• Equitable over Time? — Evaluating the 'Costs' of Interstate Compact Participation

      Schafer, N. E.; Wenderoff, Leslie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1992-10)
      The Interstate Compact for the Supervision of Parolees and Probationers (ICSPP) provides for the supervision of offenders in states other than those in which they were sentenced. It is assumed that the number of offenders entering a state for supervision is, over time, approximately equal to the number leaving for supervision elsewhere. Thus the net "cost" to the state would, over time, be zero. Data on Alaska's participation in the Interstate Compact formed the impetus for a study of Interstate Compact clients processed through the Anchorage probation office. This study suggests that numbers should not be the only measure of cost: demographic and offense characteristics of clients, as well as their supervision needs, should be factored into any cost assessment.
    • Establishing Reasons and Recommendation on How to Increase Biomedical Technical Training in Alaska

      Fuqua, Julianna (2016-12-01)
      There is an acknowledgement in literature about the increasing healthcare needs, and the disparity among rural area healthcare needs. This project explores and establishes that there is a need for increased biomedical technical training in the State of Alaska. The need and recommendations are discovered through research of current methods within the State and in other locations and analyzes different ways they are currently obtained in Alaska, and suggest hiring locally as a way to increase the number of trained biomedical technicians in Alaska.
    • Estimated Household Costs for Home Energy Use

      Saylor, Ben; Haley, Sharman; Szymoniak, Nick (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-05)
      This memo estimates how much of their income Alaska households spend for home energy uses, after years of rising energy prices.1 We made the estimates at the request of State Senator Lyman Hoffman. We include costs for electricity, heat, and other home energy uses—but do not include costs for transportation fuel. Keep in mind that these are truly estimates. Because of time lags in data collection and reporting, actual consumer price data for 2008 are not available. To estimate consumer energy prices as of May 2008, we used statistical models of the relationship between oil prices and consumer prices. We also used the most recent data on per capita personal income from the Bureau of Economic Analysis to estimate 2007 annual household income. These estimates are likely to overstate actual household expenditures. As energy costs rise, households find ways to consume less. How much less, we don’t know. For these estimates, we used consumption households reported at the time of the 2000 U.S. Census. Also, the estimates in this memo reflect what energy would cost households for a year, at May 2008 prices. Consumers of course haven’t yet seen a full year at these prices, and we don’t know where prices will go from here.2 Therefore, these estimates are really like a cost index—that is, they estimate what it would cost to buy a specific amount of energy, at specific prices. That’s not the same as actual annual household expenditures. Still, these estimates give a good picture of what
    • Evaluating Differences in Household Subsistence Harvest Patterns between the Ambler Project and Non-Project Zones

      Guettabi, Mouhcine; Greenberg, Joshua; Little, Joseph; Joly, Kyle (National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016-08-01)
      Western Alaska is one of largest inhabited, roadless areas in North America and, indeed, the world. Access, via a new road that would transverse Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (GAAR), to a mining district in a vast roadless section of northwest Alaska has been proposed. Given the potential effects of the road on nearby communities, we analyzed how communities connected to the road system compare to their unconnected counterparts. Specifically, using zero inflated negative binomial models, we analyzed subsistence harvest data to understand factors that influence subsistence production at the household level. We found substantial difference in these factors between communities near the proposed road (project zone (PZ) communities and a comparable set of road accessible communities outside the region, and were affected by household characteristics such as the gender of the head of household, number of children, and income. Total subsistence production of project zone communities was 1.8 – 2.5 times greater than that of non-project zone communities. Communities with a higher percentage of Alaska Native residents had greater per capita subsistence harvests. Higher household income levels were associated with lower subsistence harvest levels. Roads can provide access for hunters from outside the region to traditional subsistence hunting grounds used by local residents that would not be very accessible if not for the road. Our proxy for competition (number of nonlocal moose hunters) indicates that resident moose harvest amounts are inversely related to the number of hunters in a particular area. If subsistence harvest patterns for project zone communities currently off the road changed to mirror existing non-project zone harvests due to the road, the financial cost would be USD $6,900 – 10,500 per household per year (assuming an $8/lb. ‘replacement’ cost for subsistence harvests). This represents about 33% of the median household income. Taken together, our results suggest that the proposed road should be expected to substantially impact subsistence production in communities that are not currently connected to the road system. The scale of our data did not allow for the comparison of the impacts of the different proposed routes but the impacts of different routes is likely minor in relation to the presence or absence of the proposed road
    • Evaluation Capacity Building in Pretrial Diversion Services: A Case Study

