• Idea to Invention Project Report

      Aicher, Dan (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-12-17)
      The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) estimates that 1-3% of patented inventions produce profits for the inventor. The cost of filing and examination for a non-provisional patent can range from $2,000 to $10,000 and beyond. ATC Company understands this uncertainty and will undertake a project to invent a new shelter product and determine its marketability, prior to investing in a non-provisional patent. The Idea to Invention project objective is to apply Project Management principles and develop a process for inventing an idea, measuring the idea’s utility and commercial viability as a product, conducting a patent search and producing a thorough Provisional Patent Application. Specifically, the project will deliver both a product line of ATC’s and a process for establishing first to invent rights to patenting the ATC’s function and method of operation. Unlike most recreational tent products available, ATCs do not require a flat or suitable site for setup; rather, ATCs deliver ultralightweight, highly adaptable weather protection and concealment nearly anywhere in the field.
    • Identification and Comparison of Gray Literature in Two Polar Libraries: Australian Antarctic Division and Scott Polar Research Institute

      Carle, Daria O. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-09-15)
      Gray literature collections were investigated and compared at the libraries of the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) and the Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) in order to improve accessibility. These collections are important to Arctic and Antarctic researchers, but are problematic because they are not well documented, often have limited access, and are arranged by subject using a classification system specific to polar libraries. Tangible results of the project include estimates of the number of gray literature items in the polar subject categories for the two libraries, along with a template of a user’s finding aid to these collections. In addition, 172 sources from four Antarctic expeditions in the early part of the 20th century were selected as a representative sample; 64 from AAD and 108 from SPRI. While small, the sample was a focused topic with enough variety of materials to provide good examples for accessibility issues. Inquiries are continually received at AAD and SPRI for information related to these four expeditions, so improved access will be beneficial for both researchers and the two institutions. Making the material more available is also very timely, anticipating renewed interest from the public with the approaching centennial celebrations of two of the expeditions coming up in 2010 and 2011. Despite the similar subject nature of the collections, only ten items were duplicated in the two libraries. Solutions for improving access, such as linking the gray literature collections to broader initiatives are addressed in more detail in the final report. Providing the references in a metadata format to include in an online catalog or linked to a website will increase visibility and use of the materials. Suggestions for improving the arrangement of the materials and reducing duplication within the collections are also discussed in the final report available on my blog. http://www.consortiumlibrary.org/blogs/dcarle/sabbatical/
    • Identifying the Potential for Cross-Fishery Spillovers: A Network Analysis of Alaskan Permitting Patterns, Working Paper, Resources for the Future

      Addicott, Ethan T.; Kroetz, Kailin; Reimer, Matthew; Sanchirico, James N.; Lew, Daniel K.; Huetteman, Justine (Resources for the Future, 2016-12-01)
      Many fishermen own a portfolio of permits across multiple fisheries, creating an opportunity for fishing effort to adjust across fisheries and enabling impacts from a policy change in one fishery to spill over into other fisheries. In regions with a large and diverse number of permits and fisheries, joint-permitting can result in a complex system, making it difficult to understand the potential for cross-fishery substitution. In this study, we construct a network representation of permit ownership to characterize interconnectedness between Alaska commercial fisheries due to cross-fishery permitting. The Alaska fisheries network is highly connected, suggesting that most fisheries are vulnerable to cross-fishery spillovers from network shocks, such as changes to policies or fish stocks. We find that fisheries with similar geographic proximity are more likely to be a part of a highly connected cluster of susceptible fisheries. We use a case study to show that preexisting network statistics can be useful for identifying the potential scope of policy-induced spillovers. Our results demonstrate that network analysis can improve our understanding of the potential for policy-induced cross-fishery spillovers.
    • The Impact of Anchorage's 2000 and 2007 Smoke-Free Policies on Select Restaurants and Bars

      Guettabi, Mouhcine; Frazier, Rosyland; Cueva, Katie; Wheeler, John; Nye, Peggy (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-01)
      The American Lung Association in Alaska (ALAA) asked the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) to investigate the impact of the Anchorage 2000 and 2007 Clean Indoor Air (CIA) municipal ordinances on selected restaurants and bars. As previous U.S. studies have been conducted that speak to the economic and health impacts of CIA laws, ALAA also requested that ISER synthesize results of these existing studies and conduct a survey on restaurant and bar representatives’ perceptions of the impact of the ordinances.
    • Impacts of Fish Waste Piles in Alaska

      Martich, Tara (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      The goal of this practicum project was to complete a meta-analysis and identify the location, size, and impact of fish waste piles on waterbodies in Alaska in one comprehensive report. Data collection for this project included obtaining secondary data from publicly available sources. Alaskan shorebased seafood processing facilities discharge water mixed with fish waste from an outfall(s). Once discharged, buoyant fish waste enters the water column and floats to the surface, while denser fragments sink. Fish waste accumulates on the seafloor and creates fish waste piles. A persistent fish waste pile depletes the oxygen from the water column, smothers benthic invertebrates, alters benthic habitat and creates dead zones, all which lead to changes in the overall ecosystem. As the deposited material breaks down, it produces hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, which may be released into the environment and affect aquatic ecosystem health. Less than fifty percent of the facilities in the data set are in compliance with the requirement to monitor their fish waste piles. At least 115 acres of the Alaska seafloor is covered by fish waste piles and the impacts of these 115 acres are not widely known. The recovery process of benthic communities is typically different than a simple reverse of the pattern observed during its decline. It is unlikely that any benthic community impacted by these fish waste piles will recover to its original state, even if the organic loading ceases.
    • Implementation and Evaluation of a Prescribed Exercise Program Led by a Nurse Practitioner

      Keefer, Leigh Aurora (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      Insufficient physical exercise contributes to many disease processes and increases mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. If the world population were to adhere to recommended levels of physical activity, health outcomes would improve. To that end, clinical practices need to consider exercise interventions to improve patient self-efficacy to adhere to recommended physical activity guidelines. A family nurse practitioner led such an intervention in a primary care clinic in Anchorage, Alaska. It evaluated a prescriptive-exercise program using the Exercise is Medicine® (EIM) guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine. This pilot targeted healthy adults between 18 and 64 years old who were not exercising at least 150 minutes per week. From 20 applicants, eight participants qualified and entered into a 12-week prescribed exercise program. Seven completed the intervention and the subsequent post self-efficacy survey and measurement collection. Measured outcomes were self-efficacy, blood pressure, body mass index and participant’s commitment to follow through with continued exercise. Significant findings from this exercise intervention included (1) increased self-efficacy from “sense of accomplishment”, (2) reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and (3) indications that participants would continue physical activity level per recommended guidelines. It is conclusive that implementation of a prescription-exercise guideline in clinical practice can improve the population’s self-efficacy to adhere to the recommended levels of physical activity, and lower blood pressure. Meeting adequate physical activity levels mitigates disease development, improves health outcomes and reduces health care system costs.
    • An Implementation of Remote Alcohol Monitoring in Alaska

      McKelvie, Alan R. (Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2005-07)
      The Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) system is an ankle bracelet monitoring device implemented for use in 2003–2005 in Anchorage, Palmer, Fairbanks, Bethel, and Kotzebue. The SCRAM devices monitor the wearers' consumption of alcohol through transdermal analysis. By July 2005 there were 130 units in operation in Alaska, with 202 clients participating in the program in 2003 and 2004, and 176 clients in the first half of 2005, when this evaluation took place. Results showed that the devices functioned effectively in Alaska, including in rural areas (using the Alaska satellite telecommunications network), in extreme cold, and under other inclement conditions.
    • Implementation of Shared Medical Appointments to Address Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

      Rife, Jill (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      Metabolic syndrome is a condition in which the components – central adiposity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure - confer increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A pilot clinical practice improvement project was developed and implemented using shared medical appointments to address cardiovascular disease risk in adult patients at a rural health care clinic on the southern Kenai Peninsula, Alaska who met the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. Statistically significant improvement in self-reported minutes of exercise was demonstrated for the nominal group of participants. Participants were at least as satisfied or more satisfied with shared medical appointments compared to traditional medical appointments. Limitations aside, the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) project demonstrated the feasibility of using shared medical appointments to address cardiovascular disease risk in this patient population. There is need for additional research into the “physiology,” or curricular and other structural and procedural elements of shared medical appointments for patients with metabolic syndrome that would afford decreased cardiovascular disease risk. The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) project goals were in accordance with the overarching aims of the National Quality Strategy that build on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Triple Aim – cost-effective, patient-centered, quality care that improves health.
    • Implementing a State Fiscal Plan: Step 1.Tracking Maximum Sustainable Yield

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2013-04-05)
    • Improving Health Care Access for Older Alaskans: What Are the Options?

