• Traditional Athabascan Law Ways and Their Relationship to Contemporary Problems of "Bush Justice": Some Preliminary Observations on Structure and Function.

      Hippler, Arthur E.; Conn, Stephen (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1972-08)
      This paper is directed toward helping achieve a better understanding of traditional law ways among Alaska's Athabascan Indians and of the present state of the administration of law in the "bush"-village Alaska. An outgrowth of the 1970 Bush Justice Conference sponsored by the Alaska Judicial Council, the paper's primary purpose is to help facilitate establishment of more appropriate delivery and administration of legal services for ethnically distinct populations of Alaska.
    • Notes on Representation of Native Clients

      Conn, Stephen; Hippler, Arthur E. (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1972-09-07)
      Native people, whether influenced by traditional approaches to dispute resolution or by their pragmatic experience with local courts and dispute resolution or by their pragmatic experience with local courts and law enforcement, do not see justice as being done within the forum offered by the state. In search of an authoritative locale for rational dispute resolution, they find arbitrary and apparently irrational treatment in magistrate courts. Conversely, they have found in conciliation before the village council a forum where misconduct is measured against the world that the defendant immediately affects. They find a comprehensible forum in the village to solve their problems or no forum at all. Can participation in a functioning advocacy and adversary system be taught and utilized along with continued functioning of a sub-legal conciliatory system that handles de minimus matters effectively? This paper offers guidance to public defenders and legal services attorneys in representing Alaska Native clients.
    • Interview with William R. Nix

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1973)
      William R. Nix, magistrate supervisor with the Alaska Court System and former an Alaska State Trooper, was interviewed in 1973 about law enforcement in bush Alaska during the early years of Alaska statehood; the relationships between Alaska State Troopers, village councils, magisrates of the Alaska Court System, and district attorneys in regional hubs; bail decisions for accused offenders; and the difficulties of establishing and maintaining a fair and equitable justice system in the predominately Alaska Native villages of rural Alaska.
    • Changing Urban Police: Practitioners' View

      Igleburger, Robert M.; Angell, John E.; Pence, Gary (U.S. Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, 1973-06)
      Police administrators are responsible for providing a police operation that serves the public needs. On the surface, this responsibility appears to be simple enough; however, the realities encountered in operationalizing it are enormously complex. It is the purpose of this paper to review and analyze urban policing and suggest methods that police administrators can use to improve the effectiveness of their police organizations.
    • Northern Eskimo Law Ways and Their Relationship to Contemporary Problems of "Bush Justice": Some Preliminary Observations on Structure and Function

      Hippler, Arthur E.; Conn, Stephen (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1973-07)
      This paper describes the how the basic values, personality, and culture of Northern (Inupiat) Eskimos contribute to attitudes toward conflict and their society’s capacity to resolve conflict. The paper analyzes the influence of Anglo-American agents of change on that capacity and, especially, the legal system and procedures that developed in the post-contact use of the village council to resolve disputes. It discusses the formal intervention of state law through the magisterial system and its interaction with Eskimo law ways that the village council encouraged. A comparison of village councils and magistrate courts points out the apparent success of the councils due to their unique fit with Eskimo values and expectations. Finally, shortcomings of .the current magistrate system are analyzed with recommendations for policy adaptations.
    • The Extralegal Forum and Legal Power: The Dynamics of the Relationship — Other Pipelines

      Conn, Stephen (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1974-02-26)
      Diverse groups — e.g., Brazilian squatters, Navajos, village Eskimos and Indians — look to special forums to resolve disputes outside the formal legal system. These forums are employed because they accept disputes as defined by their clients and offer remedies based upon these conceptualizations. Formal agents of the law in their environments cannot do this. When these forums are extralegal (without formal legal authority to act) and are located in an environment where the formal legal process has the theoretical capacity to intervene in the disputes, they must tap into authentic lines of power to maintain their credibility with their constituents. Legal power is not usually formally delegated without defined limits upon its use. Because extralegal forums often must be free from the constraints of particular norms and processes, in order to correctly define and remedy disputes, extralegal forums seek borrowed power through special relationships with formal agents of legal power. Then they reapply it to meet the needs of their constituents. This paper describes the ways to study these relationships and their likely impact upon an informal forum. The author suggests a way of viewing extralegal dispute resolution in a given community against the larger matrix of relationships between the formal and informal legal process. He draws upon his field work in Brazilian squatter colonies, Navajo Indian communities, and rural Athabascan and Eskimo villages in Alaska.
    • An Exploratory Study of Changes Accompanying the Implementation of a Community-Based, Participatory Team Police Organizational Model