      Partch, Serena Shores; Edwards, Steven M.; Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1984-03-27)
      Despite increasing use of adult pretrial diversion programs in recent years, the limited capacity to produce, analyze, and translate evaluation data in pretrial diversion programs has frequently resulted in policy and programmatic decisions being made on the basis of little or no empirical information. This paper presents a case study of the development of an evaluation system for the Alaska Pretrial Intervention (PTI) program of the Alaska Department of Law which can generate timely results for policymaking as well as monitor staff productivity.
    • Evaluation of a JAIBG-Funded Project: Voice and Location Telephone Monitoring of Juveniles

      Schafer, N. E.; Martin, Pamela (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2001-03)
      Direct supervision of juvenile probationers is seldom possible in many communities in Alaska due to their remoteness, so alternative supervision strategies are desirable. Electronic monitoring or voice recognition systems can substitute for institutionalization or face-to-face supervision by a probation officer. This report describes and evaluates the use of a voice and location telephone monitoring system for the supervision of juvenile probationers throught the Mat-Su Youth Corrections Office in Palmer. In practice, VALUE — Voice And Location Update Evaluation — was used primarily as a transitional tool for clients "stepping down" from traditional electronic monitoring to release from supervision.
    • Evaluation of a JAIBG-Funded Project: Emmonak Elders' Group

      Schafer, N. E.; Knox, Corey (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2001-07)
      Since 1999, the Emmonak Elders' Group Project has handled certain non-felony juvenile cases in the village of Emmonak, a predominately Yup'ik community on the Yukon Delta of western Alaska. The project permits youth to remain within the community while their offenses are adjudicated through the body of elders – thus avoiding formal justice system processing which usually entails removal from the village. Youths are held accountable within the context of the local community and its traditions. This article describes the results of an initial evaluation of the program in early 2001, after the court had been in operation for approximately a year and a half. The evaluation comprised a review of program files, direct observations of meetings, discussions with community residents and interviews with parents and juveniles. It primarily focused on project implementation: how the court was established, its procedures, and the working relationships among institutions and individual participants.
    • Evaluation of a Public Health Nursing Expedited Partner Therapy Program

      McNulty, Colleen (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) is an important strategy in reducing reinfection for clients with a positive chlamydia or gonorrhea lab test. It also reduces the time it takes to treat partners, therefore decreasing the rapid spread of these diseases. In 2012, the Alaska Section of Public Health Nursing began to establish an EPT process. The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine uptake in EPT clinical services and to identify barriers both in the process and in staff knowledge and support of EPT practice. Several methods of data collection were used including historical data review, focus group discussion and online survey. Based on the data review, EPT was offered to only 13.7% of clients with a positive chlamydia and/or gonorrhea tests, although of the clients who used EPT, 94.7% reported that using EPT was a positive option for them. Both the focus group discussion and online survey demonstrated that the process set up for provision of EPT by public health nurses was lengthy and difficult for staff to follow. There were also barriers with nurses using EPT due to fear of a potential allergic reaction (35.4%) and fear it could increase antimicrobial resistance (12.5%). The recommendations made were to: reduce the number of required steps of the process for providing EPT to clients; provide ongoing education on evidence-based reporting of EPT services; and to provide support for the public health nurse staff.
    • An Evaluation of Oral Health Training for Long-Term Care Facility Staff and its Relation to Residents' Dental Plaque Levels

      Barrow, Olivia Christine (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-08-01)
      The overall goal of this project was to decrease dental plaque scores of residents living at Wild Flower Court (WFC) facility through improved oral health education of staff members. The examiner evaluated WFC nursing staff’s knowledge on providing patients with oral care and denture maintenance both before and after oral care training. The staff knowledge levels were correlated with residents’ plaque levels to determine if a relationship existed. The hypothesis was that WFC residents would have lower dental plaque levels after nursing staff received the oral health and denture maintenance training. Twenty-seven full-time WFC staff members received the oral health and denture maintenance training and were given a knowledge pre-test and post-training test. The same test was given at one and two month follow-ups to determine levels of retained knowledge. A baseline plaque index (PI) was collected on thirty-six WFC residents 65 years of age and older using a modified version of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and a modified Budtz-Jorgensen PI. The PI was collected from residents prior to staff receiving training, and then again at one and two months after staff training. Among the staff that received oral health and denture maintenance training, the post-test revealed a statistically significant increase in knowledge from the pretest (α ≤ .05). Decreased resident PI levels were observed at the one and two month follow-ups. The study provides evidence that educational training to the staff can effectively reduce the PI levels of WFC residents. iii
    • Evaluation of Pre-Trial Diversion Project, State of Alaska, Department of Law

      Ring, Peter Smith; Bruce, Kevin (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-01)
      In February 1978 the Alaska Department of Law initiated a pilot pretrial intervention (PTI) project in Anchorage directed at first-time property offenders with no history of violence and no current drug or alcohol dependency. The project was aimed at reducing recidivism and costs to the criminal justice system, and included a built-in evaluation component. This report explores the PTI project's impact by (1) comparing PTI clients with other defendants; (2) investigating compliance of PTI clients with contracts to which they agree at time of program entry; (3) comparing costs of PTI compared with those generated in ordinary criminal cases; (4) evaluating the program's administration, identifying its deficiencies, and suggesting improvements; and (5) looking at recidivism rates of PTI clients.
    • Evaluation of Provider-Directed Communication Strategies Regarding Complementary and Alternative Health: An Integrative Review

      Garhart, Emily (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Aim Identify health care provider-directed facilitators and barriers to successful patientprovider communication regarding complementary and alternative medicine, and synthesize the research evidence into succinct best-evidence strategies to generate optimum patient-provider dialogue. Background Complementary and alternative medicine use is prevalent among U.S. consumers. However, consumers infrequently disclose their use, and providers inconsistently inquire about it. Currently, there is little guidance for a method on facilitating communication. In addition, no studies have synthesized the variety of factors that influence communication of this topic as a means to help identify potentially effective strategies for improving it. Method. An integrative review of publications from 2000 to 2015. A five-stage methodological framework guided the data analysis. Results Thirty-two qualitative and quantitative articles and literature reviews met inclusion criteria. All data extracted and include in this review supported two key domains of understanding, representing interpersonal and organizational characteristics. Conclusion Findings indicated that successful communication about complementary and alternative medicine will not occur unless it is considered integral to the medical encounter, required by policies, and supported by appropriate resources. Implications for Advanced Practice Nurses Conversations that include complementary and alternative approaches will support the core concept of patient-centered care and ensure the greatest level of patient safety.
    • Evaluation of the Alaska Pre-Trial Intervention Program

      Schafer, N. E. (Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988)
      The statewide Pretrial Intervention (PTI) Program of the Alaska Department of Law, begun in 1981, received referrals of accused felons and misdemeanants charged with property crimes or misdemeanor personal crimes. Using data from 1983 to 1986, this study examines extralegal and legal characteristics of PTI clients; analyzies program conditions, compliance, and dispositions; and analyzes achievement of program goals. Criminal histories for 2 to 5 years after intake were used to assess recidivism and recidivist characteristics. Results indicate that PTI operated successfully on a variety of measures throughout its existence. It met intake goals, was available to a broad spectrum of citizens in both urban and rural areas of the state, and two-thirds of clients admitted to the program had no record of subsequent law violations. The program admitted only prosecutable offenders and did not result in netwidening. The program provided alternatives to more severe sanctions for nearly 1,900 Alaskans of all ages, races, and socioeconomic status whose offenses were not violent or of a serious or threatening nature. PTI clients ranged in age from 17 to 66 and included both males and females. Theft, drug burglary/trespass, assault, and minor consuming were the most frequently charged offenses. Of clients, 36.8 percent were felons, and 36.3 percent had prior convictions. During the evaluation period, clients completed 65,302 hours of community service; paid $435,081 in victim restitution; and participated in needed treatment programs, including alcohol, psychological, domestic violence, and career counseling.
    • Evaluation of the Anchorage Coordinated Agency Network (CANS) Program

