• Aboriginal Rights in Alaska

      Conn, Stephen (VWGO-Verlag, 1987-12)
      This paper describes the current state of aboriginal rights in Alaska and the impact of federal and state laws and policies on Alaska Native political and legal rights, tribal status, self-determination, and access to tribal lands. Topics covered include the legal determination of Alaska Native identity, the legal status of Alaska Native groups, Alaska Native land rights, sovereignty and self-government, subsistence, recognition of family and kinship structures, the criminal justice system in rural Alaska, customary versus formal legal process, and human rights and equality before the law.
    • The Aborigine in Comparative Law: Subnational Report on Alaska Natives

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1986-08)
      This paper describes the current state of aboriginal rights in Alaska and the impact of federal and state laws and policies on Alaska Native political and legal rights, tribal status, self-determination, and access to tribal lands. Topics covered include the legal determination of Alaska Native identity, the legal status of Alaska Native groups, Alaska Native land rights, sovereignty and self-government, subsistence, recognition of family and kinship structures, the criminal justice system in rural Alaska, customary versus formal legal process, and human rights and equality before the law.
    • About the Authors

      ANSC (2015-08-20)
    • Academy Expands Medical Forensic Care and Response

      Casto, L. Diane; Trujillo, Angelia (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2019-09-12)
      The Alaska Comprehensive Forensic Training Academy, the first of its kind in the nation, trains nurses and health care providers to support victims of interpersonal violence in a trauma-informed manner and to preserve potential evidence and information for future prosecutions.
    • Accessing Permanent Fund Earnings to Reduce the Fiscal Gap

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-02-04)
    • ACES vs MAPA (SB21): Revenues and Jobs

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-06-25)
    • ACI Technical Report: Initial Measures Derived from Census

      Langworthy, Robert H. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2006-06-09)
      The decennial census provides a wealth of information about communities that has been mined by social scientist for decades. The purpose of this technical report is to describe an initial set of measures taken from or derived from the 2000 U.S. Census in an effort to develop a statistical description of Anchorage communities for use with the Anchorage Community Indicators project of the University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center. The initial set of measures isolated from census are inspired by two principal bodies of work: (1) the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, an exceptionally well endowed research effort that took neighborhood measurement very seriously; and, (2) Peter Blau’s work that specifies parameter of social structure, heterogeneity, and inequality. The focus of the paper is on documenting how the measures were formed from 2000 Summary File 3 census tables. However, measures without conceptual content are of little value. Accordingly, the paper will offer a brief introduction to the derivative works (PHDCN, Blau) and then follow with a fairly detailed presentation of each measure (what concept is addressed, how it is measured, how the measure is distributed across block group and census tracts, and isolation of the census tables providing essential counts).
    • "Activating" Park Spaces in Anchorage’s Town Square Park (Research Note)

      Payne, Troy C.; Reinhard, Daniel (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-11-06)
      This brief research note describes an intervention designed to increase activity in Anchorage's Town Square Park in an effort to reduce public disorder in the park. An abbreviated evaluation of the intervention is included.
    • Acute Kidney Injury: Continuous Quality Improvement for Systems Change

      Bassett, Robin (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is reduced kidney function over hours to days which can be reversible but can lead to renal failure and death. AKI is diagnosed using serum creatinine and urine output but these factors are not sensitive or specific, and no biomarker has been found for more accurate diagnosis. International guidelines for AKI diagnosis and treatment were released in 2012 by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group. Many providers are not aware of AKI and guidelines for treatment have not been implemented in practice. The purpose of this continuous quality improvement (CQI) project was to improve healthcare team member knowledge of AKI Guidelines and to develop electronic health records (EHR) tools to improve AKI recognition and diagnosis. EHR tools were developed for implementation during a two-month CQI practice initiative. An Excel spreadsheet for AKI diagnosis and EHR renal protection protocols were created and tested. Updates were made to the tools to allow ease of use based on interprofessional feedback. A trifold AKI educational pamphlet was developed following implementation to fill gaps in knowledge. The interprofessional critical care team survey reported the tools were helpful in facilitating AKI recognition and management according to published guidelines. More work is needed to find sustainable and significant improvements in AKI recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. AKI guidelines should be disseminated to non- nephrology professionals after revision to allow for increased diagnosis and management of this critical and common problem.
    • ADAM-Anchorage Data: Are They Representative?

      Myrstol, Brad A.; Langworthy, Robert H. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2005-03)
      This paper presents the results of a study designed to assess the representativeness of realized samples of recent arrestees selected for the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program in Anchorage, Alaska. Because one of the most important goals of the ADAM program is to produce scientific information on the prevalence of alcohol and drug use behaviors among arrestees that is generalizable to an entire local arrestee population, establishing the representativeness of realized samples (or isolating inherent biases) is an essential first step to meaningful use of these data to address locally defined problems. In order to determine the reasonableness of inferences grounded in realized samples of ADAM respondents, an analysis was done comparing various characteristics between each stage of the sample selection process including the census of eligible arrestee population, the designed ADAM arrestee sample, arrestees available for interview, arrestees actually interviewed (“realized” sample), and arrestees that provided urine sample (“realized” sample). If the realized samples are similar to the census we can have a greater degree of confidence in our capacity to describe the population of Anchorage arrestees using ADAM data. Also, if it happens that departures are detected between realized samples and the arrestee census we are better positioned to condition the inferences made by integrating these discerned biases into our conclusions.
    • Adapting to Environmental and Social Change: Subsistence in Three Aleutian Communities

      Schmidt, Jennifer; Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-04-19)
      Our surroundings and society are both constantly evolving. Some changes are due to natural processes. People are responsible for other changes, because of what we do—for example, increasing the size of the population, expanding technology, and increasing mobility and connectivity. And some changes—like climate change—are due to a combination of natural processes and actions of people. In the Arctic, including the Aleutian Islands, marine and coastal ecosystems have seen the largest number of regime shifts with direct and indirect consequences for subsistence activities, commercial fisheries, and coastal communities (Council 2016). This paper describes current subsistence activities and changes local residents have observed over time in three Aleutian Island communities—Akutan, Nikolski, and Atka. As described more later, we did initial household surveys in 2016 and a second round in 2017, as well as more detailed interviews with some residents.
    • Adult Violent and Property Crime Arrests in Alaska, 2002-2010

      Parker, Khristy (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-07-01)
      This research overview presents data on adult arrests and arrest rates for serious violent and property crimes in Alaska known to police from 2002 to 2010. Figures presented, from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program, are for the eight serious offenses defined as Part I offenses: murder/non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Alaska figures for 2010 are compared with those for five other western U.S. states — Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.
    • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Their Association with Alcohol Abuse by Alaska Adults

      Rivera, Marny; Sidmore, Patrick (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-15)
      This article examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) — such as abuse and household dysfunction in childhood — and its association with adoption by Alaska adults of the health-risk behaviors of heavy and binge drinking. The behavioral health of Alaskans could be improved by addressing the association between ACEs and health-risk drinking behaviors, and establishing an integrated prevention system.
    • The African: Debunking the Stereotypes

      Abam, Ruddy (University of Alaska Anchorage Student Life and Leadership: Student Showcase, 2013-04-30)
      These visuals represent the video: THE AFRICAN: Debunking the Stereotype, by Ruddy Abam, that explore the labels and definitions given to african men and women, mainly by the western world and western cultures. As the video rolls, it narrates the various stereotypes that the African deals with, accompanied by Macklemore’s Same Love: (partial Instrumental) in the background and a descriptive overvoice by the author Ruddy Abam.
    • After Broadband: A Study of Organizational Use of Broadband in Southwest Alaska

