• Resource Revenues and Fiscal Sustainability: Lessons of the Alaska Disconnect

      Knapp, Gunnar (International Economic Development Council, 2014-12-01)
      In 1968, the Prudhoe Bay oil field was discovered on Alaska’s North Slope – the largest oil field ever discovered in North America. That discovery led to an economic and fiscal transformation of the young state of Alaska. A 1969 sale of Prudhoe Bay leases brought the state $900 million in one day ($4.9 billion in 2014 dollars) – six times the state’s budget that year of $115 million (Ragsdale, 2008). After the completion of the Trans-Alaska pipeline, oil began flowing from the North Slope – bringing the state very large annual oil revenues. Cumulatively, between 1978 and 2014 the state earned $111 billion in unrestricted general fund oil revenues ($164 billion expressed in 2014 dollars). 1, 2 (See Table 1.) It has not been a smooth ride. Annual state oil revenues have varied widely since North Slope production began, particularly because of changes in oil prices, but also because of changes in oil production, costs of production, and oil tax laws (Figure 1). Soaring oil revenues in the early 1980s were followed by 20 years of decline, including a very sharp drop in 1987 which contributed to a severe recession in Alaska. Rising prices brought soaring revenues again from 2005 to 2012 – followed by another very sharp drop since 2012, with drastically lower oil revenues projected for FY 2015 and FY 2016.
    • Response to Questions: Potential Effects on Alaska of Proposed Health-Care Reform Legislation

      Foster, Mark A.; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-01)
      Mark Foster of Mark A. Foster and Associates (MAFA) is a consultant to ISER, and Rosyland Frazier is an ISER research associate. Both the authors have broad experience studying health-care issues in Alaska, and they have recently been looking at the problems Alaska’s Medicare patients face in getting primary-care doctors to see them. They prepared this note to respond quickly to questions from and discussions with the Office of the Governor in Washington, D.C. and Alaska’s Congressional delegation. Those questions and discussions were about the possible implications for Alaska’s Medicare patients of provisions in health-care reform legislation the U.S. Congress is considering, as well as about the broader potential effects on Alaska of the proposed legislation. This is by no means a full analysis of the many complex issues associated with health-care reform. A working paper by the same authors—examining the Medicare-access problem and related health-policy issues in more detail—will be available soon. The findings and conclusions of this note are those of the authors. If you have questions, get in touch will Rosyland Frazier at: anrrf@uaa.alaska.edu
    • Restorative Justice: Theory, Processes, and Application in Rural Alaska

      May, Jeff D. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-12-17)
      An exploration of the principles behind using restorative justice as an alternate form of sentencing in criminal cases, with a focus particularly on how restorative justice might be of benefit in rural Alaska. Includes a bibliography. A sidebar, "Restorative Justice Programs and Sentencing", looks at amendments to Alaska Rules of Criminal Procedure 11(i) and Delinquency Rules 21(d)(3) and 23(f) which describe the requirements for referral to a restorative justice program as part of the sentencing process.
    • Results From the Long-Term Inmate Survey: Focus on Child Abuse Histories

      Langworthy, Robert H.; Barnes, Allan R.; Curtis, Richard (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 1998-06)
      This report of long-term inmates in Alaska correctional facilities attempts to describe the childhood experiences of a sample of long-term inmates, address the "cycle of abuse" issue; and present the correlates of abuse which may impact the pattern of offending or inmate functioning. Over 80 percent of long-term inmates report having been physically abused as children; over 65 percent report having suffered neglect.
    • Results of the 2010 Alaska Victimization Survey

      Rivera, Marny; Morton, Lauree (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-04-07)
      This Powerpoint slide presentation, prepared for a statewide training conference on domestic violence and sexual assault, presents key results from the statewide Alaska Victimization Survey conducted in 2010. The Alaska Victimization Survey, designed to establish a baseline for estimates of intimate partner and sexual violence, is modeled after the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
    • The Resurgence of Tribal Courts: A Tribal Judge's Perspective

      Voluck, David A. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2013-11-18)
      Judge David Voluck is an attorney in Sitka, Alaska, and in 2008 was appointed chief judge of the Sitka Tribal Court. He also serves as magistrate judge for the Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes and is presiding judge pro tem for the Aleut Community of St. Paul Island tribal government. He is introduced here by Dr. Ryan Fortson of the UAA Justice Center. In this podcast Judge Voluck presents a context for tribal courts and Native law, outlines the development of Indian law in the United States, and discusses tribal sovereignty and the role of tribal courts in Alaska. This presentation was recorded on Monday, November 18th, 2013 at the University of Alaska Anchorage/Alaska Pacific University Consortium Library on the UAA campus.
    • Retention and Turnover of Teachers in Alaska: Why it Matters

