• The Political Economics of United States Marine Aquaculture

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-10)
      Government leasing and regulatory policies are critically important for the development of marine aquaculture to a scale far below its economic potential. Two extreme examples are the State of Alaska's ban on all finfish farming, and the absence of an enabling regulatory framework for aquaculture in offshore federal waters. This paper suggests five broad reasons for which U.S. policies have been unfavorable towards marine aquaculture: (1) Marine aquaculture is new and small; (2) Fish and marine waters are traditionally public resources; (3) Many Americans perceive potential negative effects of marine aquaculture without offsetting positive effects; (4) MGOs have systematically and effective opposed marine aquaculture; and (5) The governance system for leasing and regulation is structurally biased against U.S. marine aquaculture. The paper suggests four broad strategies for addressing these political challenges: (1) Fix real problems; (2) Demonstrate benefits; (3) Argue effectively; and (4) Reform Governance.