• Aboriginal Rights in Alaska

      Conn, Stephen (VWGO-Verlag, 1987-12)
      This paper describes the current state of aboriginal rights in Alaska and the impact of federal and state laws and policies on Alaska Native political and legal rights, tribal status, self-determination, and access to tribal lands. Topics covered include the legal determination of Alaska Native identity, the legal status of Alaska Native groups, Alaska Native land rights, sovereignty and self-government, subsistence, recognition of family and kinship structures, the criminal justice system in rural Alaska, customary versus formal legal process, and human rights and equality before the law.
    • Alcohol Control Policies and American Indian Communities

      Berman, Matthew (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2001)
      Alcohol control policies such as taxation, restricting access by youth, or outright prohibition change the supply conditions for alcohol. That is, they aim to reduce the amount that becomes available for people to consume at whatever price level. Alternatively, they may be seem to raise the cost to consumers for obtaining any given quantity (figure l). The figure shows that a control policy such as a tax on alcohol would raise the cost to consumers and therefore reduce consumption....In the final analysis, alcohol control is only one of many opportunities to empower communities. But alcohol control can contribute to community empowerment. How one controls alcohol is likely to be as important, if not more important, than the type of policy implemented.
    • Changing Urban Police: Practitioners' View

      Igleburger, Robert M.; Angell, John E.; Pence, Gary (U.S. Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, 1973-06)
      Police administrators are responsible for providing a police operation that serves the public needs. On the surface, this responsibility appears to be simple enough; however, the realities encountered in operationalizing it are enormously complex. It is the purpose of this paper to review and analyze urban policing and suggest methods that police administrators can use to improve the effectiveness of their police organizations.
    • The Chaninik Wind Group

      Schwoerer, Tobias; Meiners, Dennis; Fay, Ginny (UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, 2011)
      The Chaninik Wind Group project, a collaboration between Native communities in remote areas of Alaska that harnesses wind power to reduce energy costs, promotes self sufficiency and economic development
    • Chapter 6: Vegetation

      Berman, Matthew; DeVelice, Robert; Hollingsworth, Teresa Nettleton; Bella, Elizabeth; Carlson, Matthew L.; Clark, Paul; Barrett, Tara; Hayward, Gregory D.; Lundquist, John; Magness, Dawn Robin; et al. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 2016)
      This assessment evaluates the effects of future climate change on a select set of ecological systems and ecosystem services in Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula and Chugach National Forest regions. The focus of the assessment was established during a multi-agency/organization workshop that established the goal to conduct a rigorous evaluation of a limited range of topics rather than produce a broad overview. The report explores the potential consequences of climate change for: (a) snowpack, glaciers, and winter recreation; (b) coastal landscapes and associated environments, (c) vegetation, (d) salmon, and (e) a select set of wildlife species. During the next half century, directional change associated with warming temperatures and increased precipitation will result in dramatic reductions in snow cover at low elevations, continued retreat of glaciers, substantial changes in the hydrologic regime for an estimated 8.5 percent of watersheds, and potentially an increase in the abundance of pink salmon. In contrast to some portions of the Earth, apparent sealevel rise is likely to be low for much of the assessment region owing to interactions between tectonic processes and sea conditions. Shrubs and forests are projected to continue moving to higher elevations, reducing the extent of alpine tundra and potentially further affecting snow levels. Opportunities for alternative forms of outdoor recreation and subsistence activities that include sled-dog mushing, hiking, hunting, and travel using across-snow vehicles will change as snowpack levels, frozen soils, and vegetation change over time. There was a projected 66-percent increase in the estimated value of human structures (e.g. homes, businesses) that are at risk to fire in the next half century on the Kenai Peninsula, and a potential expansion of invasive plants, particularly along roads, trails, and waterways.
    • Economic Impact of Studded Tires in Alaska

      Larson, Eric (University of Alaska School of Engineering, 2002)
      Studded tires in Alaska create economic impacts for vehicle owners, the government and the community as a whole. For each of these groups this chapter describes and estimates the economic impacts of studded tires. These impacts include spending for studded tires, revenues collected from the tire tax, the costs of road maintenance, and the savings from traffic crashed avoided by the use of studded tires.
    • From Northern Village to Global Village

      Hudson, Heather (Global Telecom Women's Network, 2012)
      The digital divide, which originally signifed the gap between those with Internet acces and those without, now applies to broadband. As other software and applications, such as health records, government documents, and educational materials are moving to the cloud rather than being installed on local devices, people in developing regions will need affordable broadband to access them.
    • Justice

      Angell, John E. (Alaska Legislative Council, 1980-01)
      This issue paper, prepared for the Future Frontiers Conference held December 5-8, 1979 in Anchorage to provide guidance to the legislature regarding allocation of North Slope oil revenues, discusses the quality of justice services provided in Alaska and the relative equity in which they are delivered throughout the state and suggests improvements.
    • Measuring and Correcting Response Heaping Arising From the Use of Prototypes

      Schmidt, Jennifer; Beaman, Jay; Vaske, Jerry; Huan, Tzung-Cheng (Taylor and Francis, 2015-04-01)
      Imprecision in respondent recall can cause response heaping in frequency data for particular values (e.g., 5, 10, 15). In human dimensions research, heaping can occur for variables such as days of participation (e.g., hunting, fishing), animals/fish harvested, or money spent on licenses. Distributions with heaps can bias population estimates because the means and totals can be inflated or deflated. Because bias can result in poor management decisions, determining if the bias is large enough to matter is important. This note introduces the logic and flow of a deheaping program that estimates bias in means and totals when people use approximate responses (i.e., prototypes). The program can make estimates even when spikes occur due to bag limits. The program is available online, and smooths heaps at multiples of 5 (numbers ending in 5 and 0) and 7 (e.g., 7, 14, 21), and produces standard deviations in estimates.
    • Measuring Community Adaptive and Transformative Capacity in the Arctic Context

      Berman, Matthew; Kofinas, Gary; BurnSilver, Shauna (Springer International Publishing Inc., 2016-12-01)
      Adaptive capacity (AC) plays a prominent role in reducing community vulnerability, an essential goal for achieving sustainability. The related concept, transformative capacity (TC), describes a set of tools from the resilience paradigm for making more fundamental system changes. While the literature appears to agree generally on the meaning of AC and TC, operational definitions vary widely in empirical applications. We address measurement of AC and TC in empirical studies of community vulnerability and resilience, with special attention to the problems of arctic communities. We discuss how some challenges follow from ambiguities in the broader vulnerability model within which AC is embedded. Other issues are more technical, such as a confounding of stocks (capacity) with flows (time-specific inputs or outcomes). We view AC and TC as forms of capital, as distinct from flows (i.e., ecosystem services, well-being), and propose a set of sequential steps for measuring the contribution of AC and TC assets to reducing vulnerability. We demonstrate the conceptual application in a comparative analysis of AC in two arctic Alaska communities responding to an increase in the price of fuel. The comparative case study illustrates some key empirical challenges in measuring AC for small arctic communities.
    • Reflections on the Surplus Economy and the Alaska Permanent Fund

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute for Public Economics (University of Alberta), 2001)
      The Alaska Permanent Fund was created in 1977, shortly after oil form Alaska's North Slope began flowing to market through the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. It was originally envisioned to serve two general purposes - to set aside a share of oil revenues for the benefit of future generations of Alaskans after the depletion of the oil reserves, and to keep a share of oil revenues out of the hands of the current generation of politicians who could be counted to spend it on wasteful government operations and capital expenditures....The issue is how to design a set of public fiscal institutions that, taking this new revenue into account, will maximize long-term social welfare. Paper presented at a conference held at the University of Alberta, Sept. 2001.
    • Smooth the Dying Pillow: Alaska Natives and Their Destruction [chapter]

      Conn, Stephen (VWGÖ-Verlag, 1990)
      The policy for Native self-determination in Alaska developed by the Congress and the state has sought to replace a tribal model of governance with a body of legislation which confirms land rights without the direct political involvement of Alaska Native villages. However, the author argues, the absence of tribes as formal political structures has contributed to a loss of self-determination among Alaska Natives and to serious negative effects on Native village life.