• The Alaska Pretrial Intervention Evaluation Development Project

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-06)
      In 1978 the Alaska Department of Law implemented the Pretrial Intervention Program (PTI) in Anchorage to provide an alternative to formal prosecution of first-time offenders. The program was later expanded to 8 other sites in Alaska. The PTI Evaluation Development Project was initiated in 1982 to develop an evaluation system for the PTI program which would provide information to assist PTI management to set screening and treatment policy, determine staff workloads, and make program modifications. This report details the evaluation system's development. Codebook and SPSS programs included in appendices.
    • The Bar Hours Change in Anchorage: A Preliminary Study

      Johnson, Knowlton W.; Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-04)
      This study, conducted in collaboration with the Salvation Army, Inc., analyzes the impact of a reduction of bar hours in Anchorage, Alaska in October 1981. Prior to the bar hours change, Anchorage bars were closed for only three hours each day. Following the change, bars were closed for eight hours on weekdays and six hours on weekends. Phase I of the study analyzed trends in alcohol distribution and alcohol-related incidents from July 1980 to March 1982. Phase II focused on activities on Fourth Avenue in downtown Anchorage, an area widely perceived as a locus of alcohol-related social disorder. Researchers observed activity in and around Fourth Avenue businesses and conducted semi-structured interviews with employees of designated businesses, social control agents, and emergency service personnel to gather information on perceived positive and negative effects of the bar hours change.
    • Converging Science and Practice in Analyzing Evaluation Data

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-03)
      A strategy is presented for converging science and practice which focuses on the needs of scientists and policymakers in analyzing evaluation data. Emphasis is placed on employing powerful statistical techniques that maximize the evaluators' confidence in their results. Attention is also drawn to the need for producing results which can be easily communicated to and interpreted by policymakers. In regard to these requirements, the discussion concerns application of four statistical techniques: factor analysis, Guttman scalogram analysis, multiple classification analysis and cross-break analysis. Each statistical analysis technique is described as to its value in evaluation research for dealing with problems known to inhibit the convergence of science and practice. The application of these techniques is demonstrated by illustrations taken from previous evaluation studies. The paper concludes with implications for stimulating the extent and quality of evaluation use.
    • Evaluation Capacity Building in Pretrial Diversion Services: A Case Study

      Partch, Serena Shores; Edwards, Steven M.; Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1984-03-27)
      Despite increasing use of adult pretrial diversion programs in recent years, the limited capacity to produce, analyze, and translate evaluation data in pretrial diversion programs has frequently resulted in policy and programmatic decisions being made on the basis of little or no empirical information. This paper presents a case study of the development of an evaluation system for the Alaska Pretrial Intervention (PTI) program of the Alaska Department of Law which can generate timely results for policymaking as well as monitor staff productivity.
    • Examination of Qualifying Criteria for Selection of Law Enforcement Personnel in Alaska: Final Report

      Johnson, Knowlton W.; Clark-Berry, Chloe (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-10)
      This report examines the "state of the art" in law enforcement selection practices, analyzes personnel selection methods in terms of their ability to evaluate candidate trainability and interpersonal skills in a fair and equitable manner, and offers options for developing a model selection system for the Alaska Department of Public Safety. The report's findings and recommendations are based on an extensive review of the literature; questionnaires and telephone surveys of law enforcement agencies in the U.S.A., Canada, Australia and New Zealand; and telephone conversations with authorities on the subject of police selection.
    • Insights and Strategies for Confronting Violence: Conference Proceedings

      Johnson, Knowlton W.; Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, School of Justice, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-06)
      This volume collects 25 papers based on presentations at the 1982 Conference on Violence sponsored by the Justice Center at University of Alaska Anchorage, which was held October 11–13, 1982 in Anchorage. Part I, “Violent Behavior and Contributing Factors,” presents papers focusing on sexual abuse, police violence, and political violence. Additionally, firearms, alcohol, and the media are discussed as contributing factors to violence. Part II, “Control, Treatment and Prevention of Violence,” highlights traditional and alternative strategies for combating violence. In particular, research findings and models are presented that center on domestic violence, sexual abuse, violent juvenile and adult crime, crime against children, and the criminally insane. Part III, “Victims of Violence,” gives attention to traditional victim services as well as proposals for alternative programs for victims of violence. In addition, there is a discussion of people experiencing homelessness as victims of violence. Part IV, “Public Policy and Violence,” focuses on macrolevel issues of violence. The lead article presents a policy perspective in connection with violence in Northern Canada. Other issues addressed in the remaining articles are public policy and victims of violence, resource management and violence control, legal ramifications of censoring violence in the media, and use of research in combating violence.
    • Introducing New Criteria for Assessing Training Materials About the Elderly

      Johnson, Knowlton W.; Beirnard, Charles A.; Stiles, Stephen R. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-11)
      In what ways do law enforcement personnel and agencies use knowledge about the elderly? This article presents the findings of a recent study conducted by the International Training Research and Evaluation Council on how law enforcement trainees make use of the knowledge they gained through training materials developed by the National Retired Teachers Association/American Association of Retired Persons.
    • Law Enforcement Selection Practices in the U.S.A. and Canada

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-04)
      Selection practices in law enforcement have been said to be one of the most complex facets of personnel management. In an effort to document the state of this complexity internationally, the study presented provides state of the art information about police personnel practices in the USA and Canada.
    • The Use of Research in Confronting Violence in Alaska: Final Report

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-10)
      This study of research diffusion and use in Alaska was a major effort to generate empirical information about the connection between research and policymaking relating to the critical problem of violence, a problem which threatens the quality of life for Alaskans . Policy questions of interest centered on: (1) describing the research diffusion process in connection with human service agencies that deal with problems of violent behavior; (2) determining how research influences decisions about violence reduction policy and programming; and (3) discovering what facilitates or inhibits the use of research in making decisions about combating violence.
    • Utilization of Research in Combating Violence in Alaska: An Ecological Perspective

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-09)
      Research diffusion and use has increasingly become an interest of social scientists and policymakers. This interest on the part of policymakers is evidenced by the results of this study. In particular, high level administrators in 268 human service agencies of Alaska reported moderate to high use of statistics, evaluation studies and other social science research in making pol icy decisions about combating violence. Findings are also presented that point to specific facilitators and inhibitors of research use. The conclusions and policy implications highlight how the results of this research utilization study can direct the formulation of a research and development agenda at the agency and state level.