• Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [1982 revision]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [chapter]

      Conn, Stephen (Foris Publications, 1985)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Alcohol Control and Native Alaskans — from the Russians to Statehood: The Early Years — Alcohol Control in Village Alaska

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980)
      A persistent thread throughout the legal history of Alaska since Russian contact with the Great Land until the present has been deployment of available legal resources to curb drinking by Alaska Indians and Eskimos. The long-held social belief on the part of white colonialists and government agents that Alaska Natives could not drink and became wild persons when intoxicated was translated into an unrelenting legal practice of focusing law and available legal resources on control of Native drinking and prosecution of those who supplied Natives with drink. / Even during four periods of territory-wide prohibition, the prohibition was enforced against Natives and suppliers to Natives, while enforcement was indifferent or nonexistent against territorial whites. / The historical overview confirms the propositions set forth by MacAndrew and Edgerton (1969) that American.Indians can trace current drinking problems to the prior expectations implemented as government policy. It also suggests that dependence on law only as a mechanism to change drinking problems can, in fact, exacerbate drinking problems and create among the impacted group problems with alcohol which may not otherwise have existed. / The dependence on law as a vehicle for social control in Alaska in recent years may relate to an absence of alternatives. However, this singular dependence on law enforcement flows from a "grand tradition" of governmental paternalism which can be interpreted as being as much a cause of drinking problems among Natives as a solution to them.
    • Fisheries Law and Enforcement

      Havelock, John E.; Barber, Joe; Moras, Antonia (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-09)
      This text provides a general introduction to the laws, agencies, and issues involved in fisheries regulation, particularly in Alaska, originally intended for an introductory course on regulation as part of an extensive curriculum in fisheries at Kodiak Community College, University of Alaska. The text covers international, federal, and Alaska fisheries law through 1982; the history of fisheries and fisheries law in Alaska; federal, Alaska, and local agencies which affect fisheries; and the justice system, law enforcement practice, and individual rights within the maritime context.
    • The Interrelationship between Alaska State Law and the Social Systems of Modern Eskimo Villages in Alaska: History, Present and Future Considerations

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1985-08)
      Yup'ik and Inupiat villages in Alaska (the territory and the state) experienced a process of legal socialization that was strongly influenced by serious constraints in the allocation of resources. These constraints resulted in legal socialization into what was in essence a second legal state system and provided an opportunity for cultural autonomy by Eskimo villages, even though this de facto situation did not recognize these groups as sovereign tribes. The actual implementation of a single full-blown legal system in village Alaska in the mid-1970s has resulted in a loss of control and serious efforts by Alaska villages to reinstitute village law ways as tribal legal process.
    • No Need of Gold — Alcohol Control Laws and the Alaska Native Population: From the Russians through the Early Years of Statehood

      Conn, Stephen; Moras, Antonia (School of Justice, University of Alaska, Anchorage, 1986)
      Based on two earlier works by the author — "Alcohol Control in Village Alaska and Town Law" and "Town Law, Village Law" — this history traces the use of legal resources to control alcohol consumption among the Alaska Native population from the period of Russian domination through Alaska statehood in 1959 and makes a detailed examination of alcohol-related issues in Bethel in the decade immediately following statehood.
    • Satellite Villages: Bethel and State Liquor Policy in the Modern Era

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979)
      When representatives of eleven villages in the 57-village Bethel region met in Bethel on September 19, 1962, to organize what came to be the Association of Village Council Presidents, they also discussed the interplay between state law and traditional social control meted out by village councils as they dealt with liquor-related problems. This paper examines the breakdown of the working relationship between official Alaska law and village social control in the 1960s and its impact on village law and the role of town liquor policy and town police and treatment resources on alcohol-related violence in the villages in the 1970s.
    • Smooth the Dying Pillow: Alaska Natives and Their Destruction [chapter]

      Conn, Stephen (VWGÖ-Verlag, 1990)
      The policy for Native self-determination in Alaska developed by the Congress and the state has sought to replace a tribal model of governance with a body of legislation which confirms land rights without the direct political involvement of Alaska Native villages. However, the author argues, the absence of tribes as formal political structures has contributed to a loss of self-determination among Alaska Natives and to serious negative effects on Native village life.
    • Smooth the Dying Pillow: Alaska Natives and Their Destruction [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-07)
      The policy for Native self-determination in Alaska developed by the Congress and the state has sought to replace a tribal model of governance with a body of legislation which confirms land rights without the direct political involvement of Alaska Native villages. However, the author argues, the absence of tribes as formal political structures has contributed to a loss of self-determination among Alaska Natives and to serious negative effects on Native village life.
    • Town Law and Village Law: Satellite Villages, Bethel and Alcohol Control in the Modern Era — The Working Relationship and Its Demise

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-11-04)
      In southwestern Alaska the underpinning of the working relationship between official law and village social control was tied to alcohol control. This paper examines the breakdown of this relationship in the 1960s and its impact on village law. It also assesses the role of town liquor policy and town police and treatment resources on alcohol-related violence in the villages in the 1970s. It argues that a recent movement to reinstitute prohibition of importation and sale in many villages must be understood as a desire for renewal of a working relationship between two centers of legal authority.
    • UAA Justice Center 40th Anniversary 1975–2015

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-11-06)
      In celebration of its 40th anniversary, the UAA Justice Center presents a timeline of selected milestones from its history.