• Adverse Childhood Experiences and Their Association with Alcohol Abuse by Alaska Adults

      Rivera, Marny; Sidmore, Patrick (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-15)
      This article examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) — such as abuse and household dysfunction in childhood — and its association with adoption by Alaska adults of the health-risk behaviors of heavy and binge drinking. The behavioral health of Alaskans could be improved by addressing the association between ACEs and health-risk drinking behaviors, and establishing an integrated prevention system.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 10, No. 3 (Fall 1993)

      Carns, Teresa W.; Bureau of Justice Statistics (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1993-09-01)
      The Fall 1993 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum describes several Alaska Judicial Council studies which document the increased attention to rural justice from 1987, when more than 100 villages throughout the state lacked resident justice services beyond the presence of a Village Police Officer (VPSO) or Village Public Safety Officer (VPSO), to 1993, with more than 100 tribal courts and councils providing services to residents of their communities. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that In 1991, 2.2 percent of federal and state prison inmates were reported to have the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. Findings from a 1992 assessment review of Alaska criminal history data and Alaska's compliance with the FBI/BJS voluntary reporting standards are described. Statistics from from 1988 to 1992 on murder and nonnegligent manslaughter in Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, and Alaska overall are presented.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 11, No. 4 (Winter 1995)

      Longoria, Carrie D.; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Fenaughty, Andrea M.; Massey, Holly A.; Fisher, Dennis G. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1995-01-01)
      The Winter 1995 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum examines the implementation of Anchorage Police Department’s domestic violence policy, which treats domestic violence cases as criminal offenses and reflects consistent concern for victim safety. During 1993, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 38 men were executed in the U.S.; at year’s end, 34 states and the federal prison system held 2,716 prisoners under sentence of death, 5.3 percent more than at yearend 1992. As part of an national five-year study of drug users, AIDS, and HIV, researchers at the University of Alaska Anchorage have assembled data measuring the risk perceptions of individuals in Anchorage who are at some actual risk for contracting HIV — data which may have some implications for correctional systems.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 32, No 1. (Spring 2015)

      Rivera, Marny; Sidmore, Patrick; Armstrong, Barbara; Periman, Deborah; Myrstol, Brad A.; Payne, Troy C. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-15)
      The Spring 2015 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum presents articles on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and alcohol abuse in adulthood, limiting public access to criminal records, police–public contacts in Anchorage, and officer-involved shootings in Anchorage.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 35, No. 1 (Summer 2018)

      UAA Justice Center; Cravez, Pamela; Williams, Paula (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-07-16)
      The Summer 2018 print edition of the Alaska Justice Forum focuses on environmental justice, exploring the ongoing challenges of cleaning up contaminated sites in Alaska in terms of the costs of cleanup and long-term impacts upon people and the environment. Alaska is ranked third in the U.S. for Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties. Most of these properties are in remote locations, placing a disproportionate impact on Alaska Native communities that depend upon environmental resources for their livelihood. This issue also looks at expanded eligibility and increased limits on Brownfields Program funds, which provide monies for assessment and cleanup of contaminants on property targeted for redevelopment. The Summer 2018 online edition includes all print stories, one of which has been expanded.
    • An Analysis of Outpatient Accident Trends in Two Dry Eskimo Towns as a Measure of Alternative Police Responses to Drunken Behavior

      Conn, Stephen; Boedeker, Bonnie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-03-24)
      Two rural Eskimo towns of approximately 3,000 persons each have banned the sale but not the use of alcoholic beverages in their communities. In the town of Bethel, police pick up intoxicated persons and transport them to a sleep-off and treatment center. In the town of Barrow, police take intoxicated persons into protective custody. Each town uses its police practice as an alternative to arrests for drunken behavior, decriminalized by the 1972 Alaska State Legislature. At least half of the adult population is picked up in each place. The authors seek to measure the impact of these differing approaches on violence related to alcohol use by employing Indian Health Service data in lieu of poorly maintained police data.
    • Anchorage Community Survey: Community Satisfaction with Emergency Medical Services

      Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2003-09)
      This issue of Anchorage Community Indicators Series 1, "Anchorage Community Survey," presents results taken from a telephone survey conducted by the Justice Center in the spring of 2003 focusing on respondents' satisfaction with emergency medical services in the Municipality of Anchorage.
    • Baseline Assessment: Alaska's Capacity and Infrastructure for Prescription Opioid Misuse Prevention

      Elkins, Amanda (Center for Behavioral Health Research & Services, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-08-01)
    • Baseline Opioid Survey: Access, Consumption, Consequences, and Perceptions among Young Adults in Alaska

      Barnett, Jodi (Center for Behavioral Health Research & Services, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-05-01)
    • Examining the sustainability potential of a multisite pilot to integrate alcohol screening and brief intervention within three primary care systems.

      King, Diane; Hanson, Bridget (Oxford Academic, 1/23/2018)
      The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that clinicians adopt universal alcohol screening and brief intervention as a routine preventive service for adults, and efforts are underway to support its widespread dissemination. The likelihood that healthcare systems will sustain this change, once implemented, is under-reported in the literature. This article identifies factors that were important to post implementation sustainability of an evidence-based practice change to address alcohol misuse that was piloted within three diverse primary care organizations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded three academic teams to pilot and evaluate implementation of alcohol screening and brief intervention within multi clinic healthcare systems in their respective regions. Following the completion of the pilots, teams used the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool to retrospectively describe and compare differences across eight sustainability domains, identify strengths and potential threats to sustainability, and make recommendations for improvement. Health systems varied across all domains, with greatest differences noted for Program Evaluation, Strategic Planning, and Funding Stability. Lack of funding to sustain practice change, or data monitoring to promote fit and fidelity, was an indication of diminished Organizational Capacity in systems that discontinued the service after the pilot. Early assessment of sustainability factors may identify potential threats that could be addressed prior to, or during implementation to enhance Organizational Capacity. Although this study provides a retrospective assessment conducted by external academic teams, it identifies factors that may be relevant for translating evidence-based behavioral interventions in a way that assures that they are sustained within healthcare systems.
    • The Feasibility of Adopting an Evidence-Informed Tailored Exercise Program within Adult Day Services: The Enhance Mobility Program.

      King, Diane; Faulkner, S.A.; Hanson, Bridget (Taylor & Francis Group, 11/29/2017)
      This article uses the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the feasibility of implementing Enhance Mobility (EM), a tailored, evidence-informed group exercise and walking program for older adults with dementia, into an adult day services center. Participant physical performance outcomes were measured at baseline and 8 months. Program staff were interviewed to understand implementation challenges. Participant outcomes did not change significantly, though gait speed improved from limited to community ambulation levels. Implementation challenges included space reallocation and adequate staffing. Adopting EM in adult day services is feasible, and has potential to reach older adults who could benefit from tailored exercise.
    • The Future of Disability in Alaska Summit & Follow-up Survey

      Center for Human Development, University of Alaska Anchorage (Center for Human Development, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2013-12)
      The Future of Disability in Alaska Summit was held in Anchorage in the summer of 2013, May 9-10. The purpose was to gather perspectives from a diverse group of stakeholders to inform a vision of the future for people with disabilities in Alaska in five broad topical areas: 1) Housing Arrangements, 2) Advocacy, 3) Relationships, 4) Economic Wellbeing, and 5) Health. About 76 stakeholders participated in the summit including people with disabilities, family members, advocates, service providers, policymakers, and others. A follow-up online survey was conducted to gather information from a broader range of stakeholders and to get a sense of the highest priorities in each area. The purpose of the report and other products coming out of this effort is to inspire stakeholders to periodically reflect, individually and in groups, on how they are working toward the vision in a relevant area and taking action in the context of advocacy, policy/regulation, funding, and services/resources. The report states a vision for each of the five topical areas and includes many suggested strategies to accomplish it.
    • How Has the 80th Percentile Rule Affected Alaska's Health-Care Expenditures?