      Hirshberg, Diane (Center for Alaska Education Policy Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2/21/2019)
    • Retribalization as a Strategy for Achievement of Group and Individual Social Security in Alaska Native Villages — with a Special Focus on Subsistence [paper]

      Conn, Stephen; Langdon, Steve J. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1986-06-02)
      Alaska Native groups have adopted a strategy of seeking general welfare, including social security, through retribalization — a term of dual meaning discussed in this paper. The paper aims to describe the historical developments leading to the adoption of this strategy, explain its nature and the various forms which it takes, and assess its potential for the achievement of the general welfare of Alaska Natives.
    • Revising the State Fiscal Plan to Account for Petroleum Wealth

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-05)
      In 2008 the Alaska Legislature passed and the governor signed into law a bill requiring the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to prepare an annual state fiscal plan projecting state spending for 10 years and identifying the revenue sources to pay for that spending. One objective of the law was to get government and the general public thinking, discussing, and planning for the long-term fiscal health of the state in light of declining oil production. These plans have not attracted the attention they deserve. In this Web Note we review the most recent fiscal year 2012 10-year plan and offer suggestions for improvement.
    • Revisiting Alaska's Sex Offender Registration and Public Notification Statute

      Periman, Deborah (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-10)
      This paper provides a look at the parameters of the Alaska’s sex offender registration statute. At the time of its enactment in 1994, the Alaska Sex Offender Registration Act was one of the most stringent in the U.S., far exceeding the miniumum requirements imposed on the states by the federal Jacob Wetterling Act. The federal Adam Walsh Child Protection Act, signed into law in 2006, has the net effect of bringing all the states closer to Alaska’s registration and publication requirements. However, Alaska’s statute and its federal counterpart were based on assumptions about sex offender recidivism and the effectiveness of sex offender treatment which are contradicted by much of the research conducted since creation of Alaska’s sex offender registry. Empirical evidence also shows that Alaska’s sex offender registration and notification system and others like it do not demonstrably serve their stated purpose of increasing public safety. The severity of the registration requirements may prohibit the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into the community, and the increasing burden on law enforcement to monitor and maintain very broad registries may prevent police from focusing on the more serious sexual predators.
    • Revisiting Alaska's Sex Offender Registration and Public Notification Statute

      Periman, Deborah (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2009-03)
      This article examines the background and judicial interpretation of Alaska's sex offender registration and public notification statute, the new federal requirements for state sex offender registries and public notice under the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, and weaknesses in both Alaska's existing system and the enhanced requirements of the new federal legislation. These weaknesses include: * Absence of incentives for offenders to seek therapy or treatment; * Failure to provide for individualized risk assessment that would differentiate between those offenders who pose a negligible or very low risk of re-offending from those who pose a continuing public risk — a failure that causes unwarranted marginalization of low risk offenders and diminishes the overall effectiveness of the public notification system; * Public notice provisions so broad as to substantially impede offenders' reintegration into their families, their community, and the workforce, and potentially chilling family reporting; * Internet posting requirements associated with severe stigmatization and public harassment, and concomitant emotional destabilization and isolation of offenders — factors that may actually increase the risk of recidivism and community harm. * Because the Walsh Act conditions state receipt of Byrne Grant funds on compliance with its enhanced registration and notice requirements, there is little Alaska can do to remedy the above weaknesses and still remain eligible for Byrne funds. However, the article concludes with a recommendation for limited changes to our statute that would minimize, to the extent possible, its adverse effect on offenders' ability to find employment; omit the lowest risk offenders from internet posting requirements; and provide those incentives for treatment permissible under the Walsh Act.
    • A "Risk Based Thinking" approach for tourism in Alaska

      Vallejo, Luisa F. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-12-01)
      Tourism sector in Alaska and elsewhere needs to incorporate into everyday business operations a risk based thinking approach which becomes a tool to proactively manage risk and opportunities. Therefore this research has been focused in putting together a basic guide how tourism operators in general, specially from Alaska, could implement an integral risk management approach for an specific tour adventure, example that could be replicated to other type of risks found in Alaska tourism. Risk management is an invaluable tool for the tourism industry and the communities it supports as it provides the means by which risk can be identified and treated, preventing or minimizing the effects of crises and disasters upon this vital industry for the state of Alaska.
    • Risk Complexity: The Arctic Offshore as a Case Study

      Kämpf, Mandy; Haley, Sharman (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-07-29)
    • Risk Environment in Northern Sea Route Transportation Projects