      Giblin, Matthew (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2000-10-02)
      In spring 1999, the Anchorage Police Department and the Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice formed a partnership to enhance the supervision and services provided to juvenile probationers in Anchorage. Modeled after a successful program in San Diego, California, the Anchorage Coordinated Agency Network (CANS) project extended the supervision arm of the youth probation office by having Anchorage police officers make random visits to juvenile probationers. This evaluation examines the CANS program during its pilot phase, June through December 1999. The evaluation assesses whether juveniles participating in the CANS program differed from a control group of non-CANS participants with respect to new probation violations and new offenses. An effort is also made to determine the most important factors predicting program outcomes.
    • Evaluation of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America Targeted Re-Entry Initiative: Final Report

      Barton, William H.; Jarjoura, G. Roger; Rosay, André B. (Indiana University School of Social Work; Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-12)
      In 2003 and early 2004 the Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) introduced Targeted Re-Entry (TR), a juvenile aftercare approach derived from the Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP) model (Altschuler & Armstrong) into four sites, partnering with state juvenile correctional facilities in Mobile, Alabama; Anchorage, Alaska; Benton, Little Rock, and North Little Rock, Arkansas; and Milwaukee and Wales, Wisconsin. The Targeted Re-entry approach builds closely upon the IAP model, with local Boys & Girls Clubs providing community leadership, case management functions, and close linkages with the correctional system. A key element in all four sites is the introduction of a Boys & Girls Club providing recreational and other programming inside the juvenile correctional facility. By introducing the youths to the Boys & Girls Clubs’ philosophy and activities while they are incarcerated, providing (or participating in) the overarching case management prescribed by the IAP model, and connecting the youths to Boys & Girls Clubs back in the community as part of the reentry plan, TR staff hope to provide continuity and a positive youth development framework for more successful reentry. This study reports on an evaluation of TR for the four states, with a sample derived from all youth who had been identified since the beginning of the programs who were released from the institutions to the community phase no later than December 31, 2006, allowing recidivism and other outcome data to be collected for a 12-month post-release follow-up period.
    • An Examination of Police Service Deployment: Alcohol Offenses

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-07)
      This issue of Anchorage Community Indicators maps the rates by census block area and community council of Anchorage Police Department calls for service in 2003 for alcohol offenses in Anchorage.
    • An Examination of Police Service Deployment: Domestic Violence

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-07)
      This issue of Anchorage Community Indicators maps the rates by census block area and community council of Anchorage Police Department calls for service in 2003 for domestic violence in Anchorage.
    • An Examination of Police Service Deployment: Drug Offenses

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-07)
      This issue of Anchorage Community Indicators maps the rates by census block area and community council of Anchorage Police Department calls for service in 2003 for drug offenses in Anchorage.
    • An Examination of Police Service Deployment: Serious Property Crime

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-07)
      This issue of Anchorage Community Indicators maps the rates by census block area and community council of Anchorage Police Department calls for service in 2003 for serious property crime in Anchorage.
    • An Examination of Police Service Deployment: Serious Violent Crime

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-07)
      This issue of Anchorage Community Indicators maps the rates by census block area and community council of Anchorage Police Department calls for service in 2003 for serious violent crime in Anchorage.
    • An Examination of Police Service Deployment: Weapons Offenses

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-07)
      This issue of Anchorage Community Indicators maps the rates by census block area and community council of Anchorage Police Department calls for service in 2003 for weapons offenses in Anchorage.