      Hudson, Heather E.; Sharp, Suzanne; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-01)
      The purpose of this research was to gain a preliminary understanding of how organizations including large and small businesses, Native corporations and organizations, and local and regional governments are using broadband that is now available in much of southwest Alaska. To learn about community access to broadband, interviews were also conducted with library and school staff in communities where broadband had been installed under the OWL (Online with Libraries) program. Further, the study identifies research from other sources that could help to predict what socio-economic impacts the availability and adoption of broadband may have in rural Alaska. Financial institutions use online connections for teller services and credit and debit card processing, and stated that more people in rural communities now have debit cards that they can use for online purchases and bill paying. Large retailers use online services for payroll, for pointof-sale (POS) transactions, and online ordering. Seafood processors rely heavily on connectivity with their head offices (generally in the lower 48) for administrative services including payroll, accounting, shipping and receiving, purchasing, and ERP (enterprise resource planning), and access data base software to track fish tickets. Seafood processors also provide Internet access for their employees, most of whom are seasonal and from other states or countries. Tourism businesses use broadband for online reservation systems and for guests, who increasingly demand connectivity even for remote vacations. Village corporations and tribal councils use online services to help their residents obtain hunting and fishing licenses and fishing permits, to learn about funding opportunities, and to file reports on grants. Local Governments connect online for interoffice communications and for payroll and other administrative functions. Other online applications and services include providing remote desktop access from other agency sites, use of online tools for land management and mapping, training including webinars for workforce development, and providing access to social services for clients. An economic development organization sends newsletters to communities electronically and packets of documents to its board members rather than relying on fax or courier. Websites are important for tourism-related businesses to advertise and promote their businesses and for nonprofits and local governments to provide information about their services. 5 Broadband now plays many roles in rural education. Most students are required to use the Internet for class assignments. High school students can connect to classes in advanced subjects in other communities, and may complete online courses for college credit. Libraries remain important locations for community access, with residents going online to connect with friends on Facebook, as well as to download content for e-books, file income tax, and apply for jobs and government benefits. School and library Wi-Fi provides access inside and near the buildings for residents with smartphones. Despite enthusiasm for broadband and the adoption of many broadband-based applications and services, most organizations interviewed identified problems with broadband, particularly with the pricing, stating that the terrestrial broadband network is too costly for them to take full advantage of online services and applications. While the scope of this study was too limited to estimate long-term benefits, it found that broadband is highly valued and increasingly important to businesses and nonprofit organizations and local governments in southwest Alaska. Broadband helps businesses to be more efficient in their operations and to extend their reach to new customers and suppliers. It also helps to improve the effectiveness of public sector services such as those provided by borough and city governments and extends access to education and training. Broadband is also likely to be an important component of strategies to develop ecotourism and other ecosystem services.
    • Alaska 1332 Waiver - Economic Analysis

      Bibler, Andrew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-23)
      The four guardrails that a successful 1332 waiver must meet are as follows: 1. Coverage - There must be at least a comparable number of individuals with coverage under the waiver as would have had coverage without the waiver. 2. Affordability – The waiver should not result in an increase in out-of-pocket spending required of residents to obtain coverage, relative to income. 3. Comprehensiveness – The waiver should not decrease the number of individuals with coverage that meets the essential health benefits (EHB) benchmark. 4. Deficit Neutrality – The waiver should not have any negative impact on the federal deficit. In this report, the first three guardrails are briefly discussed to reaffirm that the actuarial analysis conducted by Oliver Wyman demonstrates that the proposed waiver meets them. The actuarial report from Oliver Wyman projects that the proposed waiver will increase the number of individuals taking up insurance in the individual market, lower average premiums, and have no impact on the comprehensiveness of coverage. The numbers reported in the actuarial analysis are then used to help evaluate the impact that the proposed waiver will have on the federal budget.
    • Alaska 1332 Waiver- Economic Analysis

      Bibler, Andrew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      The four guardrails that a successful 1332 waiver must meet are as follows: 1. Coverage - There must be at least a comparable number of individuals with coverage under the waiver as would have had coverage without the waiver. 2. Affordability – The waiver should not result in an increase in out-of-pocket spending required of residents to obtain coverage, relative to income. 3. Comprehensiveness – The waiver should not decrease the number of individuals with coverage that meets the essential health benefits (EHB) benchmark. 4. Deficit Neutrality – The waiver should not have any negative impact on the federal deficit. In this report, the first three guardrails are briefly discussed to reaffirm that the actuarial analysis conducted by Oliver Wyman demonstrates that the proposed waiver meets them. The actuarial report from Oliver Wyman projects that the proposed waiver will increase the number of individuals taking up insurance in the individual market, lower average premiums, and have no impact on the comprehensiveness of coverage. The numbers reported in the actuarial analysis are then used to help evaluate the impact that the proposed waiver will have on the federal budget. There are at least four ways in which the waiver will have an important impact on the federal budget, which are summarized in Table 1. Table 1: Impact of Proposed Waiver on Budget Direction of Effect APTC Savings + Individual Shared Responsibility Payments - Health Insurance Providers Fee - Federal Exchange User Fees - Overall Impact on Budget + The first and most important impact of the waiver is that it will lead to a reduction in premiums. The reduction in premiums reduces the amount of Advanced Premium Tax Credits (APTC) that individuals will be eligible for and generates savings of $50 - $100 million per year from 2018 through 2026. There are also three routes through which the waiver will negatively impact the budget by decreasing revenue: individual shared responsibility payments, health insurance providers fees, and federal exchange user fees. Because the waiver will lead to more individuals taking up insurance in the individual market, fewer individuals will owe 2 Attachment 4 Alaska 1332 Waiver - Economic Analysis December 23, 2016 the individual penalty for not having health insurance. The health insurance providers fee depends on the amount of premiums aggregated to the national level. Because the waiver depresses premiums in the Alaska individual insurance market, it will have a secondary negative effect on the total amount collected through the providers fee for years 2019 through 2026. Lower premiums also reduce the amount collected in federal exchange user fees, a 3.5% tax imposed on premiums sold through the Federally Facilitated Marketplace. The aggregate impact on the budget is positive, because the APTC savings outweigh the combined negative impact of the other three channels. Table 2 summarizes the aggregate impact of the four components on the federal budget. Year Final Savings 2016 $0 2017 $0 2018 $48,973,684 2019 $52,260,336 2020 $56,108,411 2021 $61,486,732 2022 $65,612,013 2023 $72,213,851 2024 $77,717,467 2025 $84,814,665 2026 $91,785,506 Table 2: Estimated Savings from Waiver (Before Pass-Through Funding) The overall impact through these four components is about $49 million in savings in 2018. Savings increase in every year thereafter, reaching nearly $92 million in 2026. The savings listed in Table 2 are before the granting of any pass-through funding, so they suggest that as long as pass-through funding is less than or equal to these figures, the proposed waiver will meet the federal deficit neutrality requirement.
    • Alaska After Prudhoe Bay: Prospects for the Economy

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-04-23)
    • Alaska after Prudhoe Bay: Sustainability of an Island Economy

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-03)
      The typical sovereign island economy is small and remote. For example the remote island nations of Nauru, Niue, and Saint Helena have populations in the range of 10 thousand each. Of course not all island nations are small or remote and neither are small or remote economies necessarily islands. However it is useful to think about the economies of small and remote islands because they can help us to understand the economic structure and prospects of larger and less remote places. Island economies generally lack a comparative advantage in the production of goods or services for export to the rest of the world. This is due to distance from markets and suppliers as well as an absence of economies of scale and specialization, both of which drive up the cost of exporting goods and services. And although the economic theory of comparative advantage tells us that trade among countries can occur even if one has an advantage in the production of all goods and services, that theory can break down if costs in the small and remote economy are too high. The mechanism by which the island economy gains access to export markets in the presence of high costs is through downward adjustment in the wage. But in some cases the wage would need to become negative to overcome the cost disadvantages created by distance and size. In such a case the island would have a subsistence economy with neither exports to the rest of the world or imports. The most important private economic activities one observes in these economies are agriculture and fishing. Occasionally an island economy will be able to take advantage of a market niche to generate exports. Tourism is the most common, and mining has provided an export base in some other places. However these market activities will not necessarily be large enough to employ a large share of the population. Furthermore dependence on a single activity leaves these economies vulnerable or “precarious”.As a consequence many of these economies are dependent on foreign aid and remittances from emigrants. These funds allow these economies to purchase a basic level of imports that would not otherwise be possible
    • Alaska Arctic: Improving Awareness & Broadening Partnerships

      Robinson, James (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-29)