaska Legislative Council and the University of Alaska, is the first comprehensive investigation of the demand for legal and law-related services in Alaska and how that demand can best be met, including an examination of the feasibility of establishing a law school in the state. The study describes contemporary methods of delivering legal services in the state, with particular focus on the needs of rural and middle income Alaskans, and evaluates their cost and efficiency. It evaluates the present supply of lawyers and law-trained people in Alaska with reference to national trends in legal education, the migration to and admission of attorneys in Alaska, and the unique circumstances of Alaska law practice. It analyzes the need and demand for legal education in the state, and incorporates principal results of surveys of the general public and of Anchorage-area attorneys. The study concludes that there is no need to increase the supply of lawyers in Alaska by establishment of a law school and that many objectives which might be reached by a law school can also be reached by building on existing arrangements and models and development of other options for legal practice in Alaska such as paralegal training, particularly in rural areas of the state.
    • Legal Representation and Custody Determinations

      Fortson, Ryan; Payne, Troy C. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2019-09-12)
      Do lawyers matter in case outcomes, and can this be shown empirically? A recently published study of initial custody disputes suggests that having an attorney can result in a more favorable outcome for the client, but only if the other side is not also represented by an attorney.
    • The Legalities of Caring for Homeless Youth

      Frone, Audrey (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-03-01)
      Homelessness is an ever-present social and economic issue worldwide that affects the healthcare field. The United States Housing and Urban Development (U.S. HUD) (2015) reported that there were 578,424 homeless people in the United States during the 2014 Point in Time count. Almost one quarter of that number was children under the age of 18 and 10% were ages 18-24 years (National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH), 2015). Alaska has a higher rate of homelessness at 24.3 per 10,000 people compared to the national average of 18.3 per 10,000 people (NAEH, 2015). Although there is a decreasing rate of homelessness in the United States, Alaska has experienced an increase of 1.73% from 2012-2013 and a 4.06% increase from 2013-2014 (NAEH, 2013 & 2014). Homeless youth were reported to be 10.9% of the Alaskan homeless population (NAEH, 2015). The purpose of this project was to educate Alaskan healthcare providers on the legalities of caring for homeless youth. A webinar, with continuing education units, was developed and made available online to Alaskan healthcare providers. The focus of the educational presentation was on common situations healthcare providers are confronted with when seeing homeless youth in a clinic and if parental or guardian consent should be obtained. Evaluation was conducted via pre and post webinar testing to measure knowledge change. The pre and post webinar testing showed that all participants had an increase in knowledge and interpretation of healthcare situations that involved the minor consent law.
    • Legislative Implementation for the Corrections Master Plan, State of Alaska

      Havelock, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-01-01)
      In 1978 and 1979 the State of Alaska committed itself to the development of the first master plan for corrections in the state's history. The Alaska Corrections Master Plan included some 576 pages of recommendations plus appendixes. Faced with the task of implementing this plan, the House Committee on Finance of the Alaska State Legislature requested the Justice Center to (1) extract those elements of the master plan which had legislative implications (see "The Alaska Corrections Master Plan: Legislative Implications" by Roger V. Endell, 1979); and (2) to commit to legislative language those proposals which embodied suggestions for legislative change. This report is the product of that second phase study, providing comments and action recommendations for each of eleven recommendations of the Alaska Corrections Master Plan.
    • Literature Review: Diverting Mentally Ill Offenders from Jail

      Langworthy, Robert H.; Crum, Peter (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 1997)
      This literature review describes literature available on the topic of diverting mentally ill offenders from jail; outlines major themes found in the literature; analyzed programs described in the literature by type; and highlights recommendations from the literature.
    • Local and Non-Local Jail Use: An Examination of a Sample of Alaska Community Jail Detainees

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2001-04-30)
      Data collected for the Alaska Community Jails Statewide Research Consortium included neither race nor place of residence. Because of their interest in both racial distribution and the use of the jail by nonresidents, the fifteen member jails provided this information for a random sample of detainees. The sample consisted of 1,687 detainees, more than a third of whom were not from the communities in which they were held. There was considerable variation by facility and much of the variance appears to be related to the nature of the community and its relationship to surrounding villages and to its geographic location in the state.
    • Local Calibration of the Highway Safety Manual for Four-Leg Stop-Controlled Intersections in Alaska

