• The Contribution of ANILCA to Alaska's Economy

      Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2005)
      This paper presents an assessment of the economic contribution of ANILCA and ANILCA-protected ecosystems to Alaska’s economy. I consider the links between the conservation units designated by the Act and a healthy Alaska economy. The paper consists largely of synthesis and application of existing data and research. It does not consider global ecosystem services or other values that are not currently captured within the Alaska economy. ANILCA was a one-time “natural experiment.” It is not possible, therefore, to observe how the Alaska economy would have evolved absent ANILCA. This makes it difficult if not impossible to say that the Act itself “caused” much of anything. Instead, the best we can do is to say that the data are consistent – or inconsistent -- with certain broad hypotheses and conclusions.
    • The Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge: Economic Importance

      Goldsmith, Scott; Brian, Jerry; Hill (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      In this regional economic assessment, we focus primarily on an economic significance analysis; we present a brief economic impact analysis as well. Both are useful for policy analysis, but each measures a different dimension of economic activity. The economic significance of a refuge is a measure of the total number of jobs and the total household income generated by expenditures associated with the management of each refuge, by expenditures of refuge visitors, and by expenditures for the harvest and other use of refuge resources. In Alaska these expenditures directly create jobs for Fish and Wildlife Service employees, for people employed in businesses serving the recreation industry, and for commercial fishermen. Additional jobs are created by expenditures of the Fish and Wildlife Service and by businesses for procuring supplies and services. As these government and private sector workers spend their incomes, jobs in other sectors of the economy are created through a process known as the multiplier effect. The total number of jobs created by expenditures for management and use of the refuge is consequently greater than just the number directly created. The purpose of this study is to develop a regional economic assessment of the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Alaska. This assessment will be used to help update the Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge, as required under section 304 of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA).