• Smart Justice in Alaska

      Armstrong, Barbara (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-11-06)
      Smart justice initiatives seek to reform criminal justice systems by reducing correctional populations and recidivism while lowering costs, maintaining offender accountability, and ensuring public safety. This article describes two smart justice initiatives underway in Alaska, “Results First” and “Justice Reinvestment."
    • SmartCam - Computational Photometer

      Siewert, Sam; Mock, Kenrick (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-29)
    • Smooth the Dying Pillow: Alaska Natives and Their Destruction [chapter]

      Conn, Stephen (VWGÖ-Verlag, 1990)
      The policy for Native self-determination in Alaska developed by the Congress and the state has sought to replace a tribal model of governance with a body of legislation which confirms land rights without the direct political involvement of Alaska Native villages. However, the author argues, the absence of tribes as formal political structures has contributed to a loss of self-determination among Alaska Natives and to serious negative effects on Native village life.
    • Smooth the Dying Pillow: Alaska Natives and Their Destruction [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-07)
      The policy for Native self-determination in Alaska developed by the Congress and the state has sought to replace a tribal model of governance with a body of legislation which confirms land rights without the direct political involvement of Alaska Native villages. However, the author argues, the absence of tribes as formal political structures has contributed to a loss of self-determination among Alaska Natives and to serious negative effects on Native village life.
    • Snapshot of Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance in Alaska

      Guettabi, Mouhcine; Frazier, Rosyland; Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-09)
    • Snapshot: The Home Energy Rebate Program

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott; Pathan, Sohrab; Wiltse, Nathan (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-05)
      Alaska’s state government has spent an estimated $110 million since 2008 for better insulation, new furnaces, and other retrofits for roughly 16,500 homeowners—10% of all homeowners statewide.1 That spending was under the Home Energy Rebate Program, which rebates homeowners part of what they spend to make their houses more energy-efficient and less expensive to heat.2 The state legislature established the current program in 2008, as energy prices were spiking. The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) administers it, and the Institute of Social and Economic Research and the Cold Climate Housing Research Center did this analysis for AHFC, assessing the broad program effects from April 2008 through September 2011. Changes in fuel use and heating costs reported here are estimates from AHFC’s energy-rating software; figures based on actual household heating bills aren’t currently available. The software uses house characteristics and location-specific information on weather and other factors to produce the estimates—but remember they are estimates.3
    • Snow Cover in Alaska: Comprehensive Review

      Gienko, Gennady; Lang, Rob; Hamel, Scott; Meehleis, Kurt; Folan, Tommy (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-04-01)
      This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of snow cover in Alaska using historical data acquired from the Global Historical Climate Network. Measurements of snow depth and snow water equivalence were collected for Alaska stations between 1950 and 2017. Data cleaning and a distribution analysis were completed for all stations. Finally regression equations were developed to estimate snow water equivalence using recorded snow depth data from Alaska stations. The project is partially supported by ConocoPhillips Arctic Science and Engineering Foundation, UAA, and the Structural Engineers Association of Alaska (SEAAK).
    • Snow Covered Pedestrian Crosswalk Enhancement Via Projected Light Demarcation

      Keogh, Hugh (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      Snow coverage of streets in Anchorage, Alaska, can visually block pedestrians and drivers from viewing painted crosswalk demarcations. This study investigates the potential of utilizing light projected onto the snow’s surface to mimic the intended demarcation of the painted demarcation during snow coverage. This is investigated via hypothetically fitting an existing crosswalk location with available-for-purchase manufactured light projectors. The configuration is then evaluated for angle of light projection, discomfort glare, and contrast. The proposed installation is found to be theoretically acceptable. However, further analysis could be performed regarding effective visual detection of contrast during driving conditions and regarding acceptable levels of disability glare.
    • The Social Context of Pinball: The Making of a Setting and Its Etiquette

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-04-01)
      Pinball and the settings in which it is played are perceived by the public as having an aura of deviance. The perception derives in part from behavior observed in pinball parlors, but goes beyond the reality of the pinball setting. Public labeling of pinball, with its taint of illegitimacy, molds the etiquette of pinball and acts to repel or attract potential players. Recent efforts by industry to improve the image of pinball aim to dispel negative attitudes toward pinball, thereby widening the social acceptance and use of pinball in public settings.
    • Social Determinants of Pneumococcal and Influenza Immunzation Rates of Nursing Home and Homes for the Aged Residents in Kalamazoo and Calhoun Counties, Michigan: Role of Race and Segragation

