• Homelessness Among Drug-Using Adult Male Arrestees in Anchorage, 2000-2003

      Myrstol, Brad A. (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-07-01)
      Presents information on the prevalence of homelessness among Anchorage adult male arrestees based on data from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program compiled from 2000 to 2003.
    • Homer Fiscal Planning Model: Background Report

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1992)
      Homer is a first-class city of about 4,000 residents, located in the Kenai Peninsula Borough. The city provides a variety of local government services including police and fire protection, roads maintenance, and parks and recreation as well as a library, but excluding schools (provided by the Borough). These services and general government expenses are financed primarily through sales and property taxes and transfers from the state. City expenditures increased rapidly through most of the 1980s, interrupted only during the recession years of 1988 and 1989. An economic boom occurring at the end of the decade has now passed, and the ability of the city to fund services is being constrained both by the local economic base·and the budget problems facing state government. The 1992 Homer budget reflects a sharp reduction from the previous year, with departments planning layoffs and service cutbacks. Aggressive fiscal planning in future years will be required to minimize the negative effects of budget shortfalls in the coming years. This document provides information to assist the community in addressing this issue.
    • Homicide in Alaska, 1986–2015

      Parker, Khristy (Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-11-01)
      This fact sheet presents data reported on homicides in Alaska from 1986 to 2015 as reported in the Alaska Department of Public Safety publication Crime in Alaska. Over the 30-year period from 1986 to 2015, homicide rates decreased in Alaska overall, but increased in the Municipality of Anchorage. The Fact Sheet also presents data on the most commonly used weapons in homicides, victim-offender relationships, and clearance rates for homicides.
    • Homicide in Alaska: 1976-2016

      Gonzalez, Andrew (Alaska Justice Information Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-05-20)
      AJiC's Homicide in Alaska: 1976-2016 compiled 41 years of data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR). This is the first time these data on homicide in Alaska have been examined across a multi-year timespan. The report describes homicide incidents, victims and suspects. These characteristics included weapon use, relationships between victims and suspects, circumstances, demographic characteristics, and more presenting the differences among race and sex groups. Additionally, the report makes note of the magnitude and characteristics of homicides involving American Indian and Alaska Native female victims, as well as how the rate of homicide victimization differs by race and sex of the victim. In addition to the full report, three one-page fact sheets are included: 1) Homicide Victimization Fact Sheet; 2) Firearms Fact Sheet, and; 3) Relationships Fact Sheet.
    • Household Composition and Gender Differences in Parental Time Investments

      Bibler, Andrew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-04-04)
      Recent research documents a female advantage in several important long-term outcomes among children raised in single-parent households, and highlights the importance of non-cognitive skills for explaining these gaps. Understanding the source of differences in non-cognitive skills is complicated due to the presence of many interrelated and often unobservable inputs. One potential explanation for such gaps is that boys and girls receive different levels of inputs in single-parent versus two-parent households. This paper provides empirical evidence that input levels change differentially by gender across household structures and hence may facilitate gender gaps in noncognitive skills. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and accompanying Child Development Supplement, I estimate gender differences in parental time investments, defined as the amount of time parents spend participating in activities with the child, around changes in household composition. I find that, although both boys and girls experience reductions in parental time investments following a change from a two-parent to single-mother household, boys experience a larger reduction than girls. The largest difference is found in fathers’ time investments on weekdays, for which boys lose an additional 24 minutes per day (35% of average paternal weekday investments). Moreover, there is little to no evidence that single mothers compensate for the loss by increasing time investments to boys relative to girls.
    • How Are We Doing? Monitoring Alaska's Fiscal Condition

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1994)
      Alaska’s government has been down on its luck this year, with low oil prices, a big deficit, and legal disputes over the budget. Despite all that, Alaska still has substantial assets. The state’s share of Alaska oil reserves is worth—even at low oil prices—about $16 billion. The Permanent Fund has a balance of $13 billion and earned $1 billion last year. Pages 2 and 3 of this summary examine what is happening to the state’s assets—and why preserving and building them is so important. The foldout details the risks of relying exclusively on cash reserves. Page 4 provides a simple checklist for monitoring the state’s progress toward the long-term budget strategy called the Safe Landing.
    • How Do Alaskans Cover Their Medical Bills?

