• Expanded Brownfields Program Supports Redevelopment in Alaska

      UAA Justice Center (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-07-16)
      The Environmental Protection Agency’s Brownfields Program support the redevelopment of property which may have contaminants from prior use. Anchorage, Mat-Su Borough, and Kodiak Island Borough are current recipients of Brownfields funds. This year Congress increased grant limits under the Brownfields Program and expanded eligibility requirements. Alaska Native villages and corporations that received a contaminated facility from the U.S. government under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) are now eligible for Brownfields grants.
    • Expanded View of Recidivism in Alaska

      Valle, Araceli (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2018-01-16)
      This article describes findings on recidivism over an eight-year period for individuals released from Alaska Department of Corrections facilities in 2007. These findings emerged from the Alaska Results First (RF) analysis released by Alaska Justice Information Center (AJiC) in October 2017. In general, the RF findings corroborate previous analyses which examined recidivism patterns one to three years after release, but by following offenders for eight years, AJiC is expanding our understanding of recidivism patterns in Alaska for a large group of offenders, beyond any prior study.
    • The Experience of Informal Caregivers for Persons with Metastatic Cancer Perceptions of Support

      Fossler, Erica (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-12-01)
      Purpose/Objectives: To investigate the experience and perceptions of support of caregivers for persons with advanced cancer. Research Approach: A qualitative descriptive approach using focus groups to explore the caregiver experience. Setting: An outpatient oncology infusion center in southcentral Alaska. Participants: 14 adult caregivers of persons with stage IV cancer. Methodologic Approach: Participants attended one of two focus groups. They were asked to share their experiences as informal caregivers. Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Krueger’s method for content coding and data analysis was used to identify themes (1998). Findings: Key themes that emerged during data analysis included internal stressors such as emotional and psychological distress, and external stressors of needed financial support and nutritional information, suggesting the stated need of a more comprehensive care approach. Conclusions: Participants recognized needs but did not feel they were supported in accessing resources. The experience of caregiving was often abrupt in onset in this population and the overwhelming amount of information they received did not include enough information on the act of caregiving or the resources available. Implications for Nursing: Advanced practice nurses are instrumental in identifying and addressing caregiver needs. As patient educators and advocates, they provide education and resource support to both the patients and the caregivers in an effort to minimize caregiver exhaustion.
    • Experiences of Opioid Use Initiation and Progression among Alaskans who Use Heroin

      Barnett, Jodi; Hanson, Bridget (Center for Behavioral Health Research and Services, 2018)
      The opioid epidemic has continued in Alaska and nationwide. Information about the types of opioids that are misused first, the age of first use, and the circumstances and mode of initial and progressive use of opioids can help to inform effective prevention and early intervention efforts. These topics were explored during interviews with adults in Alaska who use heroin for the Partnerships for Success project. Results indicate that most participants were exposed to opioids through a legitimate prescription in their teens to early twenties for a severe injury or multiple surgeries before developing an addiction. Some obtained prescription opioids for misuse initially from social sources such as a friend, at a party, or stealing them from a neighbor. Only two participants began their use of opioids with heroin. All participants eventually went on to use heroin which became cheaper, more effective, and easier to obtain than prescription opioids. Few participants indicated that social influences, rather than price or availability, were a factor in their transition to heroin. Recommendations and an overview of recent state prevention initiatives and policy efforts related to the findings are presented.
    • An Exploration of Experiences and Outcomes of Alaska Native Graduates of Mt. Edgecumbe High School

      Hirshberg, Diane; DelMoral, Brit (Center for Alaska Education Policy Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2009-04-01)
      In Alaska’s schools, indigenous1 students are the most at risk of any ethnic group of failing to thrive; they drop out more frequently, are less likely to graduate, and generally have lower educational attainment than non-Native students(Martin and Hill, 2009). Indeed, the situation appears to be worsening. The dropout rate of Alaska Native students living in all areas of Alaska besides Anchorage has risen from 0.7 percent in 1996 to 3.3 percent in 2001 (Goldsmith et al. 2004). Dropout rates among all Native students in Alaska increased from 5 percent to almost 10 percent between 1998 and 2001, while the dropout rate among non-Native students increased from about 3 percent to 5 percent (ibid). In addition, low test scores are preventing many students from graduating from high school—almost half of Alaska Native students are not passing the reading section of the High-School Graduation Qualifying Exam. The educational system in Alaska is failing to provide Alaska Native students the skills necessary either for postsecondary academic work or success in the job market, if that is what they desire. However, one secondary school, Mt. Edgecumbe High School, a boarding school located in Southeast Alaska that serves predominately rural and Alaska Native students, has produced students that consistently outperform their peers, both indigenous and nonNative. The reputation of the school has been strong for decades, based on both historic and recent accomplishments of its alumni. However, the experiences of recent alumni at the school and their professional and educational attainment after high school had not been looked at systematically for a number of years. This paper is the result of a study conducted by the authors on recent graduates of Mt. Edgecumbe High School (MEHS), at the suggestion of school administrators. Our case study attempts to capture the educational, social, and cultural experiences of the students while they attended the boarding school, and the impacts the school has had on their lives. With this research we hope to inform the decisions o f policymakers and educators, indigenous and non-Native alike, regarding rural secondary schooling options in Alaska for indigenous children across the state.
    • Exploration of Why Alaskans Use Complementary Medicine: A Focus Group Study

      Heafner, Jessica (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2014-01-01)
      Purpose: To explore why Alaskans choose to pursue complementary medicine as a healthcare option. Design: Qualitative Descriptive. Method: A purposive convenient recruitment methodology was used to recruit project participants. Focus groups were conducted to collect the research data. Findings: Five themes were identified that highlighted why participants use complementary medicine: 1) dissatisfaction, 2) effective, 3) holistic, 4) relationship focused, and 5) a personal journey
    • Exploratory Spatial Analyses of Sexual Assaults in Anchorage

      Rosay, André B.; Langworthy, Robert H. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2004-04)
      Using data on the locations of sexual assaults reported to the Anchorage Police Department in 2000 and 2001, the authors used Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis techniques to (1) identify the locations where sexual assaults were concentrated and (2) examine the correlates of these spatial concentrations. In both analyses, the authors also examined differences between white and Native victimizations. The spatial concentrations of sexual assault victimizations vary significantly by race, as do the correlates of the respective spatial concentrations. The authors conclude that there is a relationship between assault locations and bar locations, but that the relationship far from perfect and the question of whether there is a causal mechanism exists remains unknown. Nonetheless, successful interventions to prevent sexual assaults must involve bars; but targeting bars will be both inefficient and insufficient for fully addressing the problem of sexual assault prevention in Anchorage.
    • An Exploratory Study of Changes Accompanying the Implementation of a Community-Based, Participatory Team Police Organizational Model

      Angell, John E. (Michigan State University, 1975)
      This exploratory research examines the attitudes of citizens, police clientele, and police in an area where a decentralized, participatory (collegial) team police operation has been implemented, and compares these attitudes with those in a similar neighborhood policed by a classical organizational structure and traditional procedures. The Team Police Model of this study consisted basically of 15 generalist police officers who, with the participation of local citizens, were responsible for defining police goals, priorities and procedures and providing all police services in a precisely defined, low-economic, minority, residential area of Holyoke, Massachusetts for a test period of approximately nine months. The Team used collegial methods for decisionmaking and task forces for performing management functions. The Team followed a "service", rather than "law enforcement" operational philosophy. The control neighborhood was policed by an organization arrangement which was in general consistent with Classical tenets as stated by Max Weber. A traditional "law enforcement" philosophy was used in the Classical neighborhood. The basic assumption underlying this study was police effectiveness in crime prevention and order maintenance is dependent on a supportive public. The primary problem researched was whether public and clientele attitudes toward the police were more supportive in the Team Police than a Classical Police area. Of secondary concern was the impact of the Team Police experiment on police officers attitudes. Perhaps the most important conclusion to be derived from this study is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the collegial Team Police Model as implemented in this project did not have a negative impact on any variable investigated. The positive impact of the project on most variables supports the value of further research with a community-based, collegial team organizational structure for police services.
    • Exploring the Link between Visits and Parole Success: A Survey of Prison Visitors [manuscript]

      Schafer, N. E. (Exploring the Link between Visits and Parole Success: A Survey of Prison Visitors [manuscript], 1992-08-13)
      An exploratory survey of visitors to two men's prisons finds that the visitors differ in some significant ways from prisoners' families previously described in the literature. The results raise some questions about the correlation that has been established between visits and post-release success and provoke suggestions for in-depth research into visitor/prisoner relationships.
    • Exploring the Term “Resilience” in Arctic Health and Well-Being Using a Sharing Circle as a Community-Centered Approach: Insights from a Conference Workshop