      Schauer, Cynthia (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      The disparity in health outcomes between African Americans and Caucasians continues to exist (US ACMH, 2009) despite public policy that promotes equity (US DHHS, 2012). Data suggests African Americans over age 65 living in institutions are less likely to receive flu and pneumonia vaccinations (US DHHS, 2013; US DHHS, 2012) and more likely to live in segregated housing (Smith, Feng, Fennel, Zinn, & Mor, 2007). This project collected data on the local level to determine the degree of impact of low vaccination rates and segregated housing on African Americans in Southwest Michigan. Data regarding flu and pneumonia immunization status was collected from 816 residents in 13 nursing homes (NH) and homes for the aged (HFA) in two southwest Michigan counties. The populations of African Americans in the NH and HFA was much less dense than the population of African Americans in the counties where the nursing homes were found suggesting no potential increase risk on the basis of segregated housing for the erosion of community immunity at this local level. A disparity in immunization rates persisted on the local level: Caucasians were 4.7 times (odds ratio = 4.7; p>0.001) more likely than African Americans to be immunized against flu and 1.7 times (odds ratio =1.7; p = 0.002) more likely to be immunized against pneumonia. While the presence of African Americans in a facility did not influence the immunization status of the health care worker, all facility residents spent the majority of their time with nursing assistants, a group of health care workers that was least likely to have received the annual seasonal flu vaccine. Fifty seven percent of nursing assistants in the study NH and 80% of nursing assistants in HFA had received the vaccine compared to 74% and 100% of registered nurses in NH and HFA, respectively.
    • Social Indicators for Arctic Mining

      Haley, Sharman; Szymoniak, Nick; Klick, Matthew; Crow, Andrew; Schwoerer, Tobias (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-05)
      This paper reviews and assesses the state of the data to describe and monitor mining trends in the pan-Arctic. It constructs a mining index and discusses its value as a social impact indicator and discusses drivers of change in Arctic mining. The widely available measures of mineral production and value are poor proxies for economic effects on Arctic communities. Trends in mining activity can be characterized as stasis or decline in mature regions of the Arctic, with strong growth in the frontier regions. World prices and the availability of large, undiscovered and untapped resources with favorable access and low political risk are the biggest drivers for Arctic mining, while climate change is a minor and locally variable factor. Historical data on mineral production and value is unavailable in electronic format for much of the Arctic, specifically Scandinavia and Russia; completing the historical record back to 1980 will require work with paper archives. The most critically needed improvement in data collection and reporting is to develop comparable measures of employment: the eight Arctic countries each use different definitions of employment, and different methodologies to collect the data. Furthermore, many countries do not report employment by county and industry, so the Arctic share of mining employment cannot be identified. More work needs to be done to develop indicator measures for ecosystem service flows. More work also needs to be done developing conceptual models of effects of mining activities on fate control, cultural continuity and ties to nature for local Arctic communities.
    • Social Services and Corrections: Some Impressions of the North Slope Borough of Alaska

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-06-04)
      Justice services formerly provided by the State of Alaska to residents of the North Slope Borough have been withdrawn in recent years. For example, there is no longer either an Alaska State Trooper or a Divisions of Corrections probation officer based in the borough capital, Barrow. This report presents observations and recommendations addressing the borough government's questions about the planning and development of borough correctional services, relations with the North Slope Borough Department of Public Safety, Alaska Court System, Alaska Division of Corrections, and Inpuiat University (later known as Iḷisaġvik College), issues related to alcohol offenders, probation services, and other issues related to borough correctional services.
    • A Socialist System of Justice: Observations from a Visit to the U.S.S.R.

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-03-28)
      This paper presents observations of the Soviet system of justice, including the courts, the procuracy (described as a combination of a prosecutor or district attorney and a police investigator), criminal trials, sentencing, and corrections. The paper is based upon a three-week visit by the author to the USSR as one of 24 American participants in a criminal justice study program. In all, just over three weeks were spent in the Soviet Union including lengthy visits in Leningrad, Moscow, and Tallin (then-capital of Soviet Estonia). The opportunity of first hand observation and direct interaction with Soviet policy and law makers and Soviet academicians has done much toward destroying myths about Soviet justice practices.
    • Socioeconomic Impacts of Potential Wishbone Hill Coal Mining Activity

      Colt, Steve; Schwörer, Tobias (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-06-11)
      The purpose of this study is to assess some of the significant socioeconomic effects of potential coal mining activity at Wishbone Hill. The analysis scenario assumes a 16-year period of startup and mine production using two known deposits that are currently permitted by the State of Alaska for mineral exploration. “Mine Area 1” would be mined during years 2-7 and “Mine Area 2” would be mined during years 8-16. Mining would only take place at one of these areas during any given time. We considered four kinds of effects: Jobs and income, fiscal impacts, property values, and traffic.
    • Southeast Rural Outreach Programs and Education Business Survey