      Leask, Linda; Frazier, Rosyland; Passini, Jessica (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-04-01)
      The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been at the top of the news lately, with Congress considering but then dropping proposed changes. Congress will try again to change the ACA—but it’s uncertain how or when. This summary looks broadly at all the kinds of health-care coverage Alaskans have now, and how ACA provisions have changed that coverage.
    • How do oil prices influence Alaska and other energy-dependent states?

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska, 2018)
      We analyze monthly data from the Bureau of Labor and Statistics to evaluate how fluctuations in oil prices affect economic activity in Alaska and other energy-dependent states. For this most recent recession, we find that only 6 of the traditional oil states experienced a recession. Four of those have already recovered, leaving Alaska and North Dakota as the only two to continue losing jobs. Using monthly employment data between 1991 and 2018 we estimate that, on average, the long run effect of a 10% change in oil prices results in a 1.7% change in employment across the five most important oil states. When analyzed individually, we find that some of them experience symmetric responses to oil price increases and decreases while others are much more sensitive to price declines.
    • How Do You Determine the Right Size of a Police Department? Don’t Look to Crime Rates.

      Payne, Troy C. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-10-18)
      Studies have shown that changing the number of police officers has no effect on crime rates. This article explains why and describes alternative measures. An accompanying chart compares rates of violent crime in Alaska for 1986–2015 with the number of police officers per 1,000 residents for the same period.
    • How Does Alaska's Spending Compare?

      Leask, Linda; Tran, Trang; Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-02-01)
      A laskans have been arguing for years about how much the state government should be spending, ever since low oil prices gouged a big hole in the budget—and the state has been using up its savings to pay the bills. We don’t know how much the state should spend: that answer depends on what things Alaskans want to keep, and what they’ll pay for them. But we can throw some light on the debate.
    • How Hard Is It for Alaska’s Medicare Patients to Find Family Doctors?

      Frazier, Rosyland; Foster, Mark A. (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-03)
      In the past few years, Alaskans have been hearing reports that some primary-care doctors won’t see new Medicare patients. Medicare pays these doctors only about two-thirds of what private insurance pays—and that’s after a sizable increase in 2009. But most Americans 65 or older have to use Medicare as their main insurance, even if they also have private insurance. Just how widespread is the problem of Alaska’s primary-care doctors turning away Medicare patients? ISER surveyed hundreds of doctors to find out—and learned that so far there’s a major problem in Anchorage, a noticeable problem in the Mat-Su Borough and Fairbanks, and almost no problem in other areas.
    • How Has the 80th Percentile Rule Affected Alaska's Health-Care Expenditures?

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-05-16)
      We use the Health Expenditures by State of Residence data (1991-2014) compiled by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to examine the causal effect of the 80th percentile rule on Alaska's health care expenditures. We find evidence that Alaska's expenditures would have been lower in the absence of rule. The share of the overall increase in expenditures that we attribute to the 80th percentile rule is between 8.61% and 24.65%. It is important to note that using expenditures as a proxy for costs has limitations as it is the product of both quantity of services used and prices.
    • How Has the 80th Percentile Rule Affected Alaska's Health-Care Expenditures?

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 5/16/2018)
      We use the Health Expenditures by State of Residence data (1991-2014) compiled by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to examine the causal effect of the 80th percentile rule on Alaska's health care expenditures. We find evidence that Alaska's expenditures would have been lower in the absence of rule. The share of the overall increase in expenditures that we attribute to the 80th percentile rule is between 8.61% and 24.65%. It is important to note that using expenditures as a proxy for costs has limitations as it is the product of both quantity of services used and prices.
    • How Is the State Dealing With the Shortfall in Pension Systems?

