• Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 14, No. 3 (Fall 1997)

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-09-01)
      The Fall 1997 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum summarizes major findings of the final report of the Alaska Supreme Court Advisory Committee on Fairness and Access, reporting that the committee received few complaints of intentional racial or cultural bias by the court system, but learned about areas of unintentional bias, cultural misunderstandings, inadequate services, and lack of accessibility. Many of the committee's findings have relevance to justice system agencies beyond the court system. A Justice Center study of 28,618 referrals to the Alaska juvenile justice system found considerable disparity between white and minority youth in the rate at which they were referred, the frequency of their referrals, and the types of offenses which brought them to the attention of juvenile justice personnel.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 15, No. 1 (Spring 1998)

      King, Rachel; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-03-01)
      In the Spring 1998 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum, an assistant public defender who served from 1991 to 1994 in three jurisdictions in rural Alaska — Ketchikan, Kodiak, and Kotzebue — focuses on the situation of rural Alaska Natives to describe how several structural aspects of the criminal justice may contribute to the overrepresentation of Alaska Natives in the Alaska prison system. The second phase of a Justice Center study of racial disproportionality in juvenile referrals in Alaska looks at 33 youth who had five or more referrals, examining individual criminal histories and family backgrounds as revealed in the files, and notes noted that juveniles from rural communities sometimes received referrals for behavior that would have been handled informally in urban settings.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 15, No. 3 (Fall 1998)

      UAA Justice Center; Bureau of Justice Statistics (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-09-01)
      A study of Alaska prisoners, described in the Fall 1998 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum, finds that long-term inmates in Alaska prisons show evidence of having experienced a high rate of abuse during their childhoods; the study examined the issue of a “cycle of violence” and sought out correlates of abuse which may have an impact on offense patterns or inmate behavior. A Bureau of Justice Statistics report finds that the number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of federal or state correctional systems grew 5.2 percent during 1997. An Alaska Judicial Council study of felony probation revocation cases found that the reasons for revocation of probation status for Alaska Natives did not differ from those underlying revocation for non-Native offenders, but did find some difference by ethnicity for the original conditions of probation.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 20, No. 4 (Winter 2004)

      Rosay, André B.; Moras, Antonia (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-01-01)
      The Winter 2004 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum features articles on forcible rapes and sexual assaults reported to Anchorage Police Department in 2000–2001, the growth of prison populations in the U.S., a review of an Alaska Judicial Council study of felony case process, options for indigent defense in Alaska, and dispositions of sexual assault cases in Alaska.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 23, No. 2 (Summer 2006)

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2006-06-01)
      The Summer 2006 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum focuses on juvenile justice, with articles on the disproportionate referral of minority youth to the Alaska juvenile justice system, Alaska and national figures for juvenile arrests from 1995 to 2004, and a look at juvenile detention facilities in Alaska.
    • Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 24, No. 3 (Fall 2007)

      Periman, Deborah; Rosay, André B.; Snodgrass, G. Matthew; Evans, Shel L. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2007-09-01)
      The Fall 2007 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum features articles on the collateral consequences of criminal conviction in Alaska, results of an Alaska Judicial Council evaluation of the Alaska Court System's three felony-level therapeutic courts, disproportionate minority contact within the juvenile justice system in Fairbanks North Star Borough, and results of a community survey in Matanuska-Susitna Borough.
    • A Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-03)
      A data set comprised of all juveniles referred to Alaska youth corrections in the fiscal years 1992–1996 shows disproportionate referral of Alaska Native and African American youth when compared to their proportions in the general population. Minorities also appear more likely than white youth to accumulate multiple referrals. Random samples selected within each racial group are used to seek extra-legal factors which may account for some of the disparity. Information on family and home life, school, personal problems, and the details of each referrals and each referral outcome were extrapolated from the files of the sample which included 39 white youth, 35 Alaska Native youth, and 37 African American youth. Special attention was paid to youth who accumulated multiple referrals.
    • Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska: Phase II Report

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-05)
      Phase I of this study analyzed data on over 28,000 referrals to the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS) for 1992–1995 to provide comparative information on referrals of Alaska Native, African American, and white youth to the Alaska juvenile justice system. In Phase II, a stratified sample of 112 individual files was examined in an attempt to identify factors, such as race, residence in rural or urban locations, alcohol involvement, age at first referral, family and living situations, and local priorities which might be associated with the decision to refer a child to DFYS. This examination supported the previous finding that minority youth, including Alaska Natives, were more likely than white youth to accumulate referrals. Native youth were also more likely to accumulate alcohol-related referrals, particularly at the village level, Alaska Native juveniles may be receiving referrals in rural areas for behaviors that would be ignored or dealt with more informally by urban police. Furhter, youth who had multiple referrals tended to have more unstable home lives than those with fewer referrals, regardless of racial or ethnic identities.
    • Disposition of Sexual Assault Cases

