• Differentiation Strategy for Marketing of Sung Sim Dang Bakery & Latte Art Espresso Coffee Shop Plan

      You, Chang Woo (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      This Differentiation Strategy for Marketing of Sung Sim Dang Bakery & Latte Art Espresso Coffee Shop Plan (DS Plan) is intended to propose a differentiation strategy in marketing by analyzing Anchorage market condition to verify the feasibility of the successful execution for the Sung Sim Dang bakery & Latte Art Coffee Shop plan (SL plan), to launch a new business in Anchorage, AK. But, the SL plan was not prepared through thorough investigation of Anchorage market research and analysis, so that there was a risk that could not lead a successfi.il execution of the SL plan. This DS plan was intended to supplement the SL plan and propose a marketing strategy by providing Anchorage market research and analysis. To develop a marketing strategy, three market research tools were used; World Wide Web research, individual interviews, and literature review. Five years’ worth of data and information were collected to analyze Anchorage market condition including selected competitors. These data and information were used in two selected analyses; the segmenting, targeting, and positioning (STP) analysis, and the marketing mix analysis with product, price, place, and promotion (4Ps), in order to understand Anchorage market conditions through the STP analysis and propose specific strategies of the 4Ps through the marketing mix strategy (4Ps). So, finally, a marketing strategy would function as a decision making tool whether to implement the SL plan by the project sponsor.
    • Digital Diversity: Broadband and Indigenous Populations in Alaska

      Hudson, Heather E. (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-05)
      Alaska Natives comprise several cultural and linguistic groups including Inupiat, Yupik, Athabascan, Aleut, Tlingit and Haida, organized into some 226 tribes. Approximately two-thirds of the indigenous population live in more than 200 rural villages, most of which are remote settlements with fewer than 200 people and no road access. Since the late 1970’s, all communities with at least 25 permanent residents have had telephone service, but broadband connectivity remains limited. The major mechanism for extending Internet access to rural Alaska has been federal universal service funds, specifically the E-rate program that subsidizes Internet access for schools and libraries, and the Rural Health program that subsidizes connectivity for rural health clinics and hospitals. Under the federal Stimulus program, Alaska has also recently received funding for infrastructure to extend broadband in southwest Alaska, for improved connectivity for rural libraries, and for training and support for rural public computer centers. These initiatives primarily support improvements in Internet and broadband availability for rural Alaska. However, this paper proposes a more rigorous framework including not only availability, but more broadly access, and also adoption, and examines how these concepts apply to Alaska natives. The paper also examines other elements of digital diversity, including innovation in applications and content, ICT entrepreneurship, and participation in telecommunications policy-making.
    • Directions for Change in Police Organizations

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-04)
      Three situations serve to hamper police effectiveness under traditional police organizational arrangements First, police operations are based on an assumption that police are primarily in the "criminal apprehension" business. This concept of the police role serves to constrain many police activities that offer potential for satisfying client needs and contributing to crime prevention. Second, police managers rely almost exclusively on the tenets of Bureaucratic Theory, as promulgated by Max Weber (1947), for arranging and managing police organizations. This reliance contributes to problems in the police and community relationship, coordination and direction of police operations, and (3) motivation of police employees. Third, police agencies are basically organized as self-contained operations which are automous from other units of government. This independence reduces the potential for optimum utilization of police services. This paper elaborates on these three situations and their implications, and makes proposals about the directions that the author believes police organizational changes should take.
    • Director's Farewell

      Rosay, André B. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-07-14)
      Dr. André B. Rosay bids farewell to the UAA Justice Center, where he has been director since 2007. Dr. Rosay has been appointed associate dean for academic and student affairs in the College of Health at University of Alaska Anchorage.
    • Discretion, Due Process, and the Prison Discipline Committee

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1985-04)
      Prison discipline received considerable attention from both the courts and professional organizations during the decade of the 1970s. It was widely assumed that the due process requirements which resulted from judicial review coupled with the promulgation of model discipline standards and procedures would limit the broad discretionary authority found in the traditional prison disciplinary process. A case study of the activities of one prison discipline committee suggests that these external pressures have had less impact on decision-making than such internal pressures as overcrowding. Due process requirements have not greatly inhibited the exercise of discretion in the prison discipline process.
    • Disposition of Sexual Assault Cases

      UAA Justice Center (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-03)
      This article summarizes findings on cases involving sexual offenses from the Alaska Judicial Council study Alaska Felony Process: 1999 (February 2004). (The full Judicial Council report is available online at http://www.ajc.state.ak.us/reports/Fel99FullReport.pdf.) The study examined the original single most serious charge and determined its final disposition. Twelve percent of felony cases included a sexual offense as the original single most serious charge. Charges for sexual abuse of a minor were more likely to be convicted as sexual offenses than sexual assault charges (and were less likely to be convicted as misdemeanors). * The most frequent original single most serious charges included sexual abuse of a minor in the second degree (Class B felony), sexual assault in the second degree (Class B felony), sexual assault in the first degree (Unclassified felony), and sexual abuse of a minor in the first degree (Unclassified felony). * Eighty-one percent of charges for sexual abuse of a minor in the second degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Forty-one percent were convicted as sexual abuse of a minor in the second degree. Thirteen percent were convicted as misdemeanors. * Fifty-five percent of charges for sexual assault in the second degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Seventeen percent were convicted as sexual assault in the second degree. Thirty-four percent were convicted as misdemeanors. * Fifty percent of charges for sexual assault in the first degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Nine percent were convicted as sexual assault in the first degree. Twenty-two percent were convicted as misdemeanors. * Eighty-four percent of charges for sexual abuse of a minor in the first degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Twenty-one percent were convicted as sexual abuse of a minor in the first degree. Five percent were convicted as misdemeanors.
    • Dispositions of DWI Arrestees: Anchorage, 1996

      Langworthy, Robert H.; Crum, Peter (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 1999-07)
      This study explores the dispositions of subjects arrested in Anchorage, Alaska during 1996 for driving while intoxicated (DWI). The project was designed to describe the Anchorage criminal justice system’s processing of DWI offenders and to isolate legal and extralegal variables that predict various offender dispositions. This report presents a literature review of studies relating to legal and extra-legal factors affecting court processing of offenders; discusses methodologies of the present study; presents flow charts of DWI arrestee processing in Anchorage; and presents the multivariate analysis that isolates significant correlates of DWI arrest disposition.
    • Disproportionate Detention of Minorities: A Case Study of One State's Compliance with the Mandates of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1996-03)
      Pursuant to Section 223(a)(23) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, states must examine whether minority youth are disproportionately detained in relation to their proportion in the general population. For a preliminary assessment of Alaska’s compliance, five and a half years of detention data (1990–June 1995) for the state of Alaska are analyzed to assess the detention of minority and non-minority youth. A number of factors are used to compare racial groups: type of offense, prior record, gender, age, length of detention, etc.
    • Disproportionate Minority Contact in Anchorage

      Rosay, André B.; Everett, Ronald (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2006-06-10)
      This slide show presentation presents recently collected data on disproportionate contact with the juvenile justice system of minority youth in Anchorage, Alaska. The data examine minority contact with local law enforcement and juvenile justice authorities at McLaughlin Youth Center. Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) occurs when the rate of referral for minority youth exceeds the rate of referral for white youth. DMC occurs for almost all non-white minority groups in Anchorage; it is more prevalent for Pacific, Native, and Black youth, both males and females, and more prevalent for referrals for probation/conduct violations, especially for females.
    • Disproportionate Minority Processing of Females: A Comparison of Native, Black and White Juveniles

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-11)
      An examination of four years of statewide female juvenile referral data showed that Native girls are referred in disproportionate numbers and tend to have lengthier records. Underage drinking was one of the most frequent referral reasons. Because many of the Native females were from rural communities, the disproportionate referrals may be a factor of the smallness of the communities, in which misbehavior is more readily noticed. Examination of a subset of files for girls with multiple referrals showed that the actual behavior was often not particularly grave and that many of the girls with multiple referrals came from very unstable backgrounds.
    • Disproportionate Representation of Minorities in the Alaska Juvenile Justice System: Phase I Report

