• Reindeer Markets in the Circumpolar North: An Economic Outlook

      Humphries, John (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      The commercial production of caribou and reindeer meat is relatively small; it is estimated that less than 175,000 animals are harvested annually. Reindeer husbandry or commercial caribou hunts occur in seven circumpolar countries: Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States yet total production is still very low. Properly processed reindeer meat is seen as a high-end luxury or specialty meat in all those countries except Russia. In addition to hide, both male and female reindeer produce horns, which are valuable and can be sold for between 4 and 14 dollars per pound. Overall, reindeer herding and caribou hunting has had wildly varying levels of success, although they seem to be struggling across the globe. This paper provides an economic analysis of the reindeer industry, so we can better understand its challenges, successes, and structure, examine the total size and production of the market, and evaluate the socio-economic tradeoffs between subsistence and commercial harvests. This paper examines the reindeer markets in Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and Alaska, though most emphasis is placed on North America. Russia has been left out of this analysis, due to the scale and complexity of reindeer herding in Russia and the difficulty of obtaining information on the subject. The first part of this paper will estimate total global production and will examine international trade and price discrepancies. Then three forms of herding and two forms of hunting in commercial operations will be reviewed. The current market structures in North American countries will be examined next. The fourth part of this paper will examine the state of the industry and the factors that affect its production choices on a global level. Finally, the choice between subsistence and commercial production will be examined from an economic viewpoint.
    • United Caribou Association of the Nunamiut

      Tooyak, Andrew Jr (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-08-01)
      Caribou is one food source that the people in Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska rely on as a dependable and traditional source of food. United Caribou Association of the Nunamiut (UCAN) hopes to emulate the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission in a way that secures a first right of refusal over sport hunters and others. What UCAN proposes by its presence are negotiated restrictions to ensure subsistence taking of caribou by residents of Anaktuvuk Pass. Because the caribou of three Arctic herds are unrestrained and transient, and a shared resource of the State of Alaska, the State Board of Game views the caribou as a shared resource to be used by all citizens of the State of Alaska. The framers of UCAN want to ensure that the State Board of Game, sport hunters, and others know that the people of Anaktuvuk Pass are concerned about their food security. The study discovered that the local community of Anaktuvuk Pass wants outside agencies to know how and why caribou are important to them. Local governing bodies such as the Nagragmiut Tribal Council can and should be taught to develop PowerPoint presentations using their own images, and local storytellers provided avenues to express their concerns. The residents of Anaktuvuk Pass want to be the first to use the caribou as a food resource to protect their food security, and they want to be able to successfully articulate that concern.