• Alaska Justice Forum ; Vol. 8, No. 1 (Spring 1991)

      Schafer, N. E.; Read, Emily E.; Bureau of Justice Statistics (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1991-03-01)
      The Spring 1991 issue of the Alaska Justice Forum describes provisions of the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 and discusses the juvenile jail monitoring activities conducted by the Justice Center for 1987–1989 under contract to the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services. The Bureau of Justice Statistics describes the characteristics, criminal histories, and drug use patterns of women under the jurisdiction of federal and state prison authorities in the U.S. Alaska homicide statistics for 1965–1992 in Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, and Alaska overall are presented; Alaska homicide rates have been below the national average since 1988. Rural justice was the topic of a roundtable discussion featuring Charles Ndlovu of the Community Law Center in Durban, South Africa.
    • Alaska's System for Monitoring Compliance with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

      Parry, David L. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-12)
      Pursuant to Section 223(1)(15) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 and 28 CFR Part 31.303(f), states are required to describe their plans and procedures for annually monitoring compliance with the Act. Alaska's monitoring plan was developed by the Justice Center of the University of Alaska Anchorage in 1988 under contract with the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS).
    • Alaska's System for Monitoring Compliance with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (Revised)

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1994-08)
      Pursuant to Section 223(1)(15) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 and 28 CFR Part 31.303(f), states are required to describe their plans and procedures for annually monitoring compliance with the Act. This revision of Alaska's monitoring plan revises the plan originally developed by the Justice Center of the University of Alaska Anchorage in 1988 under contract with the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS).
    • A Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-03)
      A data set comprised of all juveniles referred to Alaska youth corrections in the fiscal years 1992–1996 shows disproportionate referral of Alaska Native and African American youth when compared to their proportions in the general population. Minorities also appear more likely than white youth to accumulate multiple referrals. Random samples selected within each racial group are used to seek extra-legal factors which may account for some of the disparity. Information on family and home life, school, personal problems, and the details of each referrals and each referral outcome were extrapolated from the files of the sample which included 39 white youth, 35 Alaska Native youth, and 37 African American youth. Special attention was paid to youth who accumulated multiple referrals.
    • Comparison by Race of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska: Phase II Report

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-05)
      Phase I of this study analyzed data on over 28,000 referrals to the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS) for 1992–1995 to provide comparative information on referrals of Alaska Native, African American, and white youth to the Alaska juvenile justice system. In Phase II, a stratified sample of 112 individual files was examined in an attempt to identify factors, such as race, residence in rural or urban locations, alcohol involvement, age at first referral, family and living situations, and local priorities which might be associated with the decision to refer a child to DFYS. This examination supported the previous finding that minority youth, including Alaska Natives, were more likely than white youth to accumulate referrals. Native youth were also more likely to accumulate alcohol-related referrals, particularly at the village level, Alaska Native juveniles may be receiving referrals in rural areas for behaviors that would be ignored or dealt with more informally by urban police. Furhter, youth who had multiple referrals tended to have more unstable home lives than those with fewer referrals, regardless of racial or ethnic identities.
    • Disproportionate Detention of Minorities: A Case Study of One State's Compliance with the Mandates of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1996-03)
      Pursuant to Section 223(a)(23) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, states must examine whether minority youth are disproportionately detained in relation to their proportion in the general population. For a preliminary assessment of Alaska’s compliance, five and a half years of detention data (1990–June 1995) for the state of Alaska are analyzed to assess the detention of minority and non-minority youth. A number of factors are used to compare racial groups: type of offense, prior record, gender, age, length of detention, etc.
    • Disproportionate Minority Processing of Females: A Comparison of Native, Black and White Juveniles

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1998-11)
      An examination of four years of statewide female juvenile referral data showed that Native girls are referred in disproportionate numbers and tend to have lengthier records. Underage drinking was one of the most frequent referral reasons. Because many of the Native females were from rural communities, the disproportionate referrals may be a factor of the smallness of the communities, in which misbehavior is more readily noticed. Examination of a subset of files for girls with multiple referrals showed that the actual behavior was often not particularly grave and that many of the girls with multiple referrals came from very unstable backgrounds.
    • Evaluation of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America Targeted Re-Entry Initiative: Final Report

      Barton, William H.; Jarjoura, G. Roger; Rosay, André B. (Indiana University School of Social Work; Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-12)
      In 2003 and early 2004 the Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA) introduced Targeted Re-Entry (TR), a juvenile aftercare approach derived from the Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP) model (Altschuler & Armstrong) into four sites, partnering with state juvenile correctional facilities in Mobile, Alabama; Anchorage, Alaska; Benton, Little Rock, and North Little Rock, Arkansas; and Milwaukee and Wales, Wisconsin. The Targeted Re-entry approach builds closely upon the IAP model, with local Boys & Girls Clubs providing community leadership, case management functions, and close linkages with the correctional system. A key element in all four sites is the introduction of a Boys & Girls Club providing recreational and other programming inside the juvenile correctional facility. By introducing the youths to the Boys & Girls Clubs’ philosophy and activities while they are incarcerated, providing (or participating in) the overarching case management prescribed by the IAP model, and connecting the youths to Boys & Girls Clubs back in the community as part of the reentry plan, TR staff hope to provide continuity and a positive youth development framework for more successful reentry. This study reports on an evaluation of TR for the four states, with a sample derived from all youth who had been identified since the beginning of the programs who were released from the institutions to the community phase no later than December 31, 2006, allowing recidivism and other outcome data to be collected for a 12-month post-release follow-up period.
    • FY 1994 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Curtis, Richard W.; Atwell, Cassie; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1995-09)
      This report marks Alaska's transition from calendar year to fiscal year reporting of compliance with the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA). JJDPA mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. No instances of a status offender held in secure detention was recorded in FY94, as compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of 1976. 17 separation violations were recorded in FY94, representing a 98% reduction from the 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 53 jail removal violations were projected, representing a 94% reduction from the 1980 baseline and an 10% decrease from calendar year 1993.
    • FY 1995 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Curtis, Richard W.; Atwell, Cassie; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1996-06)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, 13 instances of a status offender held in secure detention were recorded in FY 1995, compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of CY 1976. 11 separation violations were recorded and 23 projected in FY 1995, representing a 97.3% reduction from the CY 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 143 jail removal violations were projected, representing an 83% reduction from the CY 1980 baseline. Originally completed Feb 1996; revised June 1996.
    • FY 1996 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Curtis, Richard W.; Atwell, Cassie; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1996-12)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, 4 instances of a status offender held in secure detention were recorded in FY 1996, compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of CY 1976. 3 separation violations were recorded in FY 1997, representing a 99.6% reduction from the CY 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 44 jail removal violations were projected, representing an 95% reduction from the CY 1980 baseline.
    • FY 1997 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Curtis, Richard W.; Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-12)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, 1 instance of a status offender held in secure detention was recorded in FY 1997, compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of CY 1976. 2 separation violations were recorded in FY 1997, representing a 99.8% reduction from the CY 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 68 jail removal violations were projected (52 actual), representing an 92% reduction from the CY 1980 baseline. Originally completed December 1997; revised July 1999.
    • FY 1998 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Atwell, Cassie; Schafer, N. E.; Connor, Kelley (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1999-01)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, 3 instances of status offenders held in secure detention were recorded in FY 1998, compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of CY 1976. 2 separation violations were recorded in FY 1998, representing a 99.8% reduction from the CY 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 57 jail removal violations were projected (52 (actual), representing an 93% reduction from the CY 1980 baseline.
    • FY 1999 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Atwell, Cassie; Schafer, N. E.; Werre, Jason (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2000-04-24)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, 12 instances of status offenders held in secure detention were recorded in FY 1999, compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of CY 1976. No separation violations were recorded in FY 1999, representing a 100% reduction from the CY 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 69 jail removal violations were projected (56 actual), representing an substantial reduction from the CY 1980 baseline. Originally completed March 2000; revised April 2000.
    • FY 2000 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report

      Atwell, Cassie; Schafer, N. E.; Lepine, Brian; Curtis, Richard W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2001-03)
      The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups. In Alaska, 2 instances of status offenders held in secure detention were recorded in FY 2000, compared with 485 violations in the baseline year of CY 1976. In Alaska, 17 separation violations were recorded in FY 2000 (45 projected), representing a 98% reduction from the CY 1976 baseline of 824 violations. 82 jail removal violations were projected (50 actual), representing an substantial reduction from the CY 1980 baseline.
    • JJDP Monitoring Data — 1988: JJDP Violations and Juvenile Detention Counts for Lockups, Jails, Adult Correctional Facilities and Juvenile Detention Centers

      Parry, David L. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1990-05)
      This data supplement to the 1988 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring Report (Mar 1990) presents data on 1988 violations in Alaska of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA), which mandates removal of status offenders and nonoffenders from secure detention and correctional facilities, sight and sound separation of juveniles and adults, and removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups.
    • Policies and Procedures for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring

      Parry, David L. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1990-11)
      Pursuant to Section 223(1)(15) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) of 1974 and 28 CFR Part 31.303(f), states are required to describe their plans and procedures for annually monitoring compliance with JJDPA. This document presents Alaska's monitoring procedures developed by the Justice Center of the University of Alaska Anchorage under contract with the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS).
    • Policies and Procedures for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Compliance Monitoring, Revised

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1995-05)
      Pursuant to Section 223(1)(15) of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 and 28 CFR Part 31.303(f), states are required to describe their plans and procedures for annually monitoring compliance with the Act. This revision of Alaska's monitoring procedures revises the procedures manual originally developed by the Justice Center of the University of Alaska Anchorage in 1988 under contract with the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS).
    • A Preliminary Examination of Minority Referrals to the Alaska Juvenile Justice System

      Schafer, N. E.; Curtis, Richard W.; Atwell, Cassie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-10)
      The disproportionate processing of minorities in the justice system has been noted with growing concern nationally as well as at the state level. In Alaska, as in other states, the primary basis for concern is that minorities are overrepresented among the adult prison population. The realization that this disproportionality appears in other justice system venues has led nationally to a number of research initiatives with a focus on the overrepresentation of juveniles. This paper analyzes referral data from the Alaska Division of Family and Youth Services (DFYS) for 1992–1995 to provide a statistical overview of disproportionate minority contact in the Alaska juvenile justice system, providing comparative data for referrals of Alaska Native, African American, and white youth.
    • Race and Record: A Study of Juvenile Referrals in Alaska

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1997-09)
      The disproportionate representation of minorities in the justice system of the U.S. has been viewed with growing alarm by both researchers and policymakers. Studies of the problem tend to focus on African Americans and on the end points of the process — sentencing disparities and, especially, sentences to death at the adult level and on court outcomes and detention decisions at the juvenile level. The research presented here explores the relationship between race and prior record using juvenile referral data from Alaska. White, Alaska Native, and African American youth are compared using four years of statewide data. The research includes an in-depth examination of the files of a sample of the juveniles referred to the Alaska juvenile justice system in order to better assess the relationship between race and record.