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard; Atwell, Cassie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-09)
      The disproportionate processing of minorities in the justice system has been noted with growing concern nationally as well as at the state level. In Alaska, as in other states, the primary basis for concern is that minorities are overrepresented among the adult prison population. The realization that this disproportionality appears in other justice system venues has led nationally to a number of research initiatives with a focus on the overrepresentation of juveniles. This report analyzes referral data from the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS) for 1992-1995 to provide a statistical overview of disproportionate minority contact in the Alaska juvenile justice system, providing comparative data for referrals of Alaska Native, African American, and white youth.
    • Does Changing Ownership Change Crime? An Analysis of Apartment Ownership and Crime in Cincinnati

      Payne, Troy C. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-11-19)
      This Powerpoint slide presentation examines the question of changes in level of crime when ownership of an apartment building changes. Examination of data from Cincinnati, Ohio, shows that ownership change, size of apartment complex, and past crime all have some effect on crime counts. In particular, when the apartments that are sold are high-crime apartments, change in ownership tends to worsen the crime problem.
    • Does the YLS/CMI help to predict recidivism?

      Carns, Teresa W.; Martin, Stephanie (Alaska Judicial Council, 2012-08)
      In June, 2010, the Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice (Division) invited the Alaska Judicial Council and the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at University of Alaska Anchorage to assist “in understanding how scores on the Division’s assessment instrument for juveniles, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), reflect the actual recidivism of juveniles who’ve received services from the Division.” Other states had shown that YLS/CMI scores could be helpful in predicting recidivism among the youths they served, but Alaska had not yet done the comparable research. ISER and the Council agreed that the questions proposed would provide valuable information and help the Division to better address the reasons for youth recidivism.
    • Dog Bite Health Burden in Alaska Communities, 2002-2012

      Vinnikova, Marina (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-08)
      Dog bite injuries and fatalities are major public health problems nationwide. Alaska dog bite hospitalization rates are consistently higher than national rates, indicating that a health disparity exists. In Alaska dog bite injuries are inconsistently recorded and are not centrally reported. The objective of this study was to characterize dog bite injuries and victims in Alaskan communities for 2002-2012. A cross sectional study design was used in this first attempt to consolidate and analyze scattered statewide data regarding dog bites. Results showed that the vast majority of dog bites in Alaska went unreported, and confirmed previous research that the Alaska Native population and children aged 0-9 were disproportionately affected. This study was intended to provide an update of this public health problem for the State of Alaska, Department of Health and Social Services, Section of Epidemiology and to improve public and stakeholder knowledge.
    • Dollars of Difference: What Affects Fuel Prices Around Alaska?

      Wilson, Meghan; Saylor, Ben; Szymoniak, Nick; Colt, Steve; Fay, Ginny (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-05)
      The spike in oil prices has hit rural Alaskans especially hard, because they rely mostly on fuel oil for heating. But some rural residents are paying much more than others—at times 100% more. The Alaska Energy Authority asked ISER to analyze what determines the prices rural households pay for fuel oil and gasoline. The agency hopes this research can help identify possible ways of holding down fuel prices in the future. In this summary we report only fuel oil prices, but the full report (see back page) also includes gasoline prices. We studied 10 communities that reflect, as much as possible, the forces driving fuel prices. We collected information in November 2007, and fuel prices have gone up a lot since then. Crude oil sold for $120 a barrel in mid-May, up from about $80 in fall 2007.
    • Domestic Violence in Alaska: Definitions, Rates in Alaska, Causes and Consequences

      Rivera, Marny (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-03-19)
      This Powerpoint slide presentation describes domestic violence in Alaska, including the definition of domestic violence; an overview of results from the Alaska Victimization Survey (AVS) for 2010–2013 for Alaska statewide, the Municipality of Anchorage, and Matanuska-Susitna Borough; comparison of AVS statewide data with national data from the CDC's National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Surveillance System (NISVS); and discussion of the causes and consequences of domestic violence.
    • Drug and Alcohol-Related Workload of Anchorage Patrol Officers: Results From Two Patrol Officer Surveys

