• 1989 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Read, Emily E.; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1990-12-03)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, two instances of a status offender held in secure detention were recorded in 1989; but both satisfied the "valid court order" exception, so were not counted as violations; by comparison, there were 485 violations in the baseline year of 1976. 336 separation violations were recorded in 1989, representing a 60% reduction from the 1976 baseline and 41% from 1988. 249 jail removal violations occurred, representing a 71% reduction from the 1980 baseline and an 39% reduction from 1988.
    • 1990 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Read, Emily E.; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1991-10)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, no instances of a status offender held in secure detention were recorded in 1990, as compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of 1976. 135 separation violations were recorded in 1990, representing an 84% reduction from the 1976 baseline and 60% from 1989. 99 jail removal violations occurred, representing a 89% reduction from the 1980 baseline and an 60% reduction from 1989.
    • 1991 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Curtis, Richard W.; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1992-10)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, one instance of a status offender held in secure detention was recorded in 1991, as compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of 1976. 65 separation violations were recorded in 1991, representing a 92% reduction from the 1976 baseline and 48% from 1990. 81 jail removal violations occurred, representing a 90% reduction from the 1980 baseline and an 18% reduction from 1990.
    • 1992 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Curtis, Richard W.; Schafer, N. E.; Atwell, Cassie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1993-10)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, one instance of a status offender held in secure detention was recorded in 1992, as compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of 1976. 11 separation violations were recorded in 1992, representing a 99% reduction from the 1976 baseline and 83% from 1992. 44 jail removal violations occurred, representing a 95% reduction from the 1980 baseline and an 46% reduction from 1992.
    • 1993 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Curtis, Richard W.; Atwell, Cassie; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1994-09)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, no instances of a status offender held in secure detention was recorded in 1993, as compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of 1976. 16 separation violations were recorded in 1992, representing a 98% reduction from the 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 59 jail removal violations were projected, representing a 94% reduction from the 1980 baseline and an 25% increase from 1992.
    • Alaska as a Case Study of OJJDP-Mandated Jail Monitoring

      Schafer, N. E.; Read, Emily E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1990-10-03)
      The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency prevention has mandated that all states monitor jail records for the presence of juveniles and inspect jails and lock-ups in which juveniles might be detained for sight and sound separation. The experience of Alaska in complying with this mandate is instructive. In the largest state in the union 99 facilities in a monitoring universe of 111 (89.1 %) are accessible only by air or water. Alaska's jail monitoring plan accommodated this inaccessibility. The plan and 1989 monitoring activities are explained and discussed. As the largest state in the Union Alaska has had some unique problems complying with the mandate of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Act to monitor secure facilities for the presence of juveniles. In spite of these problems Alaska has produced a model monitoring plan and has successfully completed three years of compliance monitoring activities. The monitoring process and the problems associated with monitoring activities are useful for other states to consider as they review their monitoring plans.
    • Alaska Community Jails: Jail Profiles

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2000-10)
      Highly detailed information derived from billing sheets from 1993–1999 on fifteen community jails (Barrow, Cordova, Craig, Dillingham, Haines, Homer, Bristol Bay Borough, Kodiak, Kotzebue, Petersburg, Seward, Sitka, Unalaska, Valdez and Wrangell). Each jail profile shows the number of admissions by month, time of day and day of the week; the charge category for admission; the gender breakdown for admissions and bedspace utilization; and the duration of detention by specific charges. The overall analysis revealed that while there is regional variation, public order charges, including drug and alcohol-related charges and protective custody holds, were, overall, the most frequent cause for admission.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 11, No. 3 (Fall 1994)

      Curtis, Richard; Schafer, N. E.; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Carns, Teresa W.; Josephson, Sarah (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1994-09-01)
      The Fall 1994 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum analyzes the 1,552 juvenile detention events in Alaska in 1993, which involve 1,023 youths who spent a total of 21,452 days in detention. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), one of two Justice Department measures of crime in the United States (the other being the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports) has been redesigned. Surveys recently conducted by the Joint State-Federal Courts Gender Equality Task Force present an overall picture of gender equality issues in Alaska state courts.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 12, No. 1 (Spring 1995)

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard; UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1995-03-01)
      The Spring 1995 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum examines detention data collected during Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act compliance monitoring to describe juvenile detentions in Alaska for the five years from 1989 to 1993, with particular attention given to repeat offenders, defined as individuals detained six or more times during the five-year period. The Alaska Judicial Council and Alaska Court of Appeals have further expanded the computerized case management system designed by the Alaska Judicial Council.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 12, No. 4 (Winter 1996)

      UAA Justice Center; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Schafer, N. E.; Green, Melissa S. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1996-01-01)
      The Winter 1996 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum presents the first of two articles examining results of the village component of a statewide public safety project conducted by the Justice Center for the Alaska Department of Public Safety, in which researchers interviewed residents and officials of 28 Alaska villages on characteristics, government, and social control in predominately Alaska Native villages. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports on the growing U.S. prison population, which increased 8.8 percent between mid-1994 and mid-1995; a sidebar story compares Alaska with states of similar population in an effort to understand the disparity in its rankings, with racial disparities in Alaska's prison population a possible factor. The Justice Center establishes a website.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 14, No. 3 (Fall 1997)

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-09-01)
      The Fall 1997 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum summarizes major findings of the final report of the Alaska Supreme Court Advisory Committee on Fairness and Access, reporting that the committee received few complaints of intentional racial or cultural bias by the court system, but learned about areas of unintentional bias, cultural misunderstandings, inadequate services, and lack of accessibility. Many of the committee's findings have relevance to justice system agencies beyond the court system. A Justice Center study of 28,618 referrals to the Alaska juvenile justice system found considerable disparity between white and minority youth in the rate at which they were referred, the frequency of their referrals, and the types of offenses which brought them to the attention of juvenile justice personnel.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 15, No. 1 (Spring 1998)

      King, Rachel; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-03-01)
      In the Spring 1998 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum, an assistant public defender who served from 1991 to 1994 in three jurisdictions in rural Alaska — Ketchikan, Kodiak, and Kotzebue — focuses on the situation of rural Alaska Natives to describe how several structural aspects of the criminal justice may contribute to the overrepresentation of Alaska Natives in the Alaska prison system. The second phase of a Justice Center study of racial disproportionality in juvenile referrals in Alaska looks at 33 youth who had five or more referrals, examining individual criminal histories and family backgrounds as revealed in the files, and notes noted that juveniles from rural communities sometimes received referrals for behavior that would have been handled informally in urban settings.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 4, No. 1 (Spring 1987)

      Angell, John E.; Endell, Roger V.; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1987-03)
      The Alaska Justice Forum has resumed publication after a seven-year hiatus. The original Forum was published from 1977 to 1980. The Spring 1987 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum features articles on the implementation of Offender-Based State Correctional Information System (OBSCIS) by the Alaska Department of Corrections; a Bureau of Justice Statistics study estimating the likelihood of imprisonment for persons arrested for robbery, burglary, or theft in the U.S., Canada, England, and West Germany; and preliminary results of a study assessing the impact on Alaska of participation in the Interstate Compact for Probation and Parole; and results of a public opinion poll showing that a majority of Anchorage and the Matanuska-Susitna Borough residents oppose selection of Fire Island as a site for a long-term correctional facility. Briefer items address the appointment by Governor Steve Cowper of a committee to coordinate Alaska's implementation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 and two new Alaska Judicial Council research reports. March 1987 population figures for Alaska Department of Corrections facilities are presented.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 5, No. 3 (Fall 1988)

      Schafer, N. E.; Conn, Stephen; Bureau of Justice Statistics (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-09)
      The Fall 1988 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum reports the results of study of the Alaska Pretrial Intervention (PTI) of the Alaska Department of Law, which operated from 1983 to 1986. The PTI program was intended to provide an alternative to full prosecution in cases where the nature of the offense did not appear to warrant such prosecution; the study concludes that the program succeeded according to a number of factors. An article on the policy for Native self-determination in Alaska developed by Congress and the state has sought to replace a tribal model of governance with a body of legislation which confirms land rights without the direct political involvement of Alaska Native villages; however, the author argues, the absence of tribes as formal political structures has contributed to a loss of self-determination among Alaska Natives and to serious negative effects on Native village life. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports on a national survey of criminal defense programs for the poor. September 1988 population figures for Alaska Department of Corrections facilities are presented.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 6, No. 2 (Summer 1989)

      Becker, Dwight; Read, Emily E.; Schafer, N. E.; Bureau of Justice Statistics (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1989-06)
      The Summer 1989 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum features articles on delinquent activity in Southcentral Alaska, which declined from 1984 to 1988, and on criminal cases heard in federal courts from 1980 to 1987.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 6, No. 4 (Winter 1990)

      Schafer, N. E.; Read, Emily E.; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Copus, Gary D.; Holmes, Caralyn (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1990-01)
      The Winter 1990 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum examines the criminal activity of Alaska women by analyzing Uniform Crime Reporting arrest data for 1975–1984. Women do not contribute substantially to the overall rate of violent crime in Alaska, but arrests of female offenders, both adult and juvenile, comprise a substantial proportion of all arrests for alcohol-related offenses. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports on adults on federal and state probation and parole in 1988. Analysis of 1988 data on reported crime incidents from seven villages in the North Slope Borough suggests that crime rates for certain offenses may be higher in rural Alaska than in urban Alaska. January 1990 population figures for Alaska Department of Corrections facilities are presented.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 8, No. 1 (Spring 1991)

      Schafer, N. E.; Read, Emily E.; Bureau of Justice Statistics (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1991-03-01)
      The Spring 1991 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum describes provisions of the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 and discusses the juvenile jail monitoring activities conducted by the Justice Center for 1987–1989 under contract to the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services. The Bureau of Justice Statistics describes the characteristics, criminal histories, and drug use patterns of women under the jurisdiction of federal and state prison authorities in the U.S. Alaska homicide statistics for 1965–1992 in Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, and Alaska overall are presented; Alaska homicide rates have been below the national average since 1988. Rural justice was the topic of a roundtable discussion featuring Charles Ndlovu of the Community Law Center in Durban, South Africa.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 8, No. 4 (Winter 1992)

      Trostle, Lawrence C.; McShea, Darren; Perras, Russell; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Schafer, N. E.; Tubbs, Michael P.; Rieger, Lisa (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1992-01-01)
      The Winter 1992 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum features findings from a study on the nonenforcement role of Village Public Safety Officers (VPSOs), figures from the Bureau of Justice Statistics on crime victimization experienced by students aged 12 to 19 in U.S. schools, an analysis of residents of a community corrections center in Anchorage, and a summary of findings from the Alaska Sentencing Commissions 1991 annual report.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 9, No. 2 (Summer 1992)

      Angell, John E.; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Schafer, N. E.; Green, Melissa S. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1992-06-01)
      The Summer 1992 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum presents Justice Center progress and results in the collection and reporting of University of Alaska crime and arrest statistics under the federal Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act (CACSA) of 1990; in 1991 University of Alaska campuses reported a total of 41 offenses and 68 arrests reportable under the act. Nearly 23 million American households, or 24 percent, were victimized by crime in 1991, according to estimates from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), an ongoing survey of victims of crime first administered in 1972. Alaska's incarcerated population grew from 770 in February 1980 to 2,474 in July 1992, peaking at 2,621 in February 1990.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 9, No. 3 (Fall 1992)

      Schafer, N. E.; Green, Melissa S.; Bureau of Justice Statistics (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1992-09-01)
      The Fall 1992 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum presents population figures for prisoners, probationers, parolees, and community corrections residents under jurisdiction of the Alaska Department of Corrections from February 1980 to September 1992. The Bureau of Justice Statistics examines characteristics of persons in local jails arrested or convicted of driving while intoxicated (DWI), finding that more than half the persons in local jails charged with DWI in 1989 had prior sentences to incarceration for DWI offenses. Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) statistics from the FBI for the first six months of 1992 show a three percent increase in violent crime and three percent decrease in property crime nationwide compared with the same period for 1991.