      Frazier, Rosyland; Foster, Mark A. (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-06)
      This report focuses on the problem older Alaskans who rely on Medicare face getting access to primary care, and discusses some of the options policymakers are considering to resolve the problem. But older Americans across the country also report difficulty getting the primary care they need. The discussion here sheds light on the problem and potential solutions nationwide. Most Americans 65 and older use Medicare as their primary health insurance. Medicare is federal health insurance for people 65 and older, people under 65 with certain disabilities, and people of any age with end-stage renal disease—but this report looks only at access issues for Medicare beneficiaries 65 and older. Doctors don’t have to participate in the Medicare program. But those who do participate have to accept, as full payment, what Medicare pays for specific services. Many primary-care doctors say Medicare doesn’t pay them enough to cover their costs—so growing numbers are declining to see new Medicare patients. Among primary-care doctors nationwide, 61% accept new Medicare patients.1 National surveys sponsored by the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission have found that 17% of Medicare patients in the U.S. had “a big problem” finding family doctors in 2007—up from 13% in 2005.2 In Alaska, a 2008 survey by the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) found that just over half of Alaska’s primary-care doctors were willing to treat new Medicare patients.3 The situation was worse in Anchorage, where 40% of all older Alaskans live. Only 17% of primary-care doctors in Anchorage were willing to treat new Medicare patients as of 2008 (Figure 1).4
    • Improving Teledermatology Utilization in an Alaskan Health Care System

      Rowen, Mary Anne (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2019-05-01)
      The consistent demand for dermatology services, within an Alaskan health care network, warrants an organized, collaborative approach to acquiring a higher capacity of teledermatology consultations. The lack of uniformity among providers for using telemedicine technology in dermatology can hinder cost-saving care. Understanding the obstacles and utilization practices surrounding teledermatology adoption is a crucial objective for a project conducted in an integrated health care system. Devising a protocol with supporting education may reinforce expectations for primary care providers and community health aides and practitioners to be consistent with the utilization of dermatology consultations. A Teledermatology Utilization Project was conducted in an Alaska urban facility to affect change throughout an integrated system. Results indicated a significant increase in teledermatology cases since implementing a protocol and supportive education.
    • In Memoriam [Nancy E. Schafer]

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-02-19)
      Dr. Nancy E. Schafer, a member of the Justice Center faculty from 1983 to 2002, died in September 2013 after an illness. Research publications and papers by Dr. Schafer can be viewed at the Justice Center website.
    • Increasing Food Safety Compliance With Online Resources

      Novak, Amber Cristina (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      Food-borne illness is a top concern for public policy and public health in the U.S., causing nearly 48 million incidents yearly. The number of confirmed food-borne illness outbreaks has declined over recent years as regulation and control measures of the Food and Drug Administration have increased. However, despite increased regulations and decreased outbreaks, there are still a large number of food safety violations, and it is imperative that food service employers continue to encourage good food safety practices. Mandated training has produced varying results on the improved inspection scores of restaurant establishments, but understanding the barriers to food safety and employing food safety intervention measures has had positive results on improving the employees’ food safety compliance behaviors. There is an opportunity to explore new interventions and mediums to increase safe food handling behaviors. This project describes the development of a food safety resource, FoodSafetyKmowledge.org. The site exists as a singular location for managers to find all of the necessary safety and sanitation resources in one accessible and convenient place. The discussion and analysis includes feedback from other food service professionals, and I offer recommendations to improve the site for future use.
    • Increasing Police Utility through Organizational Design