      Moll, Thomas P. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      The Highway Safety Manual developed methodologies for consistently predicting accident rates that are useful in any location. These predictive accident rates can be adjusted to more closely match the reported accident rates in local areas by calculation of a calibration factor. In order to develop a calibration factor for four-leg stop-controlled intersections in Alaska, a sample of over 200 intersections was selected for analysis. From this sample, two groups of intersections meeting the criteria of four-leg stop-controlled intersections were selected. Information regarding site conditions, reported accident rates and physical characteristics was collected for each of the intersections included in the two study groups. A calibration factor for each group was calculated in accordance with Chapter 12 of the Highway Safety Manual. The findings of this report were calibration factors of 2.60 for the group of 22 intersections, and 2.34 for the group of 48 intersections. These values are far above the assumed calibration factor of 1.0 proving that calibration is necessary for accurate accident prediction rates when using the Highway Safety Manual. This report investigated the calibration factor for a single type of roadway facility in Alaska. However it can be inferred from the wide disparity between the assumed Highway Safety Manual calibration factor and the calculated calibration factors in this report that calibration factors should be calculated for each type of intersection and roadway element when using the Highway Safety Manual’s predictive methods.
    • Local Jobs and Income from Mineral Exploration

      Loeffler, Bob; Schmidt, Jennifer (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-01-01)
      Institute of Social and Economic Research • University of Alaska Anchorage • January 2017 From 2002 until 2013, the Pebble Mineral Exploration Project explored a big deposit of mostly copper, but also gold and molybdenum, in the Bristol Bay region of Southwest Alaska, about 17 miles northwest of Illiamna (Figure S-2). That exploration stopped in 2013, when a major project partner withdrew. But before that, developers spent millions of dollars, and in the last years of exploration annually employed more than a hundred residents of Bristol Bay communities. This paper describes jobs and income the residents of 18 communities—in the Lake and Peninsula Borough, the Bristol Bay Borough, and the Dillingham census area—got from 2009 through 2012, the last full year of exploration. Most residents of these communities are Alaska Native, and the communities are small—most with populations considerably smaller than 500— except for Dillingham, where nearly 2,500 people live (Table S-1). How local communities can capture more economic benefits from rural resource projects is an important question in Alaska, and the Pebble exploration project offers a useful case study. But we want to emphasize that we’re neither advocating nor opposing a potential mine at the Pebble site. The proposed mine has been enormously controversial in Alaska and elsewhere, because of its proximity to the world-class Bristol Bay salmon fisheries. We looked only at local jobs and income exploration created, to shed light on the potential for resource development projects to help rural economies. Our analysis is based on data from Pebble Limited Partnership’s exploration-site database, augmented with information from contractors. What did we find? • About 43% of those who worked at the Pebble exploration site anytime from 2009 through 2012 were from the Bristol Bay area. That amounted to about 300 local residents who worked at the site some time during the study period (and may have held more than one job over the years). Another 37% of workers were from elsewhere in Alaska, and the remaining 20% were mainly from other states or Canada (Figure S-1). • The number of workers from Bristol Bay increased over the study period, and so did employee retention. In 2009, 111 local residents worked at the Pebble site, increasing to 157 by 2012. More employees also stayed on the job from one year to the next, with retention at just over half from 2009 to 2010, climbing to two-thirds from 2011 to 2012 (Figure S-3). • Bristol Bay residents worked at 56 kinds of jobs in the study period, almost all seasonal. The most common jobs they held were drill helper, bear guard, and skilled laborer. The average hourly pay was about $19, and most workers earned on average about $15,000 a year from those mostly seasonal jobs. About 65% of workers were men and 35% women (Figure S-3). 2 • Communities closest to the exploration site got several times more jobs and income than those farther away. We grouped the study communities into three regions, based on their proximity to Pebble. Communities closest to the site are mostly around Lake Iliamna, and on average per year about 100 workers came from what we call the Lakes region. About 25 a year were from the 3 Intermediate region and 8 from the Distant. On average, workers from the Lakes region collected a total of nearly $1.5 million a year, compared with $499,000 for those from the Intermediate region and $100,000 among those from the Distant region, where communities are more than 100 miles from the Pebble site (Figures S-2 and S-4). • In the Lakes region, where communities are very small (Table S-1) exploration employment was a large share of total employment: approximately 14% of the total workforce from Lakes communities worked at the site during the study period. The regions farther from the exploration site, which have larger populations, saw much smaller employment effects: 3% of the total workforce from the Intermediate region and barely above 0% from the Distant region. • Even within individual regions, community employment at Pebble varied significantly. Iliamna, where exploration operations were based, and Newhalen (with road access to Iliamna) had the most employees—an annual average of 40 in Newhalen and about 25 in Iliamna, followed by Nondalton with about 16. Outside the Lakes region, the only community with more than an average of 10 workers a year was Koliganek. But even within the Lakes region, not all communities had a significant number of workers—Port Alsworth and Pedro Bay had fewer workers than some places in the Distant region (Figure S-5). 4 • To get a sense of what Pebble income meant to the region, we compared it with income from two important sources: commercial fishing and Permanent Fund dividends. The exploration project brought more income into the Lakes region from 2009 through 2012 than did either commercial salmon fishing or Permanent Fund dividends. But the Intermediate and Distant regions have more people, rely more on salmon fishing, and had fewer residents working at Pebble—so Pebble pay in those regions was a much smaller source of income. As Figure S-6 shows, income from Pebble in the Lakes region from 2009-2012 was several times more than from salmon fishing and two-thirds more than from Permanent Fund dividends. By contrast, in the Intermediate region Pebble pay was significantly less that from either commercial fishing or PFDs—and in the Distant region it was an insignificant amount compared with the other sources. What can the Pebble case study tell us about the potential for rural development projects to benefit local economies? • Residents of Bristol Bay communities and other Alaska places were able to capture a big share of exploration jobs and income. During the study period, 43% of workers were from Bristol Bay communities and another 37% were from elsewhere in Alaska. A number of things contributed to this high local-hire rate, including Pebble’s local hire coordinator; its work with the state government to get training programs and with non-profits to help qualify local residents for jobs; and its contracts with local Native village corporations and other businesses. • Jobs and income going to Bristol Bay residents increased significantly between 2009 and 2012. Partly that’s because the developer was spending more for exploration, creating more jobs. But the number of qualified job applicants from the Bristol Bay region also increased over time. Pebble personnel report that by 2010 or 2011, there were more qualified Bristol Bay residents looking for jobs than there were jobs available. • Proximity made a difference: even though most project employees from all communities were housed at project headquarters in Iliamna, residents from the villages closest to the project site got more jobs. From 2009 through 2012, an average of about 100 residents per year from the Lakes region worked at the project site—about 14% of the total workforce from seven small villages. Prospective workers from places farther away may have taken into account how difficult it would be to travel home for time off work
    • Long-Term Impacts of Environmental Contaminants Are ‘Generational Game Changer’

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-07-16)
      Most Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties are in remote locations, placing a disproportionate impact on Alaska Native communities that depend upon environmental resources for their livelihood. After the 1972 closure of a U.S. Air Force base that had operated for 20 years on St. Lawrence Island, residents of the Yup'ik village of Savoonga began to experience a higher incidence of cancer, lower birth-weight babies, and higher numbers of miscarriages. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers eventually spent $125 million cleaning up the abandoned base. But there are concerns about continued impact from environmental contamination. While state and federal health studies recommend continued reliance upon traditional foods based on locally harvested berries, fish, and wildlife, St. Lawrence Island community members fear those foods may be contributing to elevated levels of PCBs and higher cancer rates.
    • Looking Ahead at the Alaska Economy: Business As Usual

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-05-19)
    • Male Urinary Incontinence: A Critical Appraisal of the Literature With Practice Recommendations

      Forcht, Deborah J. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-05-01)
      Urinary Incontinence (UI) is a debilitating medical condition that affects individuals’ quality of life. People with this condition describe decreased enjoyment of sexual activity, as well as increased risk of experiencing depression, and anxiety. Data show that incontinence is less prevalent in men than women, which may explain the dearth of studies focusing specifically on men. As men age, their rate of suffering from UI increases from 4.8% at ages 19 to 44 to over 21% by the age of 65 years. Additionally, men who suffer from permanent UI are more likely to be institutionalized compared to those without UI and have increased risk for suicide, infections, falls, social isolation, loss of independence and may suffer from life-altering fractures. For many patients, UI may be reversible with medical intervention. A critical appraisal of UI literature found many non-surgical male UI treatments that were effective. The evidence-based information was utilized to provide primary care providers with up to date male-specific interventions for UI.
    • Management of Pain During Intrauterine Device Insertion

