• Descriptive Analysis of Sexual Assault Nurse Examinations in Bethel, Homer, Kodiak, Kotzebue, Nome, and Soldotna

      Rosay, André B.; Henry, Tara; Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation; South Peninsula Hospital; Providence Kodiak Island Medical Center; Maniilaq Association; Norton Sound Health Corporation; Central Peninsula General Hospital (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2007-01-01)
      This project examined the characteristics of 172 sexual assault victimizations recorded by sexual assault nurse examiners — all those conducted in Bethel, Alaska in 2005 and 2006, and in Homer, Kodiak, Kotzebue, Nome, and Soldotna in 2005. The report documents the demographic characteristics of patients, pre-assault characteristics, assault characteristics, post-assault characteristics, exam characteristics and findings, suspect characteristics, and legal resolutions.
    • Descriptive Analysis of Sexual Assault Nurse Examinations in Bethel: 2005-2006

      Rosay, André B.; Henry, Tara; Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation; The Alaska Department of Law (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2007-01-01)
      This project examined the characteristics of 105 sexual assault victimizations recorded by sexual assault nurse examiners in Bethel, Alaska in 2005 and 2006. The report documents the demographic characteristics of patients, pre-assault characteristics, assault characteristics, post-assault characteristics, exam characteristics and findings, suspect characteristics, and legal resolutions.
    • Descriptive Analysis of Sexual Assault Nurse Examinations in Fairbanks: 2005-2006

      Rosay, André B.; Henry, Tara; Fairbanks Memorial Hospital; The Alaska Department of Law (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2007-01-01)
      This project examined the characteristics of 144 sexual assault victimizations recorded by sexual assault nurse examiners in Fairbanks, Alaska in 2005 and 2006. The report documents the demographic characteristics of patients, pre-assault characteristics, assault characteristics, post-assault characteristics, exam characteristics and findings, suspect characteristics, and legal resolutions.
    • Descriptive Analysis of Sexual Assaults in Anchorage, Alaska

      Rosay, André B.; Langworthy, Robert H. (Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2003-10)
      It has long been known that forcible rapes and sexual assaults occur at a higher rate in Anchorage and in Alaska than in the U.S. as a whole. The Justice Center, in collaboration with the Anchorage Police Department, conducted an epidemiological study aimed at providing a better understanding of the parameters of the rape and sexual assault problem in Anchorage. Researchers looked at case data drawn from the 541 sexual assaults reported to the Anchorage Police Department in 2000 and 2001. These data provide the first solid information on victim and suspect characteristics, time and location of assaults, and other details about sexual assaults and rapes reported to the police. In some cases the data contradict some of the more common assumptions regarding Anchorage’s rape problem.
    • Descriptive Analysis of Sexual Assaults in Anchorage, Alaska: 2002/2003 Update

      Rosay, André B.; Sanders, Jeannie; Smith, Sandra; Caladine, Bonnie; Monahan, Donna (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2006-02-01)
      This brief report updates the previous report Descriptive Analysis of Sexual Assaults in Anchorage to document some of the changes in the nature of sexual assault in Anchorage, Alaska from 2000 to 2003. From 2000 to 2003, the rates of reported sexual assaults in Anchorage continue to be significantly higher than national rates; most victims continued to be female, and almost all suspects male; over half of sexual assaults continued to occur in private residences; and the Spenard and Fairview community council areas continued to experience the highest numbers of sexual assaults in the municipality. However, from 2000 to 2003, some key changes in the nature of sexual assaults were observed. The number of forcible rapes and sexual assaults reported showed a steady increase; sexual assault victimizations increased particularly among Natives and Blacks, among persons younger than 15 years old and those aged 45 to 54 years of age; stranger assaults declined while non-stranger assaults increased; and sexual assaults occurring in the Downtown community council area increased by 144 percent. While this update provides a brief overview of some key changes in the nature of sexual assaults in Anchorage, it does provide enough information to assist in changing policy, and the information presented is now two years old. Ideally, a monitoring program would be developed in Anchorage to provide real-time empirical information about sexual assault and forcible rape to assist in efforts to fight these crimes.
    • Descriptive Analysis of Stalking Incidents Reported to Alaska State Troopers: 1994-2005

      Rosay, André B.; Wood, Darryl S.; Postle, Greg; TePas, Katherine (University of Alaska Anchorage Justice Center, 2007-02-01)
      This project examined the characteristics of stalking incidents reported to the Alaska State Troopers from 1994 to 2005. It included information from 210 reports, 222 charges, 211 suspects, 216 victims, and 246 witnesses. For those stalking incidents reported from 1999 to 2004, the charges, suspects, victims, witnesses, and legal resolutions are documented.
    • Design and Operational Challenges and Solutions for Solid Waste Management in Northern Alaska

      Squier, David (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      This paper examined the challenges of designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining an effective solid waste management system in northern Alaska. Northern Alaska presents unique challenges for developing an effective solid waste management plan. The communities in the region are not connected to the road system and the main strategy for disposing of solid waste is by developing aboveground landfills. This strategy has been used for many years, but as communities are increasing in size and the effects of climate change are becoming apparent, an adjustment in this strategy may be required. This research examined the current solid waste practices in northern Alaskan, reviews the regulatory requirements, isolates difficulties in current solid waste practices, identifies the unique challenges of working in the region, and anticipates operational practices that may create problems in the future. A main topic of study was the effect of the heat generated by exposed and decomposing waste in landfills and how this could affect the stability of the permafrost below and around the landfill. After accounting for all of the aspects identified, design and operational recommendations and strategies for solid waste management in northern Alaska were outlined. This paper considered solutions not only for current problems facing northern Alaska, but tried to anticipate what problems may occur decades or centuries in the future when conditions may be vastly different than they are today. An effective solid waste management strategy was found to be essential for a healthy community for current and future generations.
    • Design of a Constructed Wetland for Treatment of Facultative Lagoon Effluent in Rural Alaska

      Telford, Brandon (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      Many rural communities in Alaska rely on large constructed lagoons to treat their wastewater. The quality of effluent released from these lagoons and the ability of the receiving bodies to dilute the effluent varies as the thawed season progresses. The receiving bodies tend to have capacity before the effluent has reached levels acceptable for discharge and algae growth degrades effluent quality as capacity in receiving bodies is decreasing, leaving only a short window to discharge effluent with minimal impact. The expansion of an existing facultative lagoon and the addition of a constructed wetland in Galena, Alaska is estimated to increase BOD and TSS removal to levels that will consistently exceed permit levels. The lagoon will be drawn down by discharging to the constructed wetland over a 120 day discharge period. The addition of the constructed wetland will keep TSS within permit levels even when algae drives TSS values over permit levels in the facultative lagoon. While the constructed wetland is expected to reduce fecal coliform concentration in the wastewater treatment facility effluent it may not bring fecal coliform levels down to below permit levels. Additional dilution or disinfection may be required. Unlike BOD, TSS, and fecal coliform, which are expected to improve through the addition of the constructed wetland, dissolved oxygen levels are expected to decrease as a result of treating the wastewater in the constructed wetland. While the dissolved oxygen concentration of the constructed wetland effluent will be low, the decreased BOD concentration will result in an effluent that is more readily able to reaerate over an effluent with a higher BOD concentration. Overall the results of this project suggest that adding constructed wetlands treatment to facultative lagoons prior to discharge to receiving bodies has the potential to create effluent of consistent quality that will meet or exceed ADEC permit requirements.
    • Destructive Leadership Behavior

      Prasad, Rashmi; Emerton, Monica P.; Gorshunov, Mikhail A. (University of Alaska Anchorage. Bookstore, 2012-04-09)
      Rashmi Prasad and two graduate students, Monica Emerton and Mikhail Gorshunov present research on destructive leadership behavior.
    • The Detection and Treatment of Diabetes Distress

      Viens, Kylie Jane (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-12-01)
      The purpose of this project is to develop evidenced-based, best practice guidelines on detecting and treating diabetes distress for health care providers at Southcentral Foundation (SCF). A need was identified at SCF because health care providers do not currently screen for diabetes distress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Key findings include the importance of detecting and treating diabetes distress, critical times to screen for diabetes distress, and evidenced-based treatment options if diabetes distress is detected. It was determined that the Diabetes Distress Scale is a valid and reliable tool for health care providers to assess diabetes distress in the primary care setting at SCF. Additionally, by using the SCF approaches and processes for improvement, a Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle was created for planning and implementing sustained screening for diabetes distress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Lastly, an educational portal was designed for health care providers to better equip them for detecting and treating diabetes distress in their respective practice setting.
    • Determinants of Obesity in Latinos in Anchorage Alaska

      Appa, Andrea (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Determinants of obesity can be complex and group specific. There is limited data about the Latino population and the health needs of Latinos in the state of Alaska. The goal of this project was to better understand the determinants of obesity in Latinos, including the impact of dietary choices, financial status, mental health, and exercising in the levels of obesity of Latinos. The investigator used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to study the association of several variables in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). After data exploration, univariate analysis and logistical regression were conducted for selected variables related to the causes of obesity in Latinos living in the state of Alaska where the investigator observed higher percentages of obesity in Latinos as compared to other groups. However, results were not statistically significant except for the higher percentages with high blood pressure in obese Latinos when compared to non-obese Latinos and other groups. The results produced by this study are evidence that further research is needed to determine the impact of obesity in Latinos and their differences with other groups.
    • Determinants of Obesity in Latinos in Anchorage, Alaska: Analysis of BRFSS Alaska Data, 2007-2013

      Appa, Andrea (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      Determinants of obesity can be complex and group specific. There is limited data about the Latino population and the health needs of Latinos in the state of Alaska. The goal of this project was to better understand the determinants of obesity in Latinos, including the impact of dietary choices, financial status, mental health, and exercising in the levels of obesity of Latinos. The investigator used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to study the association of several variables in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). After data exploration, univariate analysis and logistical regression were conducted for selected variables related to the causes of obesity in Latinos living in the state of Alaska where the investigator observed higher percentages of obesity in Latinos as compared to other groups. However, results were not statistically significant except for the higher percentages with high blood pressure in obese Latinos when compared to non-obese Latinos and other groups. The results produced by this study are evidence that further research is needed to determine the impact of obesity in Latinos and their differences with other groups
    • The Determinants of Small Business Success in Alaska: A Focus on the Creative Class

      Guettabi, Mouhcine (International Economic Development Council, 2014-12-01)
      Although the contribution of small businesses and entrepreneurship to regional communities and the economy at large is widely supported in the literature, there does not seem to be a universally accepted definition for small businesses and entrepreneurship. Without an agreed upon definition, it is challenging for governments and policy makers to address the needs, concerns, and issues of these firms. It also makes it difficult to understand the link between small businesses and economic growth.
    • Determinants of the Cost of Electricity Service in PCE Eligible Communities

      Foster, Mark; Townsend, Ralph (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-01-20)
      This report is one of two companion reports ISER prepared for the Alaska Energy Authority. The other report, “True Cost of Electricity in Rural Alaska and True Cost of Bulk Fuel in Rural Alaska,” is dated October 26, 2016. That report estimates the full costs of providing electricity in rural Alaska, including the costs of subsidies provided to lower the price consumers pay. This second report assesses how the costs of electric generation in Power Cost Equalization (PCE) communities are or might be affected by three factors that are not related to the differences in electricity generation costs. Those three factors are the organizational structures of utilities, postage stamp rate design, and managerial information available on energy subsidy programs. 1. Organizational Structures of Utilities Electric utilities in PCE communities are organized as cooperatives, are run by local villages and municipalities, or are investor-owned utilities. The scale of these utilities varies widely, and includes regional utilities that manage separate electric grids in multiple communities. A review of those organizational structures indicates that: 1.1. There are significant differences in distribution, customer service, and general and administrative costs (DCG&A) across utilities. These differences are correlated with the utility size and organizational structure, with the smallest utilities having significantly higher DCG&A costs per kWh. 1.2. Small local utilities that have merged with larger regional utilities have benefited from reduced costs and professional management. Incentives to encourage small local utilities to join larger, more efficient regional utilities should be considered. 1.3. The cost of borrowing for large local and regional electric coops remains low compared with that for stand-alone local villages, municipalities, and investor-owned utilities. 1.4. The state government should consider allowing a return on equity as an allowable expense within the PCE cost of service [AS 42.45.110(a)] to enable utilities to build equity, enhance debt coverage and facilitate the expanded use of private capital, and reduce dependency on limited public capital resources. This private capital may take the form of investor capital for investor-owned utilities or member capital for cooperatives. 2. Postage Stamp Rate Designs 2.1. Postage stamp rate designs—a single rate for electricity for some set of customers—can help reduce costs and improve affordability in smaller, remote communities through an implicit cost subsidization from customers in larger communities. 4 2.2. The subsidies in postage stamp rates may decrease incentives for utilities to manage their costs, because higher costs may be subsidized by postage stamp rate-making. 2.3. The increase in cost in subsidy-providing communities risks inefficient bypass by large commercial or government users. This could increase the total cost of electric service and leave the remaining customers with higher rates and diminished affordability. Separating communities into rate groups according to their cost structure may mitigate, but not eliminate, the risk of self-generators bypassing the local electric utility. 3. Efficiency in Governance of Energy Subsidy Systems 3.1. To assess whether the PCE program is achieving its goals, transparent information about the allocation of the subsidies and about the operation of the subsidized utilities is required. The companion report to this one identified some issues about reliability of information generated under the current reporting system. Improvements in the reporting requirements could address these issues. A common issue is inconsistency in accounting for capital that state and federal agencies contribute to utilities. Those capital contributions include both grants or low-interest loans to finance capital projects as well as sources of short-term government financing, such as annual fuel loans, emergency loans, and write-offs of operating loans for troubled utilities. If capital investments for generation were separated from other capital, investments to reduce fuel costs (such as wind power) could be assessed more directly. 3.2. The PCE program is one of several programs that subsidize energy costs in rural Alaska, and an understanding of the interaction among these programs is required. An annual compilation of all state and federal heating and electrical subsidy support systems by community would enable better understanding of both individual program impact and also the collective programmatic impact of the subsidies on energy affordability. 3.3. Information on system reliability, usually measured as outage hours, is required to fully assess utility performance. 3.4. Currently, there is no information on how well the PCE program and other energy subsidy programs in rural Alaska target families and communities that face the greatest energy affordability challenges. Because of limitations on income data in small rural Alaska communities, assessing how well subsidies are targeted may be challenging. However, in light of general information that energy subsidies are often inefficient at poverty reduction, this is an important question. 3.5. The environmental impact of energy subsidies for rural Alaska, including the PCE program, through CO2 emissions and PM 2.5 emissions, has not been assessed.
    • Determining the Health Problems of Alaska Military Youth Academy Participants

      Doughty, Mark W. (2014-12-08)
      Alaska Military Youth Academy is an accredited residential high school program that utilizes a quasi-military approach to teach life skills to at-risk youth. Physical fitness is a key component and is modeled after military basic training standards. Participants in the program are largely from disadvantaged backgrounds and frequently disconnected from the healthcare system. The purpose of this project was to identify and describe the most life-threatening and/or prevalent pre-existing health conditions of program participants. A retrospective review of applications and pre-participation physical exams submitted by participants (N = 771) from March, 2012 through February, 2014 was conducted in order to better understand the health risks these adolescents face during the program. The top five most prevalent pre-existing health conditions in this sample included obesity (n = 187), allergies (n = 170), asthma/reactive airway disease (n = 103), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (n = 88), and depression (n = 81). Other potentially life threatening health conditions included a history of cardiac arrhythmias (n = 5), congenital heart defects (n = 5), hypertension (n = 4) and epileptic seizures (n = 3). In an effort to mitigate the risk of injury these young athletes face in an intense physical fitness program, the PPE Pre-Participation Physical Evaluation (4th ed.) monograph (Bernhardt & Roberts, 2010) was utilized as guidelines to make recommendations for improvement of the preparticipation health history and physical exams used to screen AMYA applicants.
    • Develop and Standardize a DOT&PF Statewide Airport Construction Specifications Updating Process

      Groeschel, Virginia Corazon deJesus Cruz (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-12-01)
      This research study evaluates the operational performance of an experimental process model developed to provide a systematic and repeatable approach to updating the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT&PF) Statewide Standard Airport Construction (SSAC) specifications to comply with the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5370-10H – Standard Specifications for Construction of Airports, (10H). In order to develop and standardize an effective process within DOT&PF, this study must examine how a large government organization, like DOT&PF, implements change. This study also discusses which key Project Management Institute’s (PMI’s) knowledge areas provide the framework for initiating, planning, and executing an implementation phase of this experimental process model on two specification sections, P-401 – Asphalt Mix Pavement (P-401) and P-318 – Foamed Asphalt Stabilized Base Course (P-318). P-401 is also referred to in this study as the “Beta Test case” and P-318 as the “Trial Run case”.
    • Developing a process for International Articulation Agreements in UAA

      Baye, Douglas (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-12-01)
      Institutions of higher education find themselves in the forefront of addressing the challenges of college affordability, access and completion. Articulation agreement is an important, cost-effective tool to help students transfer credits successfully and also a marketing vehicle to aid institutions in recruiting students. The UAA is interested in progressively increasing the number of international students through articulation agreements with foreign higher education institutions, however there is no documented process in place. Through a survey, interviews and literature review, the project carries out a research on the articulation agreements process in use in UAA and at various US institutions, gain insights into problems of creating agreements in UAA, identifies stakeholders and gathers requirements for an international articulation agreement process for UAA. Findings indicate that there is no clearly defined process. To address this, an international articulation agreement process is developed using project management techniques and principles. Project management tools are also recommended for use in the process. The project also highlights best practices in international articulation agreements and develops a ranking tool for evaluating international articulation agreement processes in use at various US institutions.
    • Developing a Public Consensus on Management of Spruce Beetles on the Kenai Peninsula

      Pelz, Robert; Kruse, Jack (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1991)
      Newspapers and, to a lesser extent, television have actively reported on the spruce beetle Infestation. This may account for the unusually strong public consensus of the most serious problem with Kenai Peninsula forests. Over half of all Anchorage residents have read about the infestation, and public exposure to written accounts Is even higher among Kenai residents. The other major reason why the vast majority of southcentral residents point to the spruce beetle infestation as a major problem Is because over half of them (57 percent) have noticed dead and dying trees as they drive peninsula highways. This translates to 50,000 households who have observed dead trees (see Figure 11). Some 38,000 households have associated these dead trees with the spruce beetle infestation. During our Interviews with government and environmental group representatives we sought to Identify the ways In which dead or dying trees, the direct result of the spruce bark beetle, In turn affect the lives of South-central residents. We then tested out these Ideas In survey pretests, ultimately constructing a sequence of structured questions that we asked of every survey respondent. Our findings indicate that opinions are clearly mixed. Virtually equal percentages of each population group support leaving the areas as is or cutting, burning, and replanting.
    • Developing Core Competencies for Training of the Alaska College and Career Advising Corps

      Monrad, Greg B. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-08)
      For business and organizations, employee training directly impacts the overall performance, competitiveness, and innovation which could lead to its ultimate success, or failure. In addition, training should directly relate to the values and goals of the organization. In the United States, over 200 billion dollars is spent on more than 20 billion hours of formal and informal training each year. Much is done without a framework to direct it to insure is addressing needs of employees and the organization. By designing training programs around specific core competencies, businesses and organizations can align training with the specific skills, knowledge and behaviors required to succeed in the job. Core competencies clarify specific requirements and expectations of the job while supporting the strategic direction of the organization. One method of determining the core competencies for a job is through a DACUM (Designing A CurriculUM) process. DACUM is not a difficult process to undertake and utilizes experts in the job in question to determine the knowledge, skills and abilities required to successfully perform the job.
    • Developing Prosecutorial Charging Guidelines: A Case Study

      Ring, Peter Smith (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-03-14)
      In July 1975, Alaska's attorney general announced his intention to end plea bargaining by assistant attorneys in all criminal cases involving violations of Alaska criminal law. While the major thrust of this policy change was intended to halt negotiations over sentencing, the policy also dealt — albeit less intensely — with charge bargaining. This paper describes efforts ot the Alaska Department of Law's Criminal Division to enhance the effectiveness of plea bargaining policy through the development of uniform, statewide charging guidelines, including the development of Project PROSECUTOR (PROSecutor Enhanced Charging Using Tested Options and Research), and presents preliminary findings from the project's prosecutorial screening intake component.