      Groh, Cliff (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-04-18)
      I n early 2003, financial analysts gave Alaska state officials some very bad news: the two largest pension systems for public employees wouldn’t have the money to cover all the expected future costs of pensions and health-care benefits for state and local employees when they retired. This shortfall—called the unfunded liability— had been caused by, among other things, several years of poor returns on fund investments and soaring health-care costs. Public pensions are protected in Alaska’s constitution, and the state has already contributed nearly $7 billion to reduce the shortfall. How much more it will need to pay is uncertain, since it depends on many things that are hard to predict. But most analysts believe it will be billions more. That poses a major challenge for the state—which has been dealing with big budget deficits—and for local governments, which need to help pay the unfunded liability but have far smaller financial reserves than the state.
    • How Much Might Climate Change Add to Future Costs for Public Infrastructure?

      Goldsmith, Scott; Larsen, Peter; Smith, Orson; Wilson, Meghan; Strzepek, Ken; Chinowsky, Paul; Saylor, Ben; Leask, Linda; Merill, Clemencia (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      Scientists expect Alaska’s climate to get warmer in the coming years— and the changing climate could make it roughly 10% to 20% more expensive to build and maintain public infrastructure in Alaska between now and 2030 and 10% more expensive between now and 2080. These are the first estimates of how much climate change might add to future costs for public infrastructure in Alaska, and they are preliminary.
    • How Much Different Are Costs Amongst Alaska School Districts?

      Tuck, Bradford; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2005)
      The big differences among Alaska’s school districts—in remoteness, climate, community amenities, and energy sources—also mean big differences in school operating costs. ISER’s new estimates of the geographic cost differences among Alaska’s 53 districts range from 7 percent to more than 100 percent above costs in Anchorage. The existing differentials are set in state law and have been used since 1998; the legislature will decide whether to adopt any changes. Keep in mind that the differentials are just one factor in a complex formula used to determine aid for individual districts. That formula begins with a base amount per student, for students in all districts, that the legislature sets each year. The proposed differentials are higher than the existing ones, which range from 1 to 70 percent above Anchorage’s costs. This summary is based on a more detailed report, Alaska School District Cost Study Update, by Bradford Tuck, Matthew Berman, and Alexandra Hill.
    • How much does Alaska spend on K-12 education?

      Defeo, Dayna; Berman, Matthew; Hill, Alexandra; Hirshberg, Diane (Center for Alaska Education Policy Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 9/30/2019)
      Education funding in Alaska, as in most states, is one of the largest allocations in the state operating budget. In 2017, Alaska�s K-12 per-pupil spending was $17,838, which is 46% higher than the national average. However, a lot of things in Alaska are expensive relative to national averages: healthcare, food, and energy, to name just a few. In this paper we adjusted Alaska�s data from the US Census Bureau 2017 Annual Survey of School System Finances to state and national cost indices, and find that Alaska�s per-pupil expenditures are on par with national averages. As many drivers of Alaska�s education costs extend beyond education policy, we caution against cuts that leave districts with few choices but to diminish the teacher workforce by eliminating positions or hiring lower quality teachers with less competitive salaries.
    • How Much Should Alaska Save?

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-02)
      Alaska today is in the lucky position of having an estimated $126 billion in petroleum wealth— $45 billion in savings accounts derived from oil revenues, and $81 billion in future state revenues from oil and gas still in the ground--if current official state projections prove accurate. Almost all state revenues come from oil, as they have for 30 years. But oil production is now only a third of what it once was, and analysts think that even with new discoveries and enhanced recovery, production from state lands will keep dropping. So Alaskans face a dilemma: how can we preserve this petroleum wealth for future generations, while still benefitting from it ourselves? The answer is to limit how much we spend today from our petroleum wealth, and invest the savings in income generating assets. The income from those assets would grow over time and gradually replace declining petroleum revenues. We’ve already taken a major step, by depositing 24% of past oil revenues into savings accounts. Is that enough?
    • How North Slope Oil Has Transformed Alaska's Economy (Presentations)

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2008)
      This presentation was delivered to the 4th Annual Oil and Gas Symposium in Anchorage, Alaska. It provides charts and graphical information on the contribution of North Slope oil to the national and state economy.
    • How Oil Prices Affect the Fiscal Gap

      Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1990)
      In this short summary based on ISER's Fiscal Policy Papers series, we estimate the timing and size of the state fiscal gap at the currently proposed $2.5 billion level of spending and at various oil prices. Findings are presented in figures and summarized.