      Myrstol, Brad A.; Giblin, Matthew; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2003-01-01)
      It is widely agreed among criminal justice professionals that alcohol and illegal drugs play a role in patterns of crime, but not much is known about how these substances influence the operation of criminal justice agencies, particularly in the area of policing. This report summarizes the findings of a study of the extent to which drug and alcohol-related incidents formed the workload of Anchorage Police Department patrol officers. The study consisted of two surveys, the first of which asked APD patrol officers to provide their best estimate of the amount of time they spent dealing with alcohol and drug-related activities, the second of which required patrol officers to complete incident logs describing drug and alcohol-related incidents encountered on patrol. The study found that officers tended to overestimate the amount of time they spent on drug or alcohol-related activities, but that the drug and alcohol-related activities nonetheless comprise a significant portion of APD patrol officers' workload.
    • Drug Cases Filed across the Alaska Court System, FY 2008–2017

      Reinhard, Daniel (Alaska Justice Information Center, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-08-07)
      This fact sheet presents data on drug-related court filings throughout the state of Alaska for the fiscal years (FY) 2008 through 2017 and the 10-year trend of misdemeanor and felony drug case filings for Alaska and for the Anchorage, Palmer, Kenai and Fairbanks courts over the same period. Overall, felony drug case filing rates remained stable or increased in all locations until FY15 or FY16, before decreasing dramatically from FY16 to FY17. The exception is the Fairbanks court, which maintained an overall decrease in felony drug case filing rates over the 10-year period. Misdemeanor drug case filing rates, regardless of whether they increased or decreased between FY 2008–2014, decreased in all locations from FY 2014–2016 before increasing from FY 2016–2017. The year with the lowest felony drug case filing rate, for all locations, was in FY17. The lowest misdemeanor drug case filing rate, for all locations, was in FY16. Data is drawn from annual reports of the Alaska Court System for the FY 2008 through 2017.
    • Drug Possession Arrests Reported in Alaska, 1986–2017

      Ervin, Benjamin (Alaska Justice Information Center, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-09-10)
      This fact sheet presents data on drug sale possession arrests reported by Alaska law enforcement agencies for the 32-year period 1986 to 2017. Overall, the drug possession arrest rate plateaued be-tween 1998 and 2010, consistently declined from 2010 to 2016, and slightly increased in 2017. The lowest recorded overall drug possession arrest rate was in 1990. Rates increased from 1986 through 1998, then de-clined for all populations from 2010 to 2016. The adult and male populations drive the overall trend in arrest rates, accounting for roughly four out of every five arrestees during this 32-year period. The trend shows less discrepancy in arrest rates be-tween males and females, as well as between adults and juveniles after 2010. Data is drawn from the annual Crime in Alaska report of the Alaska Department of Public Safety, which represents the State of Alaska's contribution to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) program.
    • Drug Possession Arrests Reported in Alaska, 1986–2017 — Drug Types by Sex

      Ervin, Benjamin (Alaska Justice Information Center, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-12-19)
      This fact sheet presents data on drug possession arrests by type of drug and sex of arrestee as reported by Alaska law enforcement agencies for the 32-year period 1986 to 2017. Types of drugs include narcotics, synthetic narcotics, marijuana, and other non-narcotic drugs. Overall, males comprise roughly four out of five drug possession arrests in the state of Alaska. The female and male rates parallel one another in that they rise and fall at the same points in most years. In 2002, the synthetic narcotics and other non-narcotics possession arrest rates sharply increased for both males and females until the mid-2000s before a sharp decline and subsequent increase. Marijuana possession, the offense with the highest arrest rates, peaked at 90.4 per 100,000 female residents and 324.9 per 100,000 male residents. Synthetic narcotics possession, the offense with the lowest arrest rates, peaked at 13.8 per 100,000 female residents and 29.8 per 100,000 male residents. Narcotics possession is the only offense that peaked before 2000. Data is drawn from the annual Crime in Alaska report of the Alaska Department of Public Safety, which represents the State of Alaska's contribution to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) program.