• Editor's Note

      Randolph, Henry (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2019-09-12)
      An update on the Alaska Justice Forum during times of change at the University of Alaska Anchorage, including the publication's transition to an all-digital format.
    • The Effect of a Paired Lab on Course Completion and Grades in Nonmajors Introductory Biology

      DeFeo, Dayna Jean; Bibler, Andrew; Gerken, Sarah (American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), 2020-08-21)
      This paper explores the effect of a paired lab course on students’ course outcomes in nonmajors introductory biology at the University of Alaska Anchorage. We compare course completion and final grades for 10,793 students (3736 who simultaneously enrolled in the lab and 7057 who did not). Unconditionally, students who self-select into the lab are more likely to complete the course and to earn a higher grade than students who do not. However, when we condition on observable course, academic, and demographic characteristics, we find much of this difference in student performance outcomes is attributable to selection bias, rather than an effect of the lab itself. The data and discussion challenge the misconception that labs serve as recitations for lecture content, noting that the learning objectives of science labs should be more clearly articulated and assessed independent of lecture course outcomes. This paper explores the effect of a paired lab course on students’ course outcomes in introductory biology for nonmajors at the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA), a large, open-enrollment, 4-year university. We compare outcomes for 10,793 students, 3736 who simultaneously enrolled in the lab and 7057 who did not, and analyze the degree to which they select into the lab on observable characteristics to explore the following research questions: 1. Are students who take a paired lab more likely to complete the lecture component (i.e., receive a final grade as opposed to withdrawing or receiving an Incomplete)? 2. Are students who take a paired lab more likely to receive a higher grade in the lecture component? 3. Does the laboratory experience differently affect course outcomes for students in specific demographic subgroups (e.g., gender, race, high school urbanicity, age, prior academic performance, and socioeconomic status)?
    • The Effect of a Single Nutrition Education Session on the Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Female Adolescent Gymnasts.

      Salazar, Haley (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2020-05-01)
      Gymnastics is a complex sport that requires tremendous skill and places high physical demands on the body. This can be especially challenging for adolescent gymnasts, as they need their bodies to perform athletically as they are maturing and growing into adults. Although there is evidence of adequate nutrition supporting athletic ability and proper growth, many young athletes may lack the essential nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors needed to implement proper nutrition habits. This can be especially true for adolescent female gymnasts as they partake in demanding, rigorous, and specialized trainings beginning in the young stages of life. Gymnastics is also a sport that is judged on aesthetics, causing this population to be at high risk for disordered eating patterns. It is important to assess what these young athletes know about nutrition, how they perceive it, and if they act on it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single nutrition education session on the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of female adolescent gymnasts. Participants were asked to complete a survey measuring nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors immediately prior to a nutrition education session. Immediately after the nutrition education was provided, the same survey was repeated. At a one month follow up, the gymnasts were asked to complete the same survey for the final time. The results of the Friedman test indicated that there was a statistically significant improvement in the participants’ nutrition knowledge across the three measurement points (baseline, immediately after education, final survey, x2 (2.40, n=5) = 8.44, p < 0.005). The attitudes (p = 0.497) and behaviors (p = 0.790) of the participants were not significantly impacted by the nutrition education session. Evidence suggests that providing a single nutrition education session significantly improves the nutrition knowledge, along with retention of the gained knowledge at the one-month follow up, of female adolescent gymnasts.
    • Effect of Alaska Fiscal Options On Children and Families

      Berman, Matthew; Reamey, Random (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-02-01)
      Alaska’s state government faces an unprecedented challenge, with the need to close an estimated $3 billion gap between projected revenues and expenditures in fiscal year 2017. Total unrestricted state General Fund revenue in fiscal year 2016 (the 12 months ending June 30, 2016) was $1.3 billion, or about $1,800 per resident. That was barely more than the state dispenses annually to Alaska school districts, to support public education (Alaska Office of Management and Budget, Enacted Fiscal Summary). Despite low oil prices and declining production, petroleum revenues still accounted for 72 percent of these funds (Alaska Revenue Sources Book, Fall 2016, Alaska Department of Revenue, Tax Division). Alaska is the only state that does not have either state income or sales taxes. It is clear that Alaskans will soon have to accept some form of broad-based revenue measure to enable continued funding of basic public services. A 2016 analysis by ISER researchers discussed the potential effects on Alaska’s economy and households of various options to reduce expenditures and increase revenues.1 That study examined how the effects of revenue measures varied for Alaska households with different levels of income. These same revenue measures and expenditure cuts are also likely to have a much bigger effect on some households than others, depending on the presence and number of children in the family. This study extends the previous analysis by specifically examining how different options would be likely to affect families and children. Many large expenditures in the state budget can easily be identified as specifically benefiting children. These include state-funded programs such as the Alaska Public School Foundation program and the Division of Juvenile Justice and Office of Children’s Services, for example, as well as joint federal-state programs such as Medicaid and Denali Kidcare. Less obvious are the effects on children of potential measures to fund these and other state expenditures. This study focuses on describing and quantifying the effects of alternative state revenue options on Alaska families and children. In addition to considering how the revenue measures might affect families with children compared to households without children, we also consider how the burden of each measure might differ for rural and urban families.
    • The Effect of Cultural Beliefs and Customs on Nutritional Attitudes and Food Choices of Alaska Natives Living With Chronic Diseases in the Anchorage Metropolitan Area

      Anderson, Sadie (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-12-01)
      Alaska Native and American Indian people are heavily affected by chronic diseases such obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (Redwood, Lanier, Johnston, Asay, & Slattery, 2010). The presence or severity of many chronic diseases is directly correlated with the type of diet people consume. This study explored how culture influences the understanding of nutritional status and food choices of Alaska native people living in Anchorage, Alaska. Focus groups were held with Alaska Native adults who were living with a chronic disease. Open-ended questions were asked about the participants’ culture and food choices. Themes and subthemes emerged through data analysis using the PEN-3 model. Findings from the focus groups indicated that participants believed traditional foods had significant cultural and nutritional value, but there was decreased access to traditional foods in the rural setting. Participants often gave in to the pressures of a busy lifestyle and did not eat as healthy as they would like. Participants were seeking information to improve their diet and health in a culturally effective way conducive to their learning style.
    • The Effect of Cultural Beliefs and Customs on Nutritional Attitudes and Food Choices of Asian Populations Living With Chronic Diseases in the Anchorage Metropolitan Area

      Armour, Alison (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-05-01)
      A chronic disease is a non-infectious, gradually occurring illness that worsens and lasts over a lengthy period (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). According to the WHO, the number of individuals with chronic disease is increasing worldwide. The rise in numbers is especially dramatic in Asian populations as they make the transition from traditional to Western diets. Studies have shown that chronic disease can be prevented or managed by rejecting the Western diet of processed, refined, high fat foods and adopting a healthier diet. However, little is known about the effect of culture and customs on attitudes towards nutrition. This study explored their influence on the nutritional status and food choices of Anchorage-area Asian adults living with chronic disease. A purposive sample of Asian adults with chronic disease was recruited, a series of focus group meetings were held over a month-long period, and participants were asked questions related to nutrition and culture. Themes were identified and analyzed using the PEN-3 theoretical model and quality of analysis was addressed by following the process proposed by Lincoln and Gruba. Findings indicate that participants in general recognized the benefits of improved nutrition in the management of their chronic disease but had insufficient knowledge or perceived lack of support to make the necessary changes.
    • The Effect of the Fire Water Myth

      Gonzalez, Vivian (University of Alaska Anchorage. Bookstore, 2017-04-22)
      Dr. Vivian Gonzalez discusses her research on the Fire Water Myth regarding American Indian and Alaska Native alcohol-related behavior. Moreover, assumptions about genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse unveiled. Dr. Vivian Gonzalez received a PhD in Clinical Psychology from University of Hawaii in 2004 and then completed a three-year NIAAA funded postdoctoral training program in alcoholism etiology and treatment at the University at Buffalo's Research Institute on Addictions. Her research interests include a) alcohol and other substance abuse etiology and treatment, b) predictors and prevention of suicidality, c) the functional associations between suicidality and alcohol. She is currently a principal investigator on a NIAAA funded RC2 grant to develop and test a smartphone-based treatment for alcoholism.
    • Effectiveness and Fiscal Impact of Homeward Bound

      Haley, Sharman; Killorin, Mary; Hensley, Priscilla; Hill, Alexandra; Martin, Stephanie; Wiita, Amy Lynn; Ungadruk, Ben (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      The Rural Alaska Community Action Program and the Homeward Bound program contracted with ISER to evaluate Homeward Bound, which began in February 1997. This analysis is based on limited data and a small sample - 33 Homeward Bound clients and 35 people who were referred to the program but did not enter. We found a wide variation in how often people use services and which services they use - and the small sample and wide variation limit the ability of statistics to say whether apparent difference are real of chance variations....There are only an estimate 300 chronic, homeless alcoholics in Anchorage (defined as people who have been picked up by the Community Service Patrol at least 30 time in one year). But they're expensive to the community - because they so frequently use state and city rescue and protection services, emergency medical care, and alcohol treatment facilities, among other things. This report finds that the clients of the Homeward Bound program cost the justice system less, use some city services less frequently, and are less likely to need advanced life support services when an ambulance is required.
    • Effects of Rising Utility Costs on Alaska Households

      Saylor, Ben; Haley, Sharman (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2006)
      Households in remote rural places face utility costs 50% higher now than in 2000. In Anchorage those costs are up 35% and in other large or road-system communities about 39%. The share of household income going to utilities is also up. Utility costs in urban and rural areas are now anywhere from about 3% to 10% of income for the typical household. Those are median figures for all households. Utilities take a much bigger share of income among low-income households. Utility costs now amount to more than a third of income among low-income households in remote places. These are among the findings of an ISER analysis of how rising energy prices have increased utility costs for Alaska households since 2000.
    • Effects of the 2002 Chignik Cooperative: A Survey of Chignik Salmon Permit Holders

      DeRoche, Patricia; Hill, Alexandra; Knapp, Gunnar; Silver, Darla (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      This report presents the results of a survey of Chignik Salmon Purse Seine permit holders about management changes in the Chignik salmon fishery and the effects of the 2002 Chignik salmon cooperative. In January 2002, the Alaska Board of Fisheries passed regulations that established criteria and management measures for a cooperative fishery in the Chignik purse seine salmon fishery. Under the regulations, if 51 or more Chignik permit holders chose to join a cooperative, the cooperative would receive an allocation of a percentage of the Chignik sockeye salmon harvest. The purpose of the regulations was to allow permit holders the opportunity to fish cooperatively to reduce costs, improve quality and increase value by reducing the number of vessels fishing and slowing down the fishery. Permit holders who chose not to join the cooperative could fish in an “open” or “independent” fishery with a separate allocation. Subsequently the Chignik Seafood Producers Alliance (CSPA) formed as a cooperative in accordance with the new regulations. In 2002, 77 Chignik permit holders joined the Co-op, 22 permit holders chose to fish independently in the open fishery, and 1 permit holder did not join the cooperative and also did not fish. This report is based on the 89 survey responses that we received by January 15, 2003. (An earlier report was based on the 80 responses received by December 3, 2002.)
    • Effects of the Chignik Cooperative: What the Permit Holders Say

      Hill, Alexandra; Knapp, Gunnar (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      The value to fishermen of the 2002 Alaska salmon harvest was $141 million—less than one-third of the $481 million average value of catches in the first half of the 1990s. Many factors contributed to this decline, including not only competition from farmed salmon, but also lower sockeye salmon harvests, changes in consumer demand, and a worldwide economic slowdown. These changes have created discussions throughout the salmon industry—among fishermen, processors, fishery managers, and government officials—about how to restore profitability to the salmon industry. Part of the discussion has been about options for “restructuring” the management of salmon fisheries to lower costs, increase value, or steer more of the benefits to Alaskans and their communities.
    • Elder Abuse: More Than 1 in 9 Alaskan Women 60+ Experienced Abuse in the Past Year (transcript)

      Rosay, André B.; Casto, L. Diane (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage; Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault, Alaska Department of Public Safety, 2017-06-14)
      [This is a transcript of a video presentation, which can be found at https://youtu.be/DT5KdyOmNJE.] Dr. Andre Rosay, director of the Justice Center at University of Alaska Anchorage, presents findings from the Alaska Victimization Survey with L. Diane Casto, executive director of the Alaska Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (CDVSA), which funds the Alaska Victimization Survey. Results show that 11.5% or 1 in 9 Alaskan women aged 60 and older experienced psychological or physical abuse in the past year.
    • Electricity in Alaska: A Growing and Changing Picture

      Fay, Ginny; Meléndez, Alejandra Villalobos (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-04)
      You might think Alaskans are using more electricity at home now than they did in 1980, since many live in bigger houses, own more appliances, and have computers and other electronics that were rare 30 years ago. But you’d be wrong: per person residential use of electricity is actually a bit lower today—probably due to a combination of more efficient appliances and increased conservation, as energy prices rose. What did jump sharply was commercial and industrial use per person, reflecting the major economic growth that in recent decades has made Alaska’s economy far bigger and more diverse. This summary shows changes over time in use of electricity in Alaska and describes the current picture, including use by region and sources of electricity—especially renewable sources.
    • Elementary Stem Program project management plan

      Swann, Michael (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-12-01)
      This project produced a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) summer program. A multi-phased process was used to determine the appropriate course of action for data collection and a summer program curriculum creation. The summer program and curriculum will be used as a blueprint for improving the current elementary school program. Phase one included assessment of educator’s and students’ utilization of the existing STEM program, through surveys, observation, and interviews. Phase two analyzed data obtained through phase one, providing an outline of the STEM program status. Phase three used data obtained from phases one and two, creating a single, week-long summer STEM program curriculum. Standardized STEM lesson specifications along with benchmarking were utilized for curriculum creation. The summer program consists of three rotational lab stations: an outdoor exploration and discovery lab, an outdoor hands-on engineering lab, and an indoor technology-based lab. The school has committed to use the lessons learned and curriculum as a foundation for future summer camps. Lessons learned from this project were provided to the elementary school to implement and improve the current STEM program and it was successful.
    • Embracing Two Spirit Identity

      Miller, Jenny; Bean, Will; McDermott, Tuigana (University of Alaska Anchorage. Bookstore, 2017-04-18)
      Founders of Aurora Pride, an Indigenous LGBTQ2 (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and Two-Spirit) support group, Jenny Miller, Will Bean, and Tuigana McDermott come together to discuss "Two Spirit Identity" and its distinctive meaning in Alaska Native and indigenous communities. Jenny Miller created "Continuous," a photographic portraiture series documenting the experiences of Alaska Native LGBTQ2 Two Spirit peoples from distinctive tribal backgrounds. She graduated from the University of Washington with a BFA in Photomedia and a BA in American Indian Studies.
    • Emergency Preparedness Among Older Adults in Issaquah, Washington

      Johnson, Marisa P. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-05-01)
      Using the Health Belief Model, this project practicum explored emergency preparedness through interviews with fourteen study participants sixty-five years old or older and three key informants. The goals of this project practicum were to understand the potential needs of adults sixty-five years old and older in an emergency or disaster and to improve the effectiveness of emergency outreach education and messaging. Prior storm experience and reported time living in Issaquah appeared to influence preparedness activity among study participants. Exposure to media and emergency preparedness messaging appeared to have a lesser effect on emergency preparedness activity. Project practicum results suggest that help from neighbors, friends, and family may be the best way to keep vulnerable older adults safe in an emergency or disaster. Thus, these neighbors, friends, and family need to know about emergency preparedness even though it seems to be less effective than life experience. The City of Issaquah appears to be on the right track educating people with its Map Your Neighborhood, Citizen Emergency Response Team training program, and its emergency preparedness booths at community events.
    • Emerging Anthropogenic Influences on the Southcentral Alaska Temperature and Precipitation Extremes and Related Fires in 2019

      Berman, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer; Bhatt, Uma S.; Lader, Rick T.; Walsh, John E.; Bieniek, Peter A.; Thoman, Richard L.; Borries-Strigle, Cecilia; Bulock, Kristi; Chriest, Jonathan; et al. (MDPI, 2021-01-17)
      The late-season extreme fire activity in Southcentral Alaska during 2019 was highly unusual and consequential. Firefighting operations had to be extended by a month in 2019 due to the extreme conditions of hot summer temperature and prolonged drought. The ongoing fires created poor air quality in the region containing most of Alaska’s population, leading to substantial impacts to public health. Suppression costs totaled over $70 million for Southcentral Alaska. This study’s main goals are to place the 2019 season into historical context, provide an attribution analysis, and assess future changes in wildfire risk in the region. The primary tools are meteorological observations and climate model simulations from the NCAR CESM Large Ensemble (LENS). The 2019 fire season in Southcentral Alaska included the hottest and driest June–August season over the 1979–2019 period. The LENS simulation analysis suggests that the anthropogenic signal of increased fire risk had not yet emerged in 2019 because of the CESM’s internal variability, but that the anthropogenic signal will emerge by the 2040–2080 period. The effect of warming temperatures dominates the effect of enhanced precipitation in the trend towards increased fire risk.
    • Employee Comments Concerning PSO Assignment Length and Rotation Policies and Procedures

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1993-12-08)
      At the request of the North Slope Borough Department of Public Safety (NSBDPS), the Justice Center conducted a survey of NSBDPS employees which elicted employee opinions about their jobs, the public, and the NSBDPS's role. Both sworn and nonsworn employees were surveyed. This brief report extracts comments made by employees to specific questions from the survey concerning Public Safety Officer (PSO) assignment lengths in rural villages and rotation policies. For each question included, the text of the question is presented, followed by employee comments. Aggregated results of the survey were reported in a conference paper presented in Reno, Nevada in 1993 (https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/10005).