• 2014 Alaska Native Studies Conference Program

      UAS Organizing Committee (2015-08-20)
    • 2015 Alaska Native Studies Conference Program

      Alaska Native Studies Conference Organizing Committee (2015-03-06)
    • Alaska Native Studies 2015 Foreword

      Topkok, Sean Asiqłuq (2015-03-06)
      The 2014 Alaska Native Studies Council (ANSC) Conference was held in March in Fairbanks, Alaska. There were approximately 300 conference participants from local, statewide, and national attendees. The participants were scholars, Elders, students, and organizations who promote a deeper and more sustained commitment to integrating Indigenous perspectives into a variety of educational settings. The Alaska Native Studies Council’s mission is to identify, develop, and implement Native‐focused curricula, to promote and publish Alaska Nativerelated research and pedagogical strategies, and to develop a strategic plan to help us attain these goals.
    • Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [chapter]

      Conn, Stephen (Foris Publications, 1985)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Changing Markets for Alaska Roe Herring

      Johnson, Terry; Knapp, Gunnar (University of Alaska Sea Grant College Program (grant no. NA86RG-0050, project A/151-01), 2000)
      The Pacific herring fishery is one of Alaska’s most important commercial fisheries, with average annual landings during the 1990s of 47,100 tons, an average ex-vessel value of $28.9 million, and an average first wholesale value of $80.1 million. Although total landings have been relatively stable, ex-vessel prices and ex-vessel value are highly variable, and declined during the 1990s. This paper examines factors affecting the prices paid for Alaska herring.
    • Cooperative Cross-Cultural Instruction: The Value of Multi-cultural Collaboration in the Coteaching of Topics of Worldview, Knowledge Traditions, and Epistemologies

      Arevgaq, Theresa John; Koskey, Michael (2016-03-06)
      For four years (2011, 2013, 2014, 2015) two faculty members of the University of Alaska Fairbanks’ Center for Cross-cultural Studies have collaborated to co-teach a course entitled Traditional Ecological Knowledge (CCS 612). This course examines the acquisition and utilization of knowledge associated with the long-term habitation of particular ecological systems and the adaptations that arise from the accumulation of such knowledge. Intimate knowledge of place—culturally, spiritually, nutritionally, and economically for viability—is traditional ecological knowledge, and this perspective is combined with the needs of an Indigenous research method to better understand and more effectively explore the proper role of traditional knowledge in academic, cross-cultural research. This presentation and paper explores the strategies tested and lessons learned from teaching students from a wide variety of academic and cultural backgrounds including the social and life sciences, and the humanities, and from Indigenous and non-Indigenous cultural origins. The instructors, too—and most importantly for this endeavor—come from an Indigenous (John) and non-Indigenous (Koskey) background, and though hailing from very different cultures and upbringings work collaboratively and with genuine mutual respect to enable an understanding of variations of traditions of knowledge and their application to academic research.
    • Ecology, Economics, Politics, and the Alaska Forest Industry

      Knapp, Gunnar (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station., 2000)
      Ecology, economics, and politics together define and constrain opportunities for the Alaska forest products industry. Ecology limits potential timber harvest paths and non-timber benefits over time. One kind of ecological limit is the tradeoff between potential harvest levels over time. Another kind of ecological limit is the tradeoff between timber harvests and non-timber forest benefits such as fish and wildlife and scenery. The tradeoffs we make between ecologically possible levels of timber harvests over time and ecologically possible combinations of timber and non-timber benefits are political decisions. Ecology sets broad limits to possible Alaska timber harvest paths over time. But within these broad ecological limits are narrower political limits that reflect the choices we are willing to make about tradeoffs over time and tradeoffs between timber and non-timber benefits.
    • The Economic Impacts of Spatial Closures: Evidence from Stellar Sea Lion Protective Measures in the North Pacific

      Reimer, Matt; Haynie, Alan (International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, 2016-07-11)
    • Globalization and Aquaculture: Challenges, Opportunities, and Questions for the Smoked Seafood Industry

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      The world economy is experiencing far-reaching changes that are collectively referred to as “globalization.” Among the causes and consequences of globalization are increasingly reliance on markets; reductions in trade barriers and expansion of trade; world economic integration in markets for resources, goods, services, labor, and capital; movement of production to low-cost producers; consolidation and integration resulting in larger and more powerful firms operating in many countries; technological revolutions in communications and transportation; growing consumer incomes in developed and developing countries; and increasing consumer expectations for lower prices, convenience, variety, and quality. The world seafood industry is changing rapidly. This paper describes some of the most important changes that are happening and suggests questions people in the smoked seafood industry should be thinking about in order to respond to these changes.
    • Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Cross-Cultural Research