      Hanna, Virgene; Marbourg, Ann (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-06)
      The Rural Outreach Programs and Education (ROPE) is designed to strengthen community and small business competitiveness. It is a multi-pronged business development effort to support economic stability and capacity-building in Southeast Alaska. The program will bring together different entities across the state in a collaborative effort, so the program recipients will have increased levels of technical assistance, training, and communication. One component in this process was to conduct a phone survey of businesses in Southeast Alaska. The survey was designed to determine the specific training and assistance needs of participating communities in Southeast Alaska. By focusing on 13 specific communities and gathering extensive information on each one, ROPE will offer targeted training and workshops, one-on-one confidential counseling, need-specific consultants and seminars, and business training. In May and June of 2008, 128 structured interviews were completed in the 13 communities. The majority of these interviews—88—were with businesses in the private sector, and the remaining 40 were with non-profit, tribal, or municipal organizations. Businesses were asked detailed questions about employees, customers, business expenses, and start-up costs and experiences. The questionnaire was designed to gather information about where employees were from, where customers were from, and the percentage of sales that were to local versus non-local customers. Both businesses and organizations were asked about training they felt would be beneficial and to offer advice to organizations trying to help businesses in Southeast.
    • Sqord and Physical Activity in the Anchorage School District

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-04)
      Sqord is a wearable activity-tracking device made specifically for children. It couples the device with an online platform, where children can set up avatars and challenge one another as well as track their activity levels. Sqord awards points for various activities. Providence Alaska and the Anchorage School District have worked together to provide SQORD to teachers and students. The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) is studying whether using SQORD is helping children become more active. The principal investigator is Mouhcine Guettabi. This presentation is of preliminary findings from the first year of the study.
    • SQORD in ASD: 2 years of evidence

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-10-31)
    • Stabilizing College Funding Through Development of a Centralized Robust Online Learning Environment

      University of Alaska Anchorage Academic Innovations and eLearning (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-03)
    • Staff Paper on Village Councils

      Hippler, Arthur E.; Conn, Stephen (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1975)
      This excerpt from the forthcoming UCLA-Alaska Law Review article "The Village Council and Its Offspring: A Reform for Bush Justice" describes techniques used historically by Alaska Native village councils to resolve disputes. All of these techniques were observed in 1975 in villages where councils still aid in dispute adjustment.
    • Stalking in Alaska

      Rosay, André B.; Postle, Greg; TePas, Katherine; Wood, Darryl S. (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-02)
      This study examined 267 cases with a stalking charge reported to Alaska State Troopers from 1994 to 2005, and excluded any cases reported to local or municipal departments. We also examined the legal resolutions for cases that were reported from 1999-2004. * Over 50% of reports occurred in B detachment (Southcentral Alaska) and D detachment (Interior Alaska). Three units (Fairbanks AST Enforcement, Palmer AST Enforcement, and Soldotna AST Enforcement) handled 49% of reports. Thirty-five percent of the charges were for stalking in the first degree and 65% were for stalking in the second degree. * Most suspects (91%) were male and most victims (89%) were female. Most suspects (78%) were White and most victims (86%) were also White. On average, suspects were 36 years old while victims were 33 years old. Twenty percent of suspects had used alcohol, but only 2% of victims had used alcohol. Fifty-four percent of suspects were, or had been, in a romantic relationship with the victim. An additional 35% of suspects were friends or acquaintances of the victim. * The most common forms of stalking included standing outside or visiting the victim's home (in 54% of charges), making unsolicited phone calls to victims (in 51% of charges), following the victim (in 39% of charges), threatening to physically assault the victim (in 36% of charges), harassing the victim's family and friends (in 28% of charges), trying to communicate with the victim in other ways (in 27% of charges), standing outside or visiting the victim's work (in 20% of charges), physically assaulting the victim (in 19% of charges), sending the victim unsolicited mail (in 15% of charges), and vandalizing the victim's home (in 13% of charges). Forty-five percent of behaviors occurred primarily at the victim's home, while 27% occurred primarily in cyberspace. * Seventy-five percent of the cases reported between 1999-2004 were referred for prosecution, 55% were accepted for prosecution, and 40% resulted in a conviction on at least one charge. Cases with suspects who violated protective orders were 20% more likely to be referred for prosecution, were 19% more likely to be accepted, and were 41% more likely to result in a conviction.