• E2E Program

      Spalinger, Don; Piccard, LuAnn; Stuart, Charlie; Kamberov, George (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-29)
    • Early Childhood Community Intervention: Preventing Neighborhood Factors of Crime and Delinquency.

      Abam, Ruddy Sirri-Akonwi (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-10-28)
      The social and political public health model established by States to separate and isolate criminals from society has for many decades given way to policies that support and have resulted in the large-scale use of incarceration as a means of punishment for major crimes as well as minor offenses. Most prevention strategies focus on adolescence and adulthood as cases of serious offenses continue to increase across the nation. Such approaches may be lacking additional significant mechanisms to interrupt and prevent the propensity for crime earlier in children’s lives; mechanisms which will determine if children will be future successes in society or adults within the confines of the Criminal Justice System. This review will further underscore the key factors in early childhood development that subject children to quality-of-life-crime and delinquency in the future. Based on analysis of existing literature from Criminology, Psychology and Education, this work will further examine the community-based prevention programs which seek to improve the effects of those neighborhood factors of crime. This review further focuses on programs that have demonstrated long-standing effectiveness at deterring prospective delinquent behavior and life-long association with the system. Programs that foster education services, family value and stability, as well as favorable social behavior early on, reduces a child’s probability for delinquency. There exists beneficial evidence of the cost effectiveness of neighborhood prevention strategies that outweigh the high steadily growing costs of incarceration on our nation. Programs within the framework of community-based prevention not only address factors of crime such as poverty, but also the environmental causes of quality-of-life crimes by focusing on stabilizing communities, promoting family support and combining structure with early education activities. Neighborhood crime prevention efforts have emerged as major alternatives to the Criminal Justice System, to alter and deter early crime paths which lead to adult entanglement with the system. The crucial economic features of life for many poor communities puts them at higher risks of association with the Justice system while high rates of exposure for children, especially boys and young men in those poor communities continually proves to be the norm. These measures demonstrate assurance in reducing the present-day catastrophic impressions of delinquency and relations with crime on America’s children and families. To employ this public health model of neighborhood-based prevention, we must think beyond the usual tough on crime control model, which favors methods of increased detainment and incapacitation as means of deterrence. Efforts should rather be based on the transformative policy implications of early prevention mechanisms in communities across the nation which prove to better serve the necessity to prevent crime.
    • Early college placement testing: Outcomes and impacts of the Early ACCUPLACER partnership

      DeFeo, Dayna Jean (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-03-31)
      The Early ACCUPLACER Program was administered in partnership between the University of Alaska (UAA) and Anchorage School District (ASD) between 2006 and 2013. Using the UAA placement test (ACCUPLACER) as an instructional tool, the program intended to help students understand the differences between high school graduation requirements and college-level coursework. Test scores were used to advise students to take more rigorous high school curricula so they would be better prepared for the academic expectations of the college environment. In its seven years of operation, the program served thousands of ASD students. This report reviews Early ACCUPLACER test scores and subsequent academic performance for high school juniors and seniors who tested in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 academic years. The data show that, at the time of testing, many of those high school students’ test scores would place them into developmental classes in college. This analysis was unable to examine high school transcripts to see whether or not students heeded advice to take additional and more rigorous high school courses; however, by following the participants who subsequently attended college in the UA system1, the data show: • Students who participated in the program did not exhibit substantively higher college placement test scores than other incoming students who did not receive the intervention. • Most students who participated in the program performed better on the test at the time of college matriculation than when they took it in high school, but the increases in performance, on average, were not large enough to change their recommended course placements. For approximately a quarter of students, test performance decreased between high school and college. • Upon matriculation, more students needed developmental coursework in math than in English or reading. • Upon attending college, between two-thirds and three-quarters of the Early ACCUPLACER program participants performed well enough in their first year to meet eligibility requirements for federal financial aid. • Persistence rates for Early ACCUPLACER participants were slightly higher than the overall UAA rates; however they were similar to other recent high school graduates, who tend to have higher persistence rates than nontraditional-aged students. The data suggest that the program did not significantly impact the college readiness or later college performance for its participants who later attended UA. However, the data and literature suggest opportunities to use high school-college partnerships as part of a robust outreach agenda. Recommendations include evaluating the relationship between high school course-taking behavior and college readiness, and broadening the definition of “college readiness” to include other attributes known to promote success.
    • Early Resolution for Family Law Cases in Alaska's Courts