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-11)
      Research by social scientists over the past decade provides strong evidence that American policies concerning police organizational designs have served in many instances to restrict the social usefulness, or utility, of local police operations. Substantial changes in police organizational designs are unlikely to occur unless policymakers have relatively comprehensive and complete models. To satisfy policy officials, a model must be (1) easily understood by laypersons, (2) logically related to definitions of problems acceptable to policymakers, (3) sufficiently defined to provide guidelines for systemic, incremental changes, and (4) adequate to facilitate simple, but accurate, assessment of the impact of changes consistent with the model. This paper is in pursuit of such an alternative model for improving police utility.
    • Index to Volumes 1–10

      UAA Justice Center; Green, Melissa S. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1994-04-11)
      The Alaska Justice Forum began publication in May 1977 under funding from the Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency, Governor's Commission on the Administration of Justice. It was published by the Criminal Justice Center (now the Justice Center) of the University of Alaska Anchorage and was edited by Roger V. Endell, Peter S. Ring, and Paul L. Edscorn. Due to lack of funding it discontinued with the June 1979 issue (Volume 3, Number 6). The Justice Center and the Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit resumed publication of the Alaska Justice Forum under a different format in Spring 1987 (Volume 4, Number 1) with partial funding from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. The Alaska Justice Forum is edited by Antonia Moras. This index includes all articles published in the Alaska Justice Forum from Volume 1, Number 1 (May 1977) through Volume 10, Number 4 (Winter 1994). It was compiled by Melissa S. Green.
    • Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Cross-Cultural Research

      Barnhardt, Ray (2015-03-06)
      The initiatives outlined in this article are intended to advance our understanding of cultural processes as they occur in diverse community contexts, as well as contribute to the further conceptualization, critique, and development of indigenous knowledge systems in their own right. Just as those same initiatives have drawn from the experiences of indigenous peoples from around the world, the organizations and personnel associated with this article have played a lead role in developing the emerging theoretical and evidentiary underpinnings on which the associated research is based. The expansion of the knowledge base that is associated with the interaction between western science and indigenous knowledge systems will contribute to an emerging body of scholarly work regarding the critical role that local observations and indigenous knowledge can play in deepening our understanding of human and ecological processes, particularly in reference to the experiences of indigenous peoples. This article addresses issues of relevance to underserved populations in Alaska and other geographic regions inhabited by indigenous peoples. It provides a much-needed impetus toward organizing research and education support structures that contribute to the broadening of an infrastructure fostering the use of multiple knowledge systems and diverse approaches to research. The international scope of the initiatives described provides multiple benefits derived from the economies of scale associated with linking numerous small-scale populations, as well as increased applicability of outcomes associated with the extensive opportunities for cross-cultural comparison.
    • Indigenous Regulatory Advocacy in Canada’s Far North: Mobilizing the First Mile Connectivity Consortium

      Hudson, Heather E.; McMahon, Robert; Fabian, Lyle (Journal of Information Policy, 2014-05)
      Marginalized groups such as Indigenous communities and residents of remote and rural areas face daunting challenges as they attempt to influence regulatory decision-making. Can these under-resourced groups hope to have their voices heard in regulatory proceedings, in the face of well-funded corporate interests? Applying a participatory research method to regulatory hearings regarding telecommunications services in Canada’s far north, the authors argue that they can, and identify specific strategies and tactics that they can employ when doing so.
    • Indigenous social and economic adaptations in northern Alaska as measures of resilience

      Martin, Stephanie (Resilience Alliance, 2014-12-01)
      I explored one aspect of social-ecological change in the context of an Alaskan human-Rangifer system, with the goal of understanding household adaptive responses to perturbations when there are multiple forces of change at play. I focused on households as one element of social resilience. Resilience is in the context of transition theory, in which communities are continually in a process of change, and perturbations are key points in the transition process. This case study of Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska, USA, contributes to the understanding of cultural continuity and household resilience in times of rapid change by using household survey data from 1978 to 2003 to understand how households adapted to changes in the cash economy that came with oil development at the same time as a crash in the caribou population and state-imposed limits on caribou harvests. The research illustrates that households are resilient in the way they capture opportunities and create a new system so that elements of the old remain while parts change.