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 5/16/2018)
      We use the Health Expenditures by State of Residence data (1991-2014) compiled by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to examine the causal effect of the 80th percentile rule on Alaska's health care expenditures. We find evidence that Alaska's expenditures would have been lower in the absence of rule. The share of the overall increase in expenditures that we attribute to the 80th percentile rule is between 8.61% and 24.65%. It is important to note that using expenditures as a proxy for costs has limitations as it is the product of both quantity of services used and prices.
    • Lessons Learned from Community-Based Participatory Research: Establishing a Partnership to Support Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Aging-in-Place.

      King, Diane (PubMed, 6/1/2017)
      BACKGROUND: Due to a history of oppression and lack of culturally competent services, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) seniors experience barriers to accessing social services. Tailoring an evidence-based ageing in place intervention to address the unique needs of LGBT seniors may decrease the isolation often faced by this population. OBJECTIVE: To describe practices used in the formation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR), partnership involving social workers, health services providers, researchers and community members who engaged to establish a LGBT ageing in place model called Seniors Using Supports To Age In Neighborhoods (SUSTAIN). METHODS: A case study approach was employed to describe the partnership development process by reflecting on past meeting minutes, progress reports and interviews with SUSTAIN's partners. RESULTS: Key partnering practices utilized by SUSTAIN included (i) development of a shared commitment and vision; (ii) identifying partners with intersecting spheres of influence in multiple communities of identity (ageing services, LGBT, health research); (iii) attending to power dynamics (e.g. equitable sharing of funds); and (iv) building community capacity through reciprocal learning. Although the partnership dissolved after 4 years, it served as a successful catalyst to establish community programming to support ageing in place for LGBT seniors. CONCLUSION: Multi-sector stakeholder involvement with capacity to connect communities and use frameworks that formalize equity was key to establishing a high-trust CBPR partnership. However, lack of focus on external forces impacting each partner (e.g. individual organizational strategic planning, community funding agency perspectives) ultimately led to dissolution of the SUSTAIN partnership even though implementation of community programming was realized.
    • Long-Term Impacts of Environmental Contaminants Are ‘Generational Game Changer’

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-07-16)
      Most Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties are in remote locations, placing a disproportionate impact on Alaska Native communities that depend upon environmental resources for their livelihood. After the 1972 closure of a U.S. Air Force base that had operated for 20 years on St. Lawrence Island, residents of the Yup'ik village of Savoonga began to experience a higher incidence of cancer, lower birth-weight babies, and higher numbers of miscarriages. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers eventually spent $125 million cleaning up the abandoned base. But there are concerns about continued impact from environmental contamination. While state and federal health studies recommend continued reliance upon traditional foods based on locally harvested berries, fish, and wildlife, St. Lawrence Island community members fear those foods may be contributing to elevated levels of PCBs and higher cancer rates.
    • Minimal Intervention Needed for Change: Definition, Use, and Value for Improving Health and Health Research

      King, Diane (PubMed, 2014-03-01)
      Much research focuses on producing maximal intervention effects. This has generally not resulted in interventions being rapidly or widely adopted or seen as feasible given resources, time, and expertise constraints in the majority of real-world settings. We present a definition and key characteristics of a minimum intervention needed to produce change (MINC). To illustrate use of a MINC condition, we describe a computer-assisted, interactive minimal intervention, titled Healthy Habits, used in three different controlled studies and its effects. This minimal intervention produced modest to sizable health behavior and psychosocial improvements, depending on the intensity of personal contacts, producing larger effects at longer-term assessments. MINC comparison conditions could help to advance both health care and health research, especially comparative effectiveness research. Policy and funding implications of requiring an intervention to be demonstrated more effective than a simpler, less costly MINC alternative are discussed
    • Opioid prevention: Is it working for young adults?

      Barnett, Jodi; Richie, Andrew; Hanson, Bridget (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1/22/2020)
    • Preventive Screenings Gap Analysis

      Frazier, Rosyland; Guettabi, Mouhcine; Wheeler, John; Cueva, Katie (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2013-10-01)
    • Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking.

      King, Diane (PubMed, 7/14/2015)
      BACKGROUND: Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. METHODS: We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. RESULTS: All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had way finding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. CONCLUSIONS: Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking.