• Long-term benefits to Indigenous communities of extractive industry partnerships: Evaluating the Red Dog Mine

      Berman, Matthew; Loeffler, Bob; Schmidt, Jennifer (Resource Policy, 2020-02-21)
      Mining, and oil and gas companies developing resources on land historically occupied and used by Indigenous peoples have faced criticism for offering few benefits to local communities while inflicting environmental damage. The Red Dog Mine – a joint venture between Teck Resources, Inc. and the NANA Regional Corporation – has often been cited as an example for developing extractive industries in a way that does benefit Indigenous communities. The mine is located in an economically impoverished region in Northwest Alaska that has few other wage-earning opportunities for the largely Inupiat population. Although the mine has brought demonstrable financial benefits to the region, questions persist about its long-term benefits to local communities. This paper assesses a suite of long-term benefits of the Red Dog mine, based on findings from unique 14-year panel dataset. The paper focuses on the direct effects of the mine on the individual Indigenous workers of the region. Specifically, the analysis addressed the following set of questions: How does employment at Red Dog affect workers’ mobility and long-run earnings? How long do most local residents hired to work at the mine keep these jobs? What percentage of the mine workers live in the communities in the region, and what percentage of the total payroll do local workers receive? The findings illustrate the strengths and limitations of partnerships between Indigenous organizations and extractive industries, and offer insights relevant to Indigenous communities across the arctic and around the world as they plan development of local resources.
    • Long-Term Effects of Limiting Access to Alaska's Sablefish and Halibut Fisheries

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      The study analyzed potential long-term effects of the Alaska halibut and sablefish individual transferable quota (ITQ) program for the fishing fleet and coastal communities. The analysis focused on changes in the structure of the fleet, changes in fisheries markets, changes in fish processing and transportation, and regional shifts in the pattern of harvesting and processing activities. As a tool for projecting the combined effects of these major changes, two complementary models were developed: a fisheries impact model and a community impact model. Projections from these models for long-term scenarios of fish prices, total allowable catch by management area, and rate of inter-community quota transfers show that some communities could see large changes as a result of the program. The projected gains and losses are sensitive to assumptions about prices processors can pay in each community, suggesting a role for further research on evolving processing and transportation costs.
    • Long-Term Impacts of Environmental Contaminants Are ‘Generational Game Changer’

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-07-16)
      Most Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties are in remote locations, placing a disproportionate impact on Alaska Native communities that depend upon environmental resources for their livelihood. After the 1972 closure of a U.S. Air Force base that had operated for 20 years on St. Lawrence Island, residents of the Yup'ik village of Savoonga began to experience a higher incidence of cancer, lower birth-weight babies, and higher numbers of miscarriages. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers eventually spent $125 million cleaning up the abandoned base. But there are concerns about continued impact from environmental contamination. While state and federal health studies recommend continued reliance upon traditional foods based on locally harvested berries, fish, and wildlife, St. Lawrence Island community members fear those foods may be contributing to elevated levels of PCBs and higher cancer rates.
    • Long-Term Outlook for Salmon Returns to Alaska

      Finney, Bruce; Adkison, Milo (Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 2002)
      With the exception of some western Alaska stocks, Alaska's salmon populations are numerically healthy. However, even fisheries on abundant stocks are suffering economically due to sharp declines in the value of the catch. The abundance of Alaskan salmon stocks has fluctuated greatly, both in modern times and prehistorically. These fluctuations are thought to be caused by multi-decadal changes in environmental conditions over large areas that affect many other species as well as salmon. Forecasts of salmon returns are not very reliable, and the potential for significant improvement in their accuracy is low in the short term. A viable fishing industry must be able to adapt to dramatic, persistent, and unanticipated changes in harvest levels. Nonetheless, Alaska's salmon stocks should continue to produce healthy harvests for the foreseeable future, barring significant damage to their habitat either via local activities or global warming.
    • Long-Term Trends in the Pacific Salmon Industry

      Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska, 2019)
      Prepared for a symposium on “The Science of Pacific Salmon Conservation: Foundations, Myths, and Emerging Insights” at the Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society in Reno, Nevada on October 1, 2019.
    • Longitudinal Study of First-Year Students Rose Urban Rural Exchange Program

      McDiarmid, Williamson, G.; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2004)
      The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage annually evaluates components of the Rose Urban Rural Exchange Program, to determine how well the program is achieving its purpose. The program's goal is to build understanding and a statewide sense of community-by bringing urban students to rural Alaska and rural students to urban Alaska, to help them learn about each other's cultures....In 2004, the Institute of Social and Economic (ISER) proposed, for the first time, to evaluate not only how the program did in the current year, but also to evaluate the program's lasting effects by collecting survey and interview data from students who had participated in the first year of the program, 2001....This report describes the background and research design. We will discuss the issue of lasting program efficacy in a later report. This report has four chapters. Following this brief introductory chapter, Chapter 2 describes the scope of the longitudinal evaluation. Chapter 3 provides information about the evaluation design, including development of the data collection instruments. Chapter 4 presents our preliminary findings about some of the data we have collected to this point. The appendixes include the interview protocol, pre- and post-visit questionnaires, and the urban and rural tests of knowledge.
    • Looking Ahead at the Alaska Economy: Business As Usual

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-05-19)
    • Lost Villages of the Eastern Aleutians: Biorka, Kashega, Makushin

      Mason, Rachel; Hudson, Ray (University of Alaska Anchorage. Bookstore, 2014-12-05)
      The book Lost Villages of the Eastern Aleutians documents the history of three Unangax̂ villages left behind in the evacuations and dislocations of World War II, never to be permanently resettled.
    • Low Cost, Reliable Power: How Does Anchorage Compare?

      Colt, Steve (2005)
      Costs of doing business in Alaska remain generally high, but the low cost and reliability of electric power in Anchorage has been a bright spot on the economic landscape—thanks largely to abundant supplies of natural gas from Cook Inlet and to creation of a unified power grid for the railbelt. This research summary presents data on the changing cost and reliability of electric power from Municipal Light and Power (ML&P)—one of Anchorage’s two electric utilities—from 1960 through 2004. It concludes with a brief discussion of the outlook for the utility, given rising natural gas prices.
    • Male Urinary Incontinence: A Critical Appraisal of the Literature With Practice Recommendations

      Forcht, Deborah J. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-05-01)
      Urinary Incontinence (UI) is a debilitating medical condition that affects individuals’ quality of life. People with this condition describe decreased enjoyment of sexual activity, as well as increased risk of experiencing depression, and anxiety. Data show that incontinence is less prevalent in men than women, which may explain the dearth of studies focusing specifically on men. As men age, their rate of suffering from UI increases from 4.8% at ages 19 to 44 to over 21% by the age of 65 years. Additionally, men who suffer from permanent UI are more likely to be institutionalized compared to those without UI and have increased risk for suicide, infections, falls, social isolation, loss of independence and may suffer from life-altering fractures. For many patients, UI may be reversible with medical intervention. A critical appraisal of UI literature found many non-surgical male UI treatments that were effective. The evidence-based information was utilized to provide primary care providers with up to date male-specific interventions for UI.
    • Management Alternatives for the Guided Sport Fishery for Halibut off Alaska

      Hartley, Marcus; Goldsmith, Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      The domestic fishery for halibut in and off Alaska is managed by the International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) as provided by the ""Convention Between the United States and Canada for the Preservation of the Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea" (Convention) signed at Washington March 29, 1979, and the Northern Pacific Halibut Act of 1982 (Halibut Act). The Convention and the Halibut Act authorize the respective North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) established by the Magnuson-Stevens Act to: "develop regulations governing the United States portion of Convention waters, including limited access regulations, applicable to nationals or vessels of the United States, or both which are in addition to and not in conflict with regulation adopted by the Commission. Such regulation shall only be implemented with the approval of the Secretary, shall not discriminate between residents of different States, and shall be consistent with the limited entry criteria set forth in Section 303(b)(6) of the Magnuson Stevens Act. If it becomes necessary to allocate or assign halibut fishing privileges among various United States fishermen, such allocation shall be fair and equitable to all such fishermen, based upon the rights and obligation in existing Federal law, reasonable calculated to promote conservation, and carried in such manner that no particular individual, corporation, or other entity acquires an excessive share o f the halibut fishing privileges ... [Halibut Act]." This document assesses the potential economic and social impacts of a proposed catch reporting system and/or some form of limitation on the growth of the halibut charter boat industry (lodges, outfitters, guides, and charter vessels) operating in waters off Alaska's coast.
    • Management of Incidental Catch of Crab, Halibut, Herring, and Salmon in the Groundfish Fisheries of Alaska

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1997)
      The project demonstrated a new approach to modeling incidental harvest (bycatch) of the North Pacific groundfish fleet using a spreadsheet-based optimization model. The approach models industry decision as the pursuit of profit-maximization by exploiting a mixed-stock common property fishery under total allowable catch regulation for both target species and incidental harvest. Trial simulations with a small-scale version of the model suggest that the approach realistically portrays the behavior of the fleet and the implication of bycatch management choices. An interactive user interface constructed for the model guides users through the assumptions and options of the model, making them transparent to the user.
    • Management of Pain During Intrauterine Device Insertion

      Booysen, Debra (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      Increased use of intrauterine contraception is desirable to achieve safe, highly effective, long-acting, and reversible means to prevent unintended pregnancy. For most women, intrauterine device (IUD) contraception is a viable option for protection from an unplanned pregnancy. Fear of pain during insertion is one barrier to IUD use. The aim of this project was to identify best practice evidence for different types of interventions for the management of pain during IUD insertion. Evidence for pain management strategies was critically appraised, and the most recent information synthesized into evidence-based recommendations to promote point-ofcare decisions.
    • Managing Alaska’s Petroleum Nest Egg for Maximum Sustainable Yield

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-03)
      Web Note #7 (How Much Should Alaska Save? February 2011) suggested we should think of Alaska’s petroleum wealth as an asset from which we should spend only the earnings—thus preserving that wealth for future generations, while at the same time providing a sustainable annual flow of income for current Alaskans. Based on the value of state financial assets and a projection of future petroleum revenues, in early 2011 we estimated total petroleum wealth—the Petroleum Nest Egg—to be $126 billion. That total could generate an annual sustainable flow of income, or Maximum Sustainable Yield, of $5 billion. That year actual state spending from petroleum revenues, along with the Permanent Fund dividend, was $5.5 billion, or $.5 billion more than the sustainable amount. This put a Fiscal Burden on future generations of Alaskans because it reduced the size of the nest egg. The state could have avoided that burden either by increasing non-petroleum revenues $.5 billion, or by reducing spending that much. Doing one or the other would have added $.5 billion of saving to the nest egg and so maintained its value. This Web Note revisits the calculation of the Petroleum Nest Egg, the Maximum Sustainable Yield, and the Fiscal Burden, taking into account both changes in expectations of future revenues and the size of the state budget. The estimated size of the nest egg has increased since last year, to $155 billion, because of higher oil prices and more optimistic production assumptions, so the estimated sustainable yield is up to $6.2 billion a year. But that growth has been more than offset because spending of petroleum revenues has also increased. The FY 2012 state budget exceeds the Maximum Sustainable Yield by $.8 billion, passing a Fiscal Burden of that amount on to the next generation of Alaskans. Looking beyond FY 2012, continued spending growth would have dramatic effects on the Nest Egg and Sustainable Yield. For example, if spending growth of 6% a year were to go on year after year and the growth was funded by petroleum revenues, the currently estimated Nest Egg would shrink at an accelerating rate and the Fiscal Burden would grow at an increasing rate. The Maximum Sustainable Yield for the next generation of Alaskans would drop by half in 20 years. Looked at another way, sustaining spending growth of 6% a year would require a Nest Egg of $350 billion—more than twice the current estimate. To put that amount in perspective, $350 billion is more than half the current size of the Norwegian government’s pension fund.
    • Managing Extractive Resource Wealth for Sustainability: Alaska in the Time of Falling Oil Production

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-06)
      Cash economies in many parts of the Arctic North have long been dominated by resource extraction industries such as petroleum and metal mining. These developments are often short lived, generating cycles of economic booms followed by busts. And the wealth created by these activities tends to flow South, as profits to large firms and wages to temporary residents. But in Alaska the Permanent Fund (and a number of smaller financial accounts), has captured a significant share of the wealth generated by the production of petroleum over the last 30 years. Alaska residents now have the opportunity to use this wealth (currently estimated at $45 billion in financial assets and $81 billion in the state share of oil still in the ground) to build a strong economy, not only for the current generation but for future generations of Alaskans as well. This will be a unique challenge, balancing the needs of current and future generations, the preferences of urban and rural residents, permanent and temporary citizens, and others. This paper will examine the challenges facing Alaska as it begins the task of wealth management in an era of declining petroleum production. This should provide lessons for other regions impacted by cycles of resource extractive industries.
    • Managing Extractive Resource Wealth for Sustainability: Lessons from Alaska Seen Through the Lens of Maximum Sustainable Yield

      Goldsmith, Oliver Scott (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-02)
      Alaska has enjoyed a generation of unprecedented economic growth and prosperity driven by crude oil production primarily from one giant field, Prudhoe Bay, on the North Slope. Through a number of financial savings accounts, including the Alaska Permanent Fund, the Statutory Budget Reserve, and the Constitutional Budget Reserve, the state has successfully converted a share of petroleum wealth into $55 billion in financial assets. It has been less successful in diversifying the economic base away from dominance by oil and gas production. Now oil production has fallen to less than 1/3 of its peak and this decline is projected to continue—reducing public revenues and private economic activity. This paper will explore whether the state of Alaska has the resources to be able to transition successfully to a Post-Prudhoe Bay economy, how that transition could take place, and what impediments might prevent a successful transition. This analysis will be of interest to other natural resource dependent economies that are trying to manage the cycles that resource extraction generate.
    • Managing Invasive Species: How Much Do We Spend?

      Schwörer, Tobias; Federer, Rebekka; Ferren, Howard; Alaska SeaLife Center (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2012-07)
      Invasive species: they’re along roadways and up mountain trails; they’re in lakes and along the coast; chances are they’re in your yard. You might not recognize them for what they are—plants or animals not native to Alaska, brought here accidentally or intentionally, crowding out local species. This problem is in the early stages here, compared with what has happened in other parts of the country. But a number of invasive species are already here, and scientists think more are on the way. These species can damage ecosystems and economies—so it’s important to understand their potential economic and other effects now, when it’s more feasible to remove or contain them. Here we summarize our analysis of what public and private groups spent to manage invasive species in Alaska from 2007 through 2011. This publication is a joint product of ISER and the Alaska SeaLife Center, and it provides the first look at economic effects of invasive species here. Our findings are based on a broad survey of agencies and organizations that deal with invasive species.1 The idea for the research came out of a working group formed to help minimize the effects of invasive species in Alaska.2 Several federal and state agencies and organizations funded the work (see back page).
    • Manual of Criminal Law and Procedure

      Ring, Peter Smith; Havelock, John E.; HIckey, Daniel W.; Stern, Barry J. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-07)
      Intended to aid to Alaska law enforcement officers in the performance of their duties in the field, this manual was designed to provide brief, quick access to major points of substantive and procedural criminal law. The manual contained discussion and procedural guidelines for investigatory stops, identification procedures including line-ups, arrest, search and seizure, interrogation, as well as discussion of justification for the use of nondeadly and deadly force whether by peace officers or civilians, culpability, entrapment, trial preparation, and media relations. The section on substantive criminal law deals with a selection of crimes most likely to be encountered by "street" officers as defined with the recently enacted Revised Alaska Criminal Code (effective January 1, 1980), desribing elements of each crime, investigative hints, and differences with previous provisions of the criminal code, where relevant.
    • A Manual to Improve Efficiency in Contractor-Supplied Quality Control on Asphalt Heavy Civil Construction Pojects on State of Alaska-Owned Roads

      Robson, Alena (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      The State of Alaska requires contractors to follow specific quality standards for heavy civil asphalt construction projects. Contractors face financial and scheduling risks if these standards are not addressed effectively and in conformance with necessary criteria. Contractors must complete project work to meet customer requirements and conform to quality standards efficiently and cost effectively. Doing so ensures that the State of Alaska’s quality standards are met and contractors’ financial and schedule targets can be achieved with the most efficient use of scarce resources. Currently, there is an indirect cost savings to the contractor to perform QC in a specific manner because it reduces or in some cases eliminates rework. The desired state is to directly save money by applying efficient quality control methods. This project produced a manual that describes best practices and quality control procedures that can be applied by heavy civil asphalt construction contractors to meet necessary SOA quality standards in a more timely, cost effective and efficient way. The correct application of this manual should result in a savings of 1% on the bid cost per asphalt ton.
    • The Many Faces and Voices of Muslims at UAA

      Raza, Sajid; Jama, Salman; Jones, Bin Shabaan; Abdi, Nasteha; Hatch, Rabia; Jones, Gregory Shuaib (University of Alaska Anchorage. Bookstore, 2016-12-02)
      Muslim students studying a variety of disciplines at UAA come together to discuss their life and convictions. Students includ Sajid Raza (graduate student in Civil Engineering), Salman Jama (Anthropology), Bin Shabaan Jones (Elementary Education), Nasteha Abdi (Accounting), Rabia Hatch (Legal Studies). Acting as moderator is Gregory Shuaib Jones, Muslim Chaplain for the Muslim Student Organization at UAA.