• A Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-03)
      A data set comprised of all juveniles referred to Alaska youth corrections in the fiscal years 1992–1996 shows disproportionate referral of Alaska Native and African American youth when compared to their proportions in the general population. Minorities also appear more likely than white youth to accumulate multiple referrals. Random samples selected within each racial group are used to seek extra-legal factors which may account for some of the disparity. Information on family and home life, school, personal problems, and the details of each referrals and each referral outcome were extrapolated from the files of the sample which included 39 white youth, 35 Alaska Native youth, and 37 African American youth. Special attention was paid to youth who accumulated multiple referrals.
    • Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska: Phase II Report

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-05)
      Phase I of this study analyzed data on over 28,000 referrals to the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS) for 1992–1995 to provide comparative information on referrals of Alaska Native, African American, and white youth to the Alaska juvenile justice system. In Phase II, a stratified sample of 112 individual files was examined in an attempt to identify factors, such as race, residence in rural or urban locations, alcohol involvement, age at first referral, family and living situations, and local priorities which might be associated with the decision to refer a child to DFYS. This examination supported the previous finding that minority youth, including Alaska Natives, were more likely than white youth to accumulate referrals. Native youth were also more likely to accumulate alcohol-related referrals, particularly at the village level, Alaska Native juveniles may be receiving referrals in rural areas for behaviors that would be ignored or dealt with more informally by urban police. Furhter, youth who had multiple referrals tended to have more unstable home lives than those with fewer referrals, regardless of racial or ethnic identities.
    • Disproportionate Detention of Minorities: A Case Study of One State's Compliance with the Mandates of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1996-03)
      Pursuant to Section 223(a)(23) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, states must examine whether minority youth are disproportionately detained in relation to their proportion in the general population. For a preliminary assessment of Alaska’s compliance, five and a half years of detention data (1990–June 1995) for the state of Alaska are analyzed to assess the detention of minority and non-minority youth. A number of factors are used to compare racial groups: type of offense, prior record, gender, age, length of detention, etc.
    • Disproportionate Minority Processing of Females: A Comparison of Native, Black and White Juveniles

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-11)
      An examination of four years of statewide female juvenile referral data showed that Native girls are referred in disproportionate numbers and tend to have lengthier records. Underage drinking was one of the most frequent referral reasons. Because many of the Native females were from rural communities, the disproportionate referrals may be a factor of the smallness of the communities, in which misbehavior is more readily noticed. Examination of a subset of files for girls with multiple referrals showed that the actual behavior was often not particularly grave and that many of the girls with multiple referrals came from very unstable backgrounds.
    • Potentially Discriminatory Criminal Justice Agency Policies

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-11)
      This report describes potential sources of discrimination in the Alaska criminal justice system related to agency policies and procedures. The study relied on policy and procedural manuals and other written materials describing operational practices and organizational and management information about criminal justice operations. The report identifies policy areas in law enforcement, the legal and judicial system , corrections, and systemwide which provide the highest potential for discrimination on the basis of race, sex, economic condition, or other characteristics.
    • A Preliminary Examination of Minority Referrals to the Alaska Juvenile Justice System

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard W.; Atwell, Cassie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-10)
      The disproportionate processing of minorities in the justice system has been noted with growing concern nationally as well as at the state level. In Alaska, as in other states, the primary basis for concern is that minorities are overrepresented among the adult prison population. The realization that this disproportionality appears in other justice system venues has led nationally to a number of research initiatives with a focus on the overrepresentation of juveniles. This paper analyzes referral data from the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS) for 1992–1995 to provide a statistical overview of disproportionate minority contact in the Alaska juvenile justice system, providing comparative data for referrals of Alaska Native, African American, and white youth.
    • Race and Record: A Study of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-09)
      The disproportionate representation of minorities in the justice system of the U.S. has been viewed with growing alarm by both researchers and policymakers. Studies of the problem tend to focus on African Americans and on the end points of the process — sentencing disparities and, especially, sentences to death at the adult level and on court outcomes and detention decisions at the juvenile level. The research presented here explores the relationship between race and prior record using juvenile referral data from Alaska. White, Alaska Native, and African American youth are compared using four years of statewide data. The research includes an in-depth examination of the files of a sample of the juveniles referred to the Alaska juvenile justice system in order to better assess the relationship between race and record.