      Angell, John E. (Michigan State University, 1975)
      This exploratory research examines the attitudes of citizens, police clientele, and police in an area where a decentralized, participatory (collegial) team police operation has been implemented, and compares these attitudes with those in a similar neighborhood policed by a classical organizational structure and traditional procedures. The Team Police Model of this study consisted basically of 15 generalist police officers who, with the participation of local citizens, were responsible for defining police goals, priorities and procedures and providing all police services in a precisely defined, low-economic, minority, residential area of Holyoke, Massachusetts for a test period of approximately nine months. The Team used collegial methods for decisionmaking and task forces for performing management functions. The Team followed a "service", rather than "law enforcement" operational philosophy. The control neighborhood was policed by an organization arrangement which was in general consistent with Classical tenets as stated by Max Weber. A traditional "law enforcement" philosophy was used in the Classical neighborhood. The basic assumption underlying this study was police effectiveness in crime prevention and order maintenance is dependent on a supportive public. The primary problem researched was whether public and clientele attitudes toward the police were more supportive in the Team Police than a Classical Police area. Of secondary concern was the impact of the Team Police experiment on police officers attitudes. Perhaps the most important conclusion to be derived from this study is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the collegial Team Police Model as implemented in this project did not have a negative impact on any variable investigated. The positive impact of the project on most variables supports the value of further research with a community-based, collegial team organizational structure for police services.
    • Legal Education for a Frontier Society: A Survey of Alaskan Needs and Opportunities in Education, Research and the Delivery of Legal Services

      Havelock, John E. (University of Alaska, 1975)
      Alaska is the only state of the United States that does not have a law school. This 1975 study, commissioned by the Alaska Legislative Council and the University of Alaska, is the first comprehensive investigation of the demand for legal and law-related services in Alaska and how that demand can best be met, including an examination of the feasibility of establishing a law school in the state. The study describes contemporary methods of delivering legal services in the state, with particular focus on the needs of rural and middle income Alaskans, and evaluates their cost and efficiency. It evaluates the present supply of lawyers and law-trained people in Alaska with reference to national trends in legal education, the migration to and admission of attorneys in Alaska, and the unique circumstances of Alaska law practice. It analyzes the need and demand for legal education in the state, and incorporates principal results of surveys of the general public and of Anchorage-area attorneys. The study concludes that there is no need to increase the supply of lawyers in Alaska by establishment of a law school and that many objectives which might be reached by a law school can also be reached by building on existing arrangements and models and development of other options for legal practice in Alaska such as paralegal training, particularly in rural areas of the state.
    • Staff Paper on Village Councils

      Hippler, Arthur E.; Conn, Stephen (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1975)
      This excerpt from the forthcoming UCLA-Alaska Law Review article "The Village Council and Its Offspring: A Reform for Bush Justice" describes techniques used historically by Alaska Native village councils to resolve disputes. All of these techniques were observed in 1975 in villages where councils still aid in dispute adjustment.
    • Stock, Corporations, and Native Land Claims Settlement: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims

      Conn, Stephen (Alaska Department of Education; Center for Northern Educational Research, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1975-06)
      This article focuses on the role of village and regional corporations as established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1972. The booklet presents a simulated case study and open-ended class discussion questions relative to the use, purpose, and development of corporations, how corporations are managed and governed, and provisions of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act which led to changes in Alaska law with regard to Alaska Native shares in ANCSA corporations. The article is one of a series by different authors designed to stimulate reading and discussion at an advanced secondary or adult level.
    • The Future of the Village Corporation

