• Race and Record: A Study of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-09)
      The disproportionate representation of minorities in the justice system of the U.S. has been viewed with growing alarm by both researchers and policymakers. Studies of the problem tend to focus on African Americans and on the end points of the process — sentencing disparities and, especially, sentences to death at the adult level and on court outcomes and detention decisions at the juvenile level. The research presented here explores the relationship between race and prior record using juvenile referral data from Alaska. White, Alaska Native, and African American youth are compared using four years of statewide data. The research includes an in-depth examination of the files of a sample of the juveniles referred to the Alaska juvenile justice system in order to better assess the relationship between race and record.
    • Readings with Richard, a poem

      Hope, Ishmael Khaagwáask’ (2015-08-20)
    • Recent Graduates of Mt. Edgecumbe: Why Did They Attend and How Has It Affected Their Lives?

      Hirshberg, Diane; DelMoral, Brit (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-04)
    • Recommendations for Updating the Alaska Department of Transportation Construction Project Documentation Manual

      O'Neill, Raymond (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      This project began as work sponsored by a multidisciplinary engineering consulting firm providing construction administration services to the State of Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities (AKDOT). Managers in the firm’s construction administration department requested documentation protocols to assist staff in meeting their clients’ quality assurance objectives and improve the firm’s business performance. Construction administration (CA) refers to managing all project-related functions between parties to a construction contract. CA involves considerable field presence and construction experience. CA includes inspections, quality assurance, site safety, and other construction duties beyond contract administration (Fisk & Reynolds, 2006). The consultant’s AKDOT quality assurance assessments indicate the need for improved project documentation, and project managers realize that improved documentation processes are necessary for effective monitoring, controlling and closing of construction projects. The original scope of this project was to deliver a manual for documenting CA; however, research uncovered existing AKDOT manuals addressing documentation processes for CA. Therefore, the project delivers recommendations for updating the AKDOT Construction Project Documentation procedures manual published by Central Region AKDOT (AKDOT 2013). This manual is one of the resources identified as a reference for CA staff providing CA documentation. The research plan includes methods to identify areas of CA documentation where improvements will be recommended. The research consists of a survey of CA professionals, formal and informal interviews, and a literature review. Recommendations for updating the AKDOT Construction Documentation Manual are provided that will improve documentation quality and project communications, and will reduce the effort currently required for project closeout.
    • Recover Alaska: Healing Alaska's Alcohol Problems

      Rivera, Marny; Hall, Tiffany (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-23)
      This article provides an overview of the strategies being implemented by the Recover Alaska initiative in its mission to reduce excessive alcohol use and related harm in Alaska by influencing social norms and perceptions about alcohol use and abuse. Includes a list of online resources.
    • Recreational Trails Program Applicant Accountability and Process Efficiency Project

      Harris, Darcy B. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-04-01)
      The Recreational Trails Program provides reimbursable grant funding for recreational trail development and repair, and environmental protection and safety/education programs relating to recreational trail use. The Recreational Trails Program Applicant Accountability and Process Efficiency Project developed two tools to improve the effectiveness of the program, New grant applicants and current grantees require clear guidance about state and federal procurement requirements, federal regulations, and programmatic guidelines for the Recreational Trails Program in Alaska. The iterative tool and administrative controls created for this project will help to guide and inform the applicants and add legal protection for the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources (DNR) immediately and into the future. The Application Instruction and Information Manual (Manual) details the rules, regulations, requirements, and processes for compliance surrounding procurement and federal grants and is publically-available for applicants to utilize during the grant cycle. Legal language has been added to the signature page of the application so each applicant understands the importance of compliance and integrity when managing a federal grant. The Manual is intended to be a generalizable tool that will continue to evolve as different groups of stakeholders provide input and feedback with regard to its utility. This project was initiated to assist the majority of grant applicants with processes, regulations, and guidelines, increase comprehension and success, and reduce management time coaching and frustration for applicants. To a lesser degree but intended to mitigate a higher risk, this project researched, created, and added supplementary legal language into the application that will serve to both add a layer of legal protection for the DNR and remind applicants of their fiscal responsibilities when managing federal grant funds. The hypothesis for this project is that when applicants have an improved means by which to meet the requirements of the grant program they will become more self-sufficient, knowledgeable, successful, and compliant. It is the program manager’s responsibility to ensure compliance with federal and state regulations, as well as program guidance, and there are now effective tools and administrative controls to consistently achieve this.
    • Reducing Recidivism in Alaska Throough Access to Extended-Release Injectable Naltrexone

      Green, Jyll K. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      The goal of this evidence-based project was to provide access to extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX) upon release from incarceration for individuals who had a self-identified substance or alcohol abuse history, and evaluate whether or not XR-NTX reduced recidivism in comparison with those who declined to use XR-NTX. This project was completed in collaboration with Partners Reentry Center, located in Anchorage, Alaska, who collected and offered retrospective de-identified data for this project. A total of 98 individuals with a self-identified history of substance or alcohol abuse were offered XR-NTX through Partners Reentry Center from September 15, 2015 to September 15, 2016. Of these, 52 were offered XR-NTX in the first six months of this evidenced-based quality improvement project. Of those who accepted XR-NTX (n = 32), 62% remained in the community at the end of 12 months from project initiation. Of those who declined XR-NTX (n = 20), 95% recidivated. The results of this project demonstrate the benefit of using XR-NTX in released prisoners to reduce recidivism. Implications for use the of XR-NTX in Alaska Department of Corrections inmates and the general population who meet criteria for use should be evaluated.
    • Referrals to the Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice: 2003–2008

      Rosay, André B. (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-10-01)
      This research overview presents statistics on juveniles referred by law enforcement agencies to the Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) from 2003 to 2008. Juveniles are referred to DJJ if there is probable cause that a youth (1) committed an offense which would be criminal if committed by an adult, (2) committed a felony traffic offense, or (3) committed an alcohol offense after two prior convictions in District Court for minor consuming. Adults may be referred to the Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice if their offenses were committed as juveniles.
    • A Regional Assessment of Borough Government Finances And Employment

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-06-01)
      Alaska’s state budget revenues declined by more than 90% from 2012 to 2016, mainly due to a sharp drop in oil prices: oil revenues have paid for most state government operations since the 1980s. This loss of so much revenue has led to a shortfall of billions of dollars in the state budget and a sluggish economy. The health of a state’s tax revenues is critical to its economic growth and ability to finance public services. Considerable attention has been paid to the state’s fiscal woes, which are still ongoing. But the state also provides considerable support to Alaska’s local governments—and there has been little analysis of how the decline of state revenues might affect local governments. This analysis reports how much Alaska’s 19 borough governments rely on state aid—individually and as a group—and considers how vulnerable they are to cuts in state aid as time goes on. Alaska also has city governments, both within and outside organized boroughs, but here we look only at borough governments —which are essentially regional governments that, unlike cities, all have the same mandatory powers. We want to emphasize that our figures are estimates; boroughs report their revenues quite differently, and sometimes in ways that make it nearly impossible to identify allocations from the state. Alaska provides three main kinds of aid to local governments: aid for general government operating expenses (revenue sharing), grants for public works projects, and aid for schools. It has mostly relied on its oil wealth to fund that aid to local governments. Revenue sharing helps ensure that all areas of the state can pay for basic public services and have reasonably equitable and stable local tax rates. Aid to schools is a major part of the state’s budget, and it pays for a large share of school costs. State grants for local capital projects can vary sharply by year. In the years when oil prices were high—much of the time between 2008 and 2012—those grants were large. Since then, the state capital budget has shrunk to a small fraction of what it was a few years back.
    • Reorganizing Business Analysis in an Information Technology Environment