      Marz, Stacey (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-09-22)
      The Early Resolution Program (ERP), the first program of its kind in the nation, was developed by the Alaska Court System's Family Law Self-Help Center to provide self-represented litigants in family law cases with free legal assistance and mediation to help resolve issues and reach settlements without protracted court trials. This article discusses the ERP's goals and development, describes how cases are screened and processed, and presents ERP statistics though August 2014.
    • Ecology, Economics, Politics, and the Alaska Forest Industry

      Knapp, Gunnar (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station., 2000)
      Ecology, economics, and politics together define and constrain opportunities for the Alaska forest products industry. Ecology limits potential timber harvest paths and non-timber benefits over time. One kind of ecological limit is the tradeoff between potential harvest levels over time. Another kind of ecological limit is the tradeoff between timber harvests and non-timber forest benefits such as fish and wildlife and scenery. The tradeoffs we make between ecologically possible levels of timber harvests over time and ecologically possible combinations of timber and non-timber benefits are political decisions. Ecology sets broad limits to possible Alaska timber harvest paths over time. But within these broad ecological limits are narrower political limits that reflect the choices we are willing to make about tradeoffs over time and tradeoffs between timber and non-timber benefits.
    • Economic Analysis of an Integrated Wind-Hydrogen Energy System for a Small Alaska Community

      Colt, Steve; Gilbert, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-12)
      Wind-hydrogen systems provide one way to store intermittent wind energy as hydrogen. We explored the hypothesis that an integrated wind-hydrogen system supplying electricity, heat, and transportation fuel could serve the needs of an isolated (off-grid) Alaska community at a lower cost than a collection of separate systems. Analysis indicates that: 1) Combustible Hydrogen could be produced with current technologies for direct use as a transportation fuel for about $15/gallon-equivalent; 2) The capital cost of the wind energy rather than the capital cost of electrolyzers dominates this high cost; and 3) There do not appear to be diseconomies of small scale for current electrolyzers serving a a village of 400 people.
    • Economic Analysis of Future Offshore Oil & Gas Development: Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, and North Aleutian Basin

      Goldsmith, Scott; Cuyno, Leah; Kovacs, Kent; Mundy, Nancy; Bunger, Anne; McCoy, Terri (Northern Economics (in association with ISER), 2009)
      This study describes and quantifies the potential economic benefits to the State of Alaska and local communities from developing oil and gas resources in Alaska’s Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas. The findings of this study are not predictions of the future for Alaska, but rather they describe a reasonable approach that one might expect for OCS development. The findings also provide a basis for thinking about potential actions that state and local governments, industry, and other stakeholders might undertake to deal most effectively with the effects that do occur. While there have been other studies in the past that looked at the potential effects of OCS development, this study is based on more recent information and represents the current state of knowledge in OCS resource estimates, exploration, development, and production activities; recent technology improvements; and state and local government fiscal systems. The economic benefits described here are based on assumptions about when and how OCS development, as well as other economic development in the state, might occur during the next 50 years. The magnitude of the economic effects of OCS development are contingent on assumptions about petroleum prices, volumes of OCS resources that might be economically recoverable, the levels of investment that the petroleum industry would be willing to spend to develop in the OCS areas, and the fiscal regime or tax structure that would be in effect as OCS oil and gas development occurs.
    • Economic and Demographic Projections for Alaska and Greater Anchorage 2010–2035

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-12)
      This report describes three economic, demographic, and fiscal projections for the state of Alaska and the Greater Anchorage region consisting of the Municipality of Anchorage and the Matanuska- Susitna Borough. These projections have been prepared by the Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) of the University of Alaska Anchorage as part of the development of the Seward Highway to Glenn Highway Connection (H2H) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Department of Transportation and Facilities. These projections will be used to estimate future travel demand within the study area. The assumptions driving the three projections were developed by ISER in consultation with the study team and planners and economic development staff from Anchorage and Mat-Su. The BASE CASE projection is driven by a set of assumptions that together represent a likely future scenario for employment and population growth. The HIGH and LOW CASES are each driven by a set of assumptions that together represent the range of possible outcomes around the likely BASE CASE. The assumptions are based upon the best information available at the time that they were developed—the fall of 2009. The economic and demographic projections, contingent upon the assumptions for the different cases, were prepared using the MAP economic and demographic model developed by ISER. The main body of this report is a description of each of the three projection cases. This is followed by short sections comparing the three projections to one another and to an earlier projection prepared by ISER for KABATA (Knik Arm Bridge and Toll Authority) in 2005. There is also a brief description of the structure of the MAP model. A number of appendices contain detailed tables of model output as well as a detailed description of the assumptions for each of the three cases.
    • Economic and Social Impacts of BSAI Crab Rationalization on the Communities of King Cove, Akutan, and False Pass