      Booysen, Debra (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      Increased use of intrauterine contraception is desirable to achieve safe, highly effective, long-acting, and reversible means to prevent unintended pregnancy. For most women, intrauterine device (IUD) contraception is a viable option for protection from an unplanned pregnancy. Fear of pain during insertion is one barrier to IUD use. The aim of this project was to identify best practice evidence for different types of interventions for the management of pain during IUD insertion. Evidence for pain management strategies was critically appraised, and the most recent information synthesized into evidence-based recommendations to promote point-ofcare decisions.
    • Managing Alaska’s Petroleum Nest Egg for Maximum Sustainable Yield

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-03)
      Web Note #7 (How Much Should Alaska Save? February 2011) suggested we should think of Alaska’s petroleum wealth as an asset from which we should spend only the earnings—thus preserving that wealth for future generations, while at the same time providing a sustainable annual flow of income for current Alaskans. Based on the value of state financial assets and a projection of future petroleum revenues, in early 2011 we estimated total petroleum wealth—the Petroleum Nest Egg—to be $126 billion. That total could generate an annual sustainable flow of income, or Maximum Sustainable Yield, of $5 billion. That year actual state spending from petroleum revenues, along with the Permanent Fund dividend, was $5.5 billion, or $.5 billion more than the sustainable amount. This put a Fiscal Burden on future generations of Alaskans because it reduced the size of the nest egg. The state could have avoided that burden either by increasing non-petroleum revenues $.5 billion, or by reducing spending that much. Doing one or the other would have added $.5 billion of saving to the nest egg and so maintained its value. This Web Note revisits the calculation of the Petroleum Nest Egg, the Maximum Sustainable Yield, and the Fiscal Burden, taking into account both changes in expectations of future revenues and the size of the state budget. The estimated size of the nest egg has increased since last year, to $155 billion, because of higher oil prices and more optimistic production assumptions, so the estimated sustainable yield is up to $6.2 billion a year. But that growth has been more than offset because spending of petroleum revenues has also increased. The FY 2012 state budget exceeds the Maximum Sustainable Yield by $.8 billion, passing a Fiscal Burden of that amount on to the next generation of Alaskans. Looking beyond FY 2012, continued spending growth would have dramatic effects on the Nest Egg and Sustainable Yield. For example, if spending growth of 6% a year were to go on year after year and the growth was funded by petroleum revenues, the currently estimated Nest Egg would shrink at an accelerating rate and the Fiscal Burden would grow at an increasing rate. The Maximum Sustainable Yield for the next generation of Alaskans would drop by half in 20 years. Looked at another way, sustaining spending growth of 6% a year would require a Nest Egg of $350 billion—more than twice the current estimate. To put that amount in perspective, $350 billion is more than half the current size of the Norwegian government’s pension fund.
    • Managing Extractive Resource Wealth for Sustainability: Alaska in the Time of Falling Oil Production

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-06)
      Cash economies in many parts of the Arctic North have long been dominated by resource extraction industries such as petroleum and metal mining. These developments are often short lived, generating cycles of economic booms followed by busts. And the wealth created by these activities tends to flow South, as profits to large firms and wages to temporary residents. But in Alaska the Permanent Fund (and a number of smaller financial accounts), has captured a significant share of the wealth generated by the production of petroleum over the last 30 years. Alaska residents now have the opportunity to use this wealth (currently estimated at $45 billion in financial assets and $81 billion in the state share of oil still in the ground) to build a strong economy, not only for the current generation but for future generations of Alaskans as well. This will be a unique challenge, balancing the needs of current and future generations, the preferences of urban and rural residents, permanent and temporary citizens, and others. This paper will examine the challenges facing Alaska as it begins the task of wealth management in an era of declining petroleum production. This should provide lessons for other regions impacted by cycles of resource extractive industries.
    • Managing Extractive Resource Wealth for Sustainability: Lessons from Alaska Seen Through the Lens of Maximum Sustainable Yield

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-02)
      Alaska has enjoyed a generation of unprecedented economic growth and prosperity driven by crude oil production primarily from one giant field, Prudhoe Bay, on the North Slope. Through a number of financial savings accounts, including the Alaska Permanent Fund, the Statutory Budget Reserve, and the Constitutional Budget Reserve, the state has successfully converted a share of petroleum wealth into $55 billion in financial assets. It has been less successful in diversifying the economic base away from dominance by oil and gas production. Now oil production has fallen to less than 1/3 of its peak and this decline is projected to continue—reducing public revenues and private economic activity. This paper will explore whether the state of Alaska has the resources to be able to transition successfully to a Post-Prudhoe Bay economy, how that transition could take place, and what impediments might prevent a successful transition. This analysis will be of interest to other natural resource dependent economies that are trying to manage the cycles that resource extraction generate.