      Dulaney, Carolyn S. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      This project was initiated to identify changes needed for the existing structure of the business analysis process and the organization of Business Analysts within the Information Technology (IT) department of a major financial institution. The organization currently experiences a large number of quality issues that are found after the products are implemented rather than during project Initiation, Planning or Execution phases. This results in re-work costs, shortage of resources for strategic initiatives and issues with both employee morale and customer satisfaction. Management has identified weak business analysis processes as a key driver in the high number of resource hours spent on day-to-day unplanned issues. Analysis of data collected from interviews conducted with a cross-section of the IT staff were used to identify areas to be considered for process improvement. The current state was researched using data obtained from the interview process and data analyzed and prioritized using Cause and Effect Analysis. Pareto and Tornado analysis provided further insights into the data. Using the results of the data analysis, some potential short-term and long-term solutions were selected to address identified weaknesses, and potentially reduce time spent on unanticipated non-discretionary tasks, thereby increasing the availability of resources to address the organization’s key initiatives.
    • Reorganizing Corrections: Revisiting the Recommendations of the National Advisory Commission

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1993-09)
      In 1973 the National Advisory Commission on Standards and Goals recommended that correctional services be consolidated under a single state agency, arguing that cost efficiencies, improved communication, and greater employee professionalism would result. The National Advisory Commission advocated state rather than local control of probation, and executive rather than judicial branch control of probation services. It encouraged development of regional rather than local jails and recommended that states assume the operation and control of all local detention and correctional functions. This paper examines some of the arguments for consolidation of correctional services and attempts to determine the kinds of reorganization that have occurred since 1973.
    • Repeat Maltreatment in Alaska: Assessment and Exploration of Alternative Measures

      Vadapalli, Diwakar; Passini, Jessica (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Most deaths and serious injuries among children who are abused or neglected are preceded by multiple reported instances of maltreatment. The Office of Children Services (OCS), Alaska’s child protection agency, is very concerned about repeat maltreatment. It’s extremely damaging to children and demoralizing to everyone who tries to help prevent it. Over the last several years, Alaska has consistently had among the highest rates in the country of repeat child maltreatment, as reported by the Children’s Bureau of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Those federal figures measure the percentage of children who were the victims of at least two substantiated reports—that is, confirmed reports—of maltreatment within six months. In 2009, nearly 10% of children who were the subjects of investigation by OCS were reported as suffering repeat maltreatment, compared with less than 6% nationwide. By 2013, the share in Alaska was at nearly 13%, compared with a national rate of less than 5.5% (Figure S-1). But even those grim federal statistics don’t provide a complete picture of repeat child maltreatment in Alaska. Many analysts believe that not all cases where maltreatment may have occurred are substantiated, and that maltreatment of a child may be reported a number of times, over a longer period, before it is substantiated. Also, for various reasons, many reports of maltreatment are not investigated at all, in Alaska and other states, and only a small share of those that are investigated are substantiated. For example, in Alaska in 2013, 42% of reports in an average month were not investigated, and only 12% of reports were substantiated
    • Repeat Maltreatment in Alaska: Assessment and Exploration of Alternative Measures

      Passini, Jessica; Vadapalli, Diwakar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 12/1/2015)
    • Replacement Cost for Public Infrastructure in Alaska: An Update

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-07)
      Replacing Alaska’s public infrastructure would cost nearly $59 billion, in today’s dollars. That includes, as the table shows, the costs of replacing public buildings as well as transportation and utility systems.1 This is an update of an estimate ISER made in 2007—which at that time was the first comprehensive estimate of the cost to replace Alaska’s public infrastructure.2 That 2007 estimate was considerably less—about $39.5 billion—but we emphasized at the time that it was preliminary. It did not take into account that costs to replace infrastructure in remote areas are higher, and it undercounted and undervalued certain types of infrastructure, including power and telephone systems. This revised estimate is based on an analysis of cost differences across the state, additional data on existing infrastructure, and additional consultation with engineers, architects, and cost estimators.
    • Reply Paper to ‘Multicultural Law-Related Education in the Humanities’ by Dr. Carlos E. Cortes