      Barnhardt, Ray (2015-03-06)
      The initiatives outlined in this article are intended to advance our understanding of cultural processes as they occur in diverse community contexts, as well as contribute to the further conceptualization, critique, and development of indigenous knowledge systems in their own right. Just as those same initiatives have drawn from the experiences of indigenous peoples from around the world, the organizations and personnel associated with this article have played a lead role in developing the emerging theoretical and evidentiary underpinnings on which the associated research is based. The expansion of the knowledge base that is associated with the interaction between western science and indigenous knowledge systems will contribute to an emerging body of scholarly work regarding the critical role that local observations and indigenous knowledge can play in deepening our understanding of human and ecological processes, particularly in reference to the experiences of indigenous peoples. This article addresses issues of relevance to underserved populations in Alaska and other geographic regions inhabited by indigenous peoples. It provides a much-needed impetus toward organizing research and education support structures that contribute to the broadening of an infrastructure fostering the use of multiple knowledge systems and diverse approaches to research. The international scope of the initiatives described provides multiple benefits derived from the economies of scale associated with linking numerous small-scale populations, as well as increased applicability of outcomes associated with the extensive opportunities for cross-cultural comparison.
    • Insights and Strategies for Confronting Violence: Conference Proceedings

      Johnson, Knowlton W.; Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, School of Justice, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-06)
      This volume collects 25 papers based on presentations at the 1982 Conference on Violence sponsored by the Justice Center at University of Alaska Anchorage, which was held October 11–13, 1982 in Anchorage. Part I, “Violent Behavior and Contributing Factors,” presents papers focusing on sexual abuse, police violence, and political violence. Additionally, firearms, alcohol, and the media are discussed as contributing factors to violence. Part II, “Control, Treatment and Prevention of Violence,” highlights traditional and alternative strategies for combating violence. In particular, research findings and models are presented that center on domestic violence, sexual abuse, violent juvenile and adult crime, crime against children, and the criminally insane. Part III, “Victims of Violence,” gives attention to traditional victim services as well as proposals for alternative programs for victims of violence. In addition, there is a discussion of people experiencing homelessness as victims of violence. Part IV, “Public Policy and Violence,” focuses on macrolevel issues of violence. The lead article presents a policy perspective in connection with violence in Northern Canada. Other issues addressed in the remaining articles are public policy and victims of violence, resource management and violence control, legal ramifications of censoring violence in the media, and use of research in combating violence.
    • Oceans, Watersheds and Humans: Facts, Myths and Realities

      Huntington, Henry; Colt, Steve (2002)
      Alaskans expect a great deal from their oceans and watersheds. Commercial fishing, sport fishing, subsistence hunting, recreation, offshore oil and gas development, transportation, and tourism are among the many ways the oceans, coast, watersheds, and their resources are used. These activities, however, can strain or break the capacity of the ecosystem to sustain them and they are not always compatible. Conflicts and controversies between different user groups are increasingly common. The role of societal forces in shaping the human-aquatic relationship is often under-appreciated, but can be critical. Protecting the health of Alaska’s oceans and watersheds requires managing the interactions between humans and those eco­systems, based on an understanding of the dynamics of both the natural and the social sys­tems involved. This paper provides an introductory look at the relationship between humans and the oceans and watersheds of Alaska. We begin by characterizing various aspects of the human interaction with oceans, followed by a critical look at five “myths” concerning oceans and watersheds.
    • Options For Restructuring Alaska Salmon Fisheries

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      The paper provides a very brief introduction to the very complicated topic of options for restructuring Alaska salmon fisheries. By "restructuring" we mean any change in the rules affecting how, where, when, and by whom, salmon are harvested in Alaska. The main goal of this paper is to show that there are many different ways to go about restructuring. the choices are not simply between broad options such as "permit stacking" or "buybacks" or "co-ops", but also - and critically - how those options are designed and implemented. Prepared for a panel discussion for the Alaska Legislature's Fish Caucus on "Restructuring the Salmon Industry: A discussion of Fishery Management Models".
    • Punishment in Pre-Colonial Indigenous Societies in North America [chapter]

      Conn, Stephen (De Boeck Université, 1991)
      Using northern Athabascan villages as examples, the author discusses how punishment in indigenous societies was traditionally interwoven with other societal functions. The influence of alcohol and the western legal process changed post-colonial societies and their methods of punishment because punishment decisions in indigenous societies were traditionally arrived at through group deliberation, whereas the western legal system works in a hierarchical fashion. The author concludes that imposition of western-style decision-making disrupted tradtional law ways in post-colonial society.
    • Why Did They Do That? An exploration of explanations as to why Europeans behave as they have towards Native People

      Kaliss, Tony (2015-03-06)
      The purpose of this paper is to encourage deeper understanding of the Native- European interaction by focusing on the question of Why Europeans acted as they did towards Native peoples. I encourage this because I'm not satisfied with the answers I have seen to this question, because answering it is central to understanding the Native- European interaction, and, lastly, because exploring and answering this Why has become timely and essential. Being dissatisfied, it follows I provide my own Why answer--and I do so below. However, it became clear in developing this paper that just as important, perhaps even more so for encouraging a deeper understanding, is an exploration of the process of how this basic question has been approached. This led me to several other Why questions: Why hasn't the basic issue of European motivations been more fully explored, considering the enormous amount that has been said and written about the Native- European interaction? Why have so few writers, Native or non-Native, even asked Why? Why do people begin to ask Why at a certain point in time and not another? And why are the Why's offered inadequate--in my opinion? All this led me to structure the paper as follows. First are some comments about levels of knowledge. Second, I report on a survey of the works of 14 writers in which it might be expected that the Why question would be taken up, which means discussing both the absence and the presence of Why answers. Third, I critique the several Whys I did find. Fourth, I give my own Why answer. And Fifth, I suggest some reasons why the Why question has not been more asked or explored.