      Havelock, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1975-12)
      There is an undercurrent of opinion in Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) administration that the village corporation structure established under the Act is an anachronism, unsuitable to the needs of modern corporate enterprise and accordingly Alaska Native purposes. This line of criticism suggests that the regional corporate structure, also established under the Settlement Act, is sufficient to the needs of the Alaska Native people. Organizational issues in the Settlement Act are both politically and emotionally sensitive. As a result, discussion of this point of view has been muted. It is nonetheless important. The purpose of this paper is to search out the purposes of village corporation existence as a foundation to change or for a better understanding of the roles that are played by them. The Act serves as a written constitution for the Alaska Native people. It must be interpreted broadly to accomplish these fundamental purposes of the people and not as an instrument of a particular economic theory – which is, at least in part, alien to its heritage.
    • Alaska Criminal Code Revision: Preliminary Report

      Alaska Criminal Code Revision Commission (Alaska Criminal Code Revision Commission, 1976-01)
      The Alaska Criminal Code Revision Commission was established in 1975 with the responsibility to present a comprehensive revision of Alaska’s criminal code for consideration by the Alaska State Legislature. This preliminary report consider the need for a revised criminal code in Alaska and presents proposed drafts, with commentary, of statutes on property-related crimes, general criminal code provisions, and sentencing. A specific recommendation is made to continue the Criminal Code Revision Commission or reconstitute it through formal legislative action in order to provide sufficient time for the complex work needed to revise the criminal code.
    • Potential Impact of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing on Existing Division of Corrections Adult Offender Inmate Capacity

      Ring, Peter Smith (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-04)
      This report was prepared for the Alaska Criminal Code Revision Commission to provide its members with an assessment of the potential impact on the Alaska Division (later Department) of Corrections adult offender inmate capacity likely to result from enactment of mandatory minimum sentencing provisions. The study projected that DOC would need at least 200 more secure units by 1981 if mandatory minimum sentencing was applied to second or subsequent felony offenders for a limited number of felony violent crimes. Application of mandatory minimums for such offenders to ALL felonies would likely result in DOC's entire capacity being used up within three years after enactment of minimum sentencing guidelines.
    • Directions for Change in Police Organizations

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-04)
      Three situations serve to hamper police effectiveness under traditional police organizational arrangements First, police operations are based on an assumption that police are primarily in the "criminal apprehension" business. This concept of the police role serves to constrain many police activities that offer potential for satisfying client needs and contributing to crime prevention. Second, police managers rely almost exclusively on the tenets of Bureaucratic Theory, as promulgated by Max Weber (1947), for arranging and managing police organizations. This reliance contributes to problems in the police and community relationship, coordination and direction of police operations, and (3) motivation of police employees. Third, police agencies are basically organized as self-contained operations which are automous from other units of government. This independence reduces the potential for optimum utilization of police services. This paper elaborates on these three situations and their implications, and makes proposals about the directions that the author believes police organizational changes should take.
    • Juvenile Problems and the Law: Teacher's Manual

      Balnave, Richard; Anchorage School District (Anchorage School District; Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08)
      In 1976, Anchorage School District (ASD) and the Criminal Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage, collaborated to develop a law-related curriculum for 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade classrooms, with teacher's manuals written to supplement the basic texts chosen for the program, the "Law in Action" series by Linda Riekes and Sally Mahe Ackerly (West Publishing Company, 1975). This teacher's manual for the unit taught to eighth-graders, "Juvenile Problems and the Law," focuses on the legal aspects of juvenile delinquency and contains information regarding "helping" agencies. The teacher's manual reflects improvements to the original lessons, supplementary classroom activities, supplementary media, and inclusion of Alaska-specific content such as Alaska laws and Alaska community resources. Supplementary material in this teacher's manual does not cover every lesson in the original "Law in Action" unit.
    • Courts and Trials: Teacher's Manual