      Conn, Stephen (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-05)
      Multi-ethnic (or bicultural) legal education is a superior way to teach law as a social process within an everchanging American legal culture. By stepping out of one's own legal tradition or culture and into another's, it is possible to see how law really operates without blinders of ethnocentricity. Ethnic minority students can use their own legal tradition as a basis for contrast and comparison with American legal culture. Elementary school is the best place to explore the values which underlie legal traditions. Teachers must discover differences and refrain from indoctrination. Curriculum that is bicultural should focus upon common problems, borne out of relationships, and common approaches to problem solving. A team approach in curriculum development has produced instructional material which treats common problems comparatively where more than one legal tradition operates.
    • Report on the Benzene Study of 2008-2009

      Gordian, Mary Ellen (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-05-25)
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether reducing the amount of benzene in gasoline, which is scheduled to take place in 2011, will effect a change in indoor air benzene levels in Anchorage, Alaska. This is an interim report that discusses the first phase of a two-phase study. The first phase measured benzene levels in homes and garages every month for over one year. Due to the lack of chemical markets, the gasoline refined in Alaska contains 5% or more of benzene. Over the past two decades, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in Anchorage, Alaska, have had higher concentrations in both indoor and ambient air than most other cities in the United States. Previous studies in Anchorage have shown that attached garages are a significant source of benzene and other VOCs in the living space of homes. In 2007-2008 we conducted a randomized study of houses with attached garages in Anchorage, Alaska, to determine whether there were associated respiratory health risks. We asked the resident owners of these houses to measure the benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in their homes for one week using a passive vapor monitor badge. The results of that study showed that 47% of the houses had indoor-air benzene levels that—if they were maintained throughout the year—would exceed the minimal risk levels for inhalation set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Sixteen percent of the houses exceeded the acute risk. The results also showed that the BTEX measured in the indoor air came from gasoline fumes. We conducted this second study to determine whether levels found on a single, weekly measurement adequately represented the actual annual exposure in that house. We also wanted to see what the ratio was between levels in the garage and levels in the house since most of the exposure was thought to be coming into the house from the garage. We were also interested in any seasonal variation in the exposure to indoor benzene concentrations. This study would give us that sense of seasonal variability to be able to approximate long-term exposure and to guide future study. We were getting baseline data that could demonstrate the effect of the reduction in benzene in gasoline on the indoor air quality in Anchorage. It is expected that the level of benzene in gasoline will be reduced starting as soon as next year.
    • Report on the Clerkship Program

      Havelock, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, Office of Legal Studies, University of Alaska, Anchorage, 1977-02-15)
      There is no law school in Alaska. In 1976, the Alaska legislature adopted Chapter 181, SLA 1976 which proyides that an eligible person who completes one year of law school and subsequently successfully pursues a three year course of law study in a clerkship program may be admitted to the practice of law upon taking and passing the bar examination administered by the Alaska Bar Association. The Act placed upon the Alaska Supreme Court the responsibility for administering the clerkship program and prescribing the course of law study. The Alaska Supreme Court contracted with the Criminal Justice Center to design a law clerkship program, including a system for registering law clerks and supervising attorneys, a basic curriculum, and other elements of the program. The report proposes guidelines for sound administration of an educational program conducted outside direct academic supervision, discusses budget issues, and proposes a new bill to amend the statute as first passed.
    • Reporting Sexual Assault Victimizations to Law Enforcement

      Rosay, André B.; Henry, Tara; Providence Kodiak Island Medical Center; Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation; Central Peninsula General Hospital; Norton Sound Health Corporation; Fairbanks Memorial Hospital; Maniilaq Association (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2007-01-01)
      As part of a larger study examining the characteristics of sexual assault victimizations in Alaska as observed and recorded by sexual assault nurse examiners, 101 patients in Bethel, Fairbanks, Kodiak, Kotzebue, Nome, and Soldotna provided information about their decision to report their victimization to law enforcement. The report documents who these patients consulted prior to reporting, the actions and reactions that patients received from others, how patients initially attributed blame, and how concerned patients initially were about disbelief and negative reactions from others. The report also examines whether patients had begun to take control over the recovery process, the amount of time elapsed from assault to examination, and what factors predict the amount of time elapsed from assault to examination.
    • Research Perspectives on the Use and Control of Police Force

      Payne, Troy C. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-11-09)