      Lowe, Marie; Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      This report examines economic and social impacts of the first two years of crab rationalization on the Aleutians East Borough communities of King Cove, Akutan and False Pass. The study was conducted by the University of Alaska Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) for the Aleutians East Borough (AEB) and the City of King Cove. Crab rationalization resulted in dramatic consolidation in Bering Sea crab fisheries. During the first two years of rationalization, consolidation reduced the number of boats participating in the Bristol Bay Red King Crab fishery and the Bering Sea Snow Crab fishery by about two-thirds. This consolidation in the fleet, and the corresponding reduction in crab fishing jobs and crab boat spending, was a major immediate short-term factor driving economic impacts on the three study communities to date. Longer-term concerns of community residents extend beyond these immediate economic impacts to many other issues. The report is based on a literature review, interviews conducted during visits to each study community, analysis of federal and state and local fisheries data and community data, and a household survey conducted by the City of King Cove. The primary focus of the study is on King Cove, because it is a larger community which has experienced greater effects of crab rationalization.
    • Economic and Social Impacts of the Copper River Highway - Volumes 1-4

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1993-06-01)
    • The Economic Benefits of Public Transportation in Anchorage

      Killorin, Mary; Larson, Eric; Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2006)
      Public transportation in Anchorage benefits transit riders and the entire community in many different ways: All forms of transit provide access to jobs, medical services, social services, shopping, recreation, and participation in the community. This enables more people to work and to spend more in the local economy. The bus system, AnchorRIDES, and Share-A-Ride (including the Van Pool) programs enable many car owners to use these alternatives instead of driving. This reduces the number of vehicles on the roads and, consequently, the costs of traffic congestion, pollution, traffic collisions, parking, and traffic services. People Mover and AnchorRIDES buses also provide essential low-cost transportation services for workers, students, tourists, low- income residents, people with disabilities, and elderly residents. This improves the quality of life and economic well-being of these groups. Public transit also contributes to economic development, improved environmental quality, better public health, land use, and improved quality of life. This report describes and quantifies many types of public transit benefits. Sections II and III provide an overview of the current level of transit services. Sections IV, V, and VI present the estimation of benefits to users, society, and the community. Section VII discusses how benefits would increase as a result of different types of ridership increases. Section VIII presents a calculation of the economic significance of the inputs used in the operation of the transit system.
    • The Economic Case for a Pandemic Fund

      Berry, Kevin (Springer, 5/21/2018)
      The rapid urban spread of Ebola virus in West Africa in 2014 and consequent breakdown of control measures led to a significant economic impact as well as the burden on public health and wellbeing. The US government appropriated $5.4 Billion for FY2015 and WHO proposed a $100 Million emergency fund largely to curtail the threat of future outbreaks. Using epidemiological analyses and economic modeling, we propose that the best use of these and similar funds would be to serve as global insurance against the continued threat of emerging infectious diseases. An effective strategy would involve the initial investment in strengthening mobile and adaptable capacity to deal with the threat and reality of disease emergence, coupled with repeated investment to maintain what is effectively a �national guard� for pandemic prevention and response. This investment would create a capital stock that could also provide access to safe treatment during and between crises in developing countries, lowering risk to developed countries.
    • The economic contribution of Southeast Alaska's Nature Based Tourism

      Dugan, Darcy (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2004)
      This presentation provides an overview of initial findings and the design of a research project that examines the potential for nature based tourism in a range of Southeast Alaska communities.
    • The Economic Contributions of the Kenai Peninsula Borough School District

      Pitney, Kim; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-06)
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic significance of the Kenai Peninsula Borough School District within the Kenai Peninsula Borough. We use an Alaska-specific Input-Output (I-O) model created by Dr. Scott Goldsmith of ISER, which is custom designed for the Alaska economy to “relate changes in spending in a particular industry to total changes in jobs and income in the Alaska economy.1” In the 2009/2010 school year, the school district directly created 1468.4 jobs, and about $109 million dollars was spent in south central Alaska. Based on the results of the model, this created 628.6 jobs, mostly in the borough, but with some located in Anchorage. These figures highlight the school district's role in the private as well as the public sector of the Kenai Peninsula Borough economy.
    • Economic Development Performance Indicators: 3 Briefing Papers