      Petrova, Lena Y. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-12-10)
      The need for defining the risk environment in the Arctic strengthens as changing ice conditions and economic opportunities drive the demand for expanding traffic volumes in Russia’s Northern Sea Route (NSR). An international commercial shipping route, the NSR is proven to cut transit time up to forty percent compared to the overflowing Suez Canal when traveling from ports in Western Europe to Southeast Asia. The NSR offers a challenging yet attractive project landscape since its opening to global logistics companies in the 1990s. A total of 27 international shipments were made and 1.35 million tons of cargo were moved in 2013. By 2020, cargo volumes shipped along the route are expected to reach 15 million tons per year. With Asian markets pursuing liquefied natural gas from global exporters and large scale exploration and production projects being developed in Northwestern Siberia, the future of the NSR is promising. Compared to other shipping routes, there are unique operational risks for NSR maritime transportation projects; these risks can significantly affect project success. Limited information exists to sufficiently describe risk exposure. This research paper identifies and describes risk factors affecting planning and execution of maritime transportation projects in the Northern Sea Route region based on a review of existing literature and interviews with subject matter experts. Findings are summarized in a descriptive narrative supported by a risk factor breakdown structure. The final project deliverables will be offered to shipping companies and Arctic research organizations to help identify and assess risks for NSR maritime transportation projects.
    • Risk Management in the Arctic Offshore: Wicked Problems Require New Paradigms

      Kaempf, Mandy; Haley, Sharman (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-10)
      Recent project-management literature and high-profile disasters—the financial crisis, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and the Fukushima nuclear accident—illustrate the flaws of traditional risk models for complex projects. This research examines how various groups with interests in the Arctic offshore define risks. The findings link the wicked problem framework and the emerging paradigm of Project Management of the Second Order (PM-2). Wicked problems are problems that are unstructured, complex, irregular, interactive, adaptive, and novel. The authors synthesize literature on the topic to offer strategies for navigating wicked problems, provide new variables to deconstruct traditional risk models, and integrate objective and subjective schools of risk analysis.
    • The Role of Alaska's Nurse Practitioners in Preventing Early Childhood Caries

      Maixner, Margaret (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-10-06)
      Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease of childhood despite being preventable. Because of its high prevalence, its impact on the quality of life of young children, and its potential for increasing their risk of caries in the permanent dentition, ECC is arguably one of the most serious and costly health conditions among young children. Poor access to dental services by rural Alaskans and poor dental care in general are considered the main contributing factors to the continued rise in ECC in Alaska. Primary care providers (PCPs), such as nurse practitioners (NPs), are in unique positions to complement the work of dental professionals because PCPs often provide care before a child’s first dental visit. This project assessed the practice habits and perceived competence of Alaska’s NPs with regards to performing pediatric oral health-related tasks as well as knowledge of current tools. Data was collected from NPs in Alaska by survey. This data was analyzed to find specific areas of educational-need and to model an information kit for NPs in the State of Alaska to improve their primary pediatric practice. The results indicated that NPs in the State of Alaska believe oral heath assessments and preventative education should be included in pediatric well-child care but their frequency of actual performance and perceived confidence was low. Recommendations to improve frequency of oral health-related tasks during visits with pediatric populations focus on increasing education in these areas for Alaska’s NPs.
    • The Role of Stakeholders in Managing Arctic Ocean Resources

      Haley, Sharman (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-01-22)
    • Rural Alaska Corrections Plan (A Summary)

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-02-12)
      Efforts to improve correctional services in the rural, predominantly Native communities of Alaska have been going on since before statehood. Complete implementation of plans developed by the Alaska Criminal Justice Planning Agency during the 1970s have been hampered by a number of factors: (1) the scope of the planning has tended to be confined to correctional facilities; (2) the problems faced by corrections in Alaska are complicated by diversity of communities served; (3) financial requirements have exceeded available resources; (4) the authority and responsibility for achieving the plans' objectives were unclear. This document offers proposals for a rural corrections plan which offers a comprehensive, systemic — rather than purely correctional — approach for improving public safety and corrections in rural Alaska. It describes the existing situation, philosophy, coordination and planning, organizational proposals, financing, and implementation.
    • Rural Broadband: Opportunities for Alaska

      Hudson, Heather E. (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-11)
    • Rural Governance Report 2014

      Kimmel, Mara (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-12-17)
      This article presents highlights from the report of the reconvened Rural Governance Commission, with a focus on pathways necessary to ensure public safety for rural Alaskans. The Alaska Commission on Rural Governance and Empowerment was originally convened in 1999.