      UAA Justice Center (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-03)
      This article summarizes findings on cases involving sexual offenses from the Alaska Judicial Council study Alaska Felony Process: 1999 (February 2004). (The full Judicial Council report is available online at http://www.ajc.state.ak.us/reports/Fel99FullReport.pdf.) The study examined the original single most serious charge and determined its final disposition. Twelve percent of felony cases included a sexual offense as the original single most serious charge. Charges for sexual abuse of a minor were more likely to be convicted as sexual offenses than sexual assault charges (and were less likely to be convicted as misdemeanors). * The most frequent original single most serious charges included sexual abuse of a minor in the second degree (Class B felony), sexual assault in the second degree (Class B felony), sexual assault in the first degree (Unclassified felony), and sexual abuse of a minor in the first degree (Unclassified felony). * Eighty-one percent of charges for sexual abuse of a minor in the second degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Forty-one percent were convicted as sexual abuse of a minor in the second degree. Thirteen percent were convicted as misdemeanors. * Fifty-five percent of charges for sexual assault in the second degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Seventeen percent were convicted as sexual assault in the second degree. Thirty-four percent were convicted as misdemeanors. * Fifty percent of charges for sexual assault in the first degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Nine percent were convicted as sexual assault in the first degree. Twenty-two percent were convicted as misdemeanors. * Eighty-four percent of charges for sexual abuse of a minor in the first degree were convicted as sexual offense charges. Twenty-one percent were convicted as sexual abuse of a minor in the first degree. Five percent were convicted as misdemeanors.
    • Disproportionate Detention of Minorities: A Case Study of One State's Compliance with the Mandates of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1996-03)
      Pursuant to Section 223(a)(23) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, states must examine whether minority youth are disproportionately detained in relation to their proportion in the general population. For a preliminary assessment of Alaska’s compliance, five and a half years of detention data (1990–June 1995) for the state of Alaska are analyzed to assess the detention of minority and non-minority youth. A number of factors are used to compare racial groups: type of offense, prior record, gender, age, length of detention, etc.
    • Disproportionate Minority Processing of Females: A Comparison of Native, Black and White Juveniles

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-11)
      An examination of four years of statewide female juvenile referral data showed that Native girls are referred in disproportionate numbers and tend to have lengthier records. Underage drinking was one of the most frequent referral reasons. Because many of the Native females were from rural communities, the disproportionate referrals may be a factor of the smallness of the communities, in which misbehavior is more readily noticed. Examination of a subset of files for girls with multiple referrals showed that the actual behavior was often not particularly grave and that many of the girls with multiple referrals came from very unstable backgrounds.
    • Is Race a Factor in Disparate Health Problems Associated with Violence Against Women?

      Rivera, Marny; Garcia, Gabriel (Center for Health Disparities Research School of Community Health Sciences University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2014-12-01)
      Research studies examining the health correlates of violence against women have consistently demonstrated associations between violence and poor health outcomes, but have not examined a disparate impact on racial minorities. Alaska Victimization Survey data (2010) were used to examine whether a disparate relationship between victimization and health problems exists for minority women relative to White women. The Alaska Victimization Survey (AVS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to provide baseline estimates of intimate partner and sexual violence for Alaskan women. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of experiencing various health problems given race and exposure to violence status while holding age and education constant. This study found that victimization increased the odds of health problems for all women, but significantly more so for minority women. Based on allostatic load theory, minority women who are victims of violence may be more likely to experience poor health outcomes because of the compounding effects of life stressors on neural, endocrine, and immune systems. Policy and practice implications of the study findings suggest preventing and reducing violence against all women, and for informed physicians to screen patients for abuse histories and refer to appropriate counseling and other stress reduction resources.
    • The Pre-Law Introductory Program: A Report

      Sanborn, Lois; Havelock, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-09)
      This report describes an intensive four-week Pre-Law School Introductory Program offered in August 1980 by the Justice Center at University of Alaska, Anchorage to potential law school candidates from Alaska, focusing on Alaska Natives and members of other ethnic minorities. Two possible directions for further development of this pre-law program are discussed.
    • A Preliminary Examination of Minority Referrals to the Alaska Juvenile Justice System

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard W.; Atwell, Cassie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-10)
      The disproportionate processing of minorities in the justice system has been noted with growing concern nationally as well as at the state level. In Alaska, as in other states, the primary basis for concern is that minorities are overrepresented among the adult prison population. The realization that this disproportionality appears in other justice system venues has led nationally to a number of research initiatives with a focus on the overrepresentation of juveniles. This paper analyzes referral data from the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS) for 1992–1995 to provide a statistical overview of disproportionate minority contact in the Alaska juvenile justice system, providing comparative data for referrals of Alaska Native, African American, and white youth.
    • Race and Record: A Study of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-09)
      The disproportionate representation of minorities in the justice system of the U.S. has been viewed with growing alarm by both researchers and policymakers. Studies of the problem tend to focus on African Americans and on the end points of the process — sentencing disparities and, especially, sentences to death at the adult level and on court outcomes and detention decisions at the juvenile level. The research presented here explores the relationship between race and prior record using juvenile referral data from Alaska. White, Alaska Native, and African American youth are compared using four years of statewide data. The research includes an in-depth examination of the files of a sample of the juveniles referred to the Alaska juvenile justice system in order to better assess the relationship between race and record.