      Balnave, Richard; Anchorage School District (Anchorage School District; Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08)
      In 1976, Anchorage School District (ASD) and the Criminal Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage, collaborated to develop a law-related curriculum for 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade classrooms, with teacher's manuals written to supplement the basic texts chosen for the program, the "Law in Action" series by Linda Riekes and Sally Mahe Ackerly (West Publishing Company, 1975). This teacher's manual for the unit taught to seventh-graders, ""Courts and Trials," focuses on the judicial system in America and in Alaska. The teacher's manual reflects improvements to the original lessons, supplementary classroom activities, supplementary media, and inclusion of Alaska-specific content such as local news articles about Alaska courts and Alaska community resources. Supplementary material in this teacher's manual does not cover every lesson in the original "Law in Action" unit.
    • Youth Attitudes and the Police: Teacher's Manual

      Balnave, Richard; Anchorage School District (Anchorage School District; Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08)
      In 1976, Anchorage School District (ASD) and the Criminal Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage, collaborated to develop a law-related curriculum for 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade classrooms, with teacher's manuals written to supplement the basic texts chosen for the program, the "Law in Action" series by Linda Riekes and Sally Mahe Ackerly (West Publishing Company, 1975). This teacher's manual for the unit taught to sixth-graders, ""Youth Attitudes and the Police," focuses on the work and responsibilities of police officers, and their relationships with kids. The teacher's manual reflects improvements to the original lessons, supplementary classroom activities, supplementary media, and inclusion of Alaska-specific content such as local newspaper stories about police and Alaska community resources. Supplementary material in this teacher's manual does not cover every lesson in the original "Law in Action" unit.
    • Lawmaking: Teacher's Manual

      Balnave, Richard; Anchorage School District (Anchorage School District; Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08)
      In 1976, Anchorage School District (ASD) and the Criminal Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage, collaborated to develop a law-related curriculum for 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade classrooms, with teacher's manuals written to supplement the basic texts chosen for the program, the "Law in Action" series by Linda Riekes and Sally Mahe Ackerly (West Publishing Company, 1975). This teacher's manual for the unit taught to fifth-graders, "Lawmaking," focuses on how our laws are made. The teacher's manual reflects improvements to the original lessons, supplementary classroom activities, supplementary media, and inclusion of Alaska-specific content such as information about the Alaska Legislature and other legal bodies in Alaska, the steps in the passage of a law in Alaska, and Alaska community resources. Supplementary material in this teacher's manual does not cover every lesson in the original "Law in Action" unit.
    • An Examination of Specialized Training Grants Funded by the Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency 1973 through 1975

      Endell, Roger V. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08)
      Prior to the establishment of the Criminal Justice Center at the University of Alaska, no program has attempted to train and educate Alaska justice practitioners on a continuing basis and at all agency levels. The Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency, through the Governor's Commission on the Administration of Justice, has attempted to deal with this training problem on an interim basement through the Specialized Training Grant program, which enables "state and local police officers, correctional officers, prosecutors, public defenders, and court personnel [to obtain] specialized training sponsored by other agencies and institutions," often involving travel out-of-state for programs largely unavailable in Alaska. This study examines individualized grants funded for the years 1973–1975 as a means of measuring the effectiveness of the Specialized Training Grant program as on approach to the continuing professionalization of Alaska's criminal justice personnel.
    • Law Related Education Project: Final Report

      Balnave, Richard (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-08-11)
      This report describes a cooperative project beween Anchorage School District (ASD) and the Criminal Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage, to develop a law-related curriculum for 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade classrooms. The pilot program was implemented in March through June 1976 in 20 ASD classrooms with approximately 800 children. The curriculum used was the "Law in Action" series by Linda Riekes and Sally Mahe Ackerly (West Publishing Company, 1975), using the units on "Lawmaking" (5th grade), "Youth Attitudes and the Police" (6th grade), "Courts and Trials" (7th grade), and "Juvenile Problems and the Law" (8th grade). Feedback from the pilot program led to the writing of supplementary teacher's manuals for each of the four units, reflecting improvements to the original lessons, supplementary classroom activities, supplementary media, and inclusion of Alaska-specific content such as Alaska laws and community resources. Complete "classroom kits" were deposited in ASD's Instructional Materials Center for continued use by ASD teachers interested in providing legal and justice education to their students.