      Howe, Lance; Leask, Linda; Martin, Stephanie (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2004)
      Recent federal legislation established an economic development committee and 12 regional advisory committees with the Denali Commission. To measure the success of the programs established under these committees, performance indicators and measures are required. This report reviews and inventories exisiting performance measure for rural Alaska as the foundation of a study for new measures.
    • Economic Development Through State Ownership of Oil and Gas: Evaluating Alaska's Royalty-In-Kind Program

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2005)
      Government owners of petroleum subsurface rights often face constituent pressure to exercise control over the disposition of these resources in pursuit of economic development objectives. At the same time, states cannot simply dissipate the potential rent from their resources without losing a principal revenue source. The paper takes a retrospective look at the state of Alaska's policies and programs regarding disposition of oil and gas resources, focusing on the evolution of the royalty-in-kind program. It examines the relative success of different programs in achieving objectives of import substitution and value-added export relative to the cost in foregone revenue. The analysis leads to general conclusions about programs of this type, along with specific insights as the state prepares to embark on the biggest test yet related to the disposition of North Slope natural gas. Prepared for presentation to the Western Regional Science Association Annual Meeting, San Diego, California.
    • Economic Effects of Climate Change in Alaska

      Berman, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer (American Meteorological Society (AMS), 11/27/2018)
      We summarize the potential nature and scope of economic effects of climate change in Alaska that have already occurred and are likely to become manifest over the next 30-50 years. We classified potential effects discussed in the literature into categories according to climate driver, type of environmental service affected, certainty and timing of the effects, and potential magnitude of economic consequences. We then described the nature of important economic effects, and provided estimates of larger, more certain effects for which data were available. Largest economic effects were associated with costs to prevent damage, relocate, and replace infrastructure threatened by permafrost thaw, sea level rise, and coastal erosion. The costs to infrastructure were offset by a large projected reduction in space heating costs attributable to milder winters. Overall, we estimated that five, relatively certain, large effects that could be readily quantified would impose an annual net cost of $340-$700 million, or 0.6 to 1.3 percent of Alaska GDP. This significant, but relatively modest net economic effect for Alaska as a whole obscures large regional disparities, as rural communities face large projected costs while more southerly urban residents experience net gains.
    • Economic Feasibility of North Slope Propane Production and Distribution to Select Alaska Communities

      Schwörer, Tobias; Fay, Ginny (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-06)
      Could propane from Alaska’s North Slope reduce energy costs for electric utilities and residential space heating, water heating, and cooking demands? We explored the hypothesis that propane is a viable alternative for fourteen selected communities along the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, coastal Alaska, and Fairbanks. Our analysis forecasts propane and fuel prices at the wholesale and retail levels by incorporating current transportation margins with recent analysis on Alaska fuel price projections. Annual savings to households associated with converting to propane from fuel oil can be up to $1,700 at $60 per barrel (bbl) of crude oil, and amount to $5,300 at $140 per barrel.1 Fairbanks residents would benefit from switching to propane for all applications at crude oil prices of $60/bbl. Interesting to note is that switching to propane for domestic water heating makes more sense at lower oil prices than conversions for home space heating. Three of the fourteen communities are projected to benefit from switching to propane for home heating at crude oil prices greater than $80 per barrel, and four communities at crude oil prices of more than $110/bbl. On the other hand, nine communities would benefit from conversion to propane for water heating as crude oil prices reach $50 and above. The realized household savings are also sensitive to assumptions surrounding the operating cost of the production facility and barge transportation delivery costs.
    • Economic Impact Analysis Remote Alaska Parks Case Study: Katmai National Park and Preserve

      Fay, Ginny (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-01)
    • Economic Impact of Studded Tires in Alaska

      Larson, Eric (University of Alaska School of Engineering, 2002)
      Studded tires in Alaska create economic impacts for vehicle owners, the government and the community as a whole. For each of these groups this chapter describes and estimates the economic impacts of studded tires. These impacts include spending for studded tires, revenues collected from the tire tax, the costs of road maintenance, and the savings from traffic crashed avoided by the use of studded tires.