      Healey Akearok, Gwen; Cueva, Katie; Stoor, Jon; Larsen, Christina; Rink, Elizabeth; Kanayurak, Nicole; Emelyanova, Anastasia; Hiratsuka, Vanessa (MDPI AG, 2019-02-02)
      In the field of Arctic health, “resilience” is a term and concept used to describe capacity to recover from difficulties. While the term is widely used in Arctic policy contexts, there is debate at the community level on whether “resilience” is an appropriate term to describe the human dimensions of health and wellness in the Arctic. Further, research methods used to investigate resilience have largely been limited to Western science research methodologies, which emphasize empirical quantitative studies and may not mirror the perspective of the Arctic communities under study. To explore conceptions of resilience in Arctic communities, a Sharing Circle was facilitated at the International Congress on Circumpolar Health in 2018. With participants engaging from seven of the eight Arctic countries, participants shared critiques of the term “resilience,” and their perspectives on key components of thriving communities. Upon reflection, this use of a Sharing Circle suggests that it may be a useful tool for deeper investigations into health-related issues affecting Arctic Peoples. The Sharing Circle may serve as a meaningful methodology for engaging communities using resonant research strategies to decolonize concepts of resilience and highlight new dimensions for promoting thriving communities in Arctic populations.
    • Expungement and Limiting Public Access to Alaska Criminal Case Records in the Digital Age

      Armstrong, Barbara; Periman, Deborah (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-06-15)
      A criminal record results in a number of different barriers to reentry into the community for former offenders. These barriers — also called collateral consequences — can be mitigated by reducing the extent to which criminal records are visible to employers, landlords, and others. This article provides an overview of the complexity involved in limiting public access to criminal records, processes adopted in other states, and recent legislative proposals and current options in Alaska.
    • The Extent of Homelessness in the Kenai Peninsula Borough

      Wilson, Meghan; Lowe, Marie (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      In 2007, Love INC asked the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) to conduct a study investigating the characteristics of the homeless population within the boundaries of the Kenai Peninsula Borough. Love INC is currently in the pre-development phase of creating a transitional housing facility on the Kenai Peninsula. ISER conducted phone interviews with relevant agencies serving the Kenai’s homeless population. These interviews yielded demographic information on the homeless population and provided both the current housing status of Kenai homeless and reasons for homelessness today. Men, women, and youth utilize homeless services on the Kenai Peninsula; they are between the ages of 25 – 40 years old and the majority are ethnically Euro American or Alaska Native. The Alaska Housing and Finance Authority 2006 summer survey indicates 28 individuals were identified as homeless in the Homer area and 58 individuals were reported in the Kenai area while the other main communities of Seward and Soldotna were not included. The overall homeless population is difficult to enumerate because of their transience and because oftentimes a state of homelessness is variable and/or temporary. Given these constraints we estimate there are approximately between 400 and 500 homeless individuals on the Kenai Peninsula per year; the majority in the community of Kenai.
    • The Extralegal Forum and Legal Power: The Dynamics of the Relationship — Other Pipelines

      Conn, Stephen (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1974-02-26)
      Diverse groups — e.g., Brazilian squatters, Navajos, village Eskimos and Indians — look to special forums to resolve disputes outside the formal legal system. These forums are employed because they accept disputes as defined by their clients and offer remedies based upon these conceptualizations. Formal agents of the law in their environments cannot do this. When these forums are extralegal (without formal legal authority to act) and are located in an environment where the formal legal process has the theoretical capacity to intervene in the disputes, they must tap into authentic lines of power to maintain their credibility with their constituents. Legal power is not usually formally delegated without defined limits upon its use. Because extralegal forums often must be free from the constraints of particular norms and processes, in order to correctly define and remedy disputes, extralegal forums seek borrowed power through special relationships with formal agents of legal power. Then they reapply it to meet the needs of their constituents. This paper describes the ways to study these relationships and their likely impact upon an informal forum. The author suggests a way of viewing extralegal dispute resolution in a given community against the larger matrix of relationships between the formal and informal legal process. He draws upon his field work in Brazilian squatter colonies, Navajo Indian communities, and rural Athabascan and Eskimo villages in Alaska.
    • FAA Capstone Program: Phase I Interim Safety Study (2002)

      Berman, Matthew (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      The Capstone Phase I area is a geographic region from 58° to 64° north latitude and 155° to 167° west longitude (Figure 1-1, next page). Nearly all the Capstone Phase I ground systems and avionics are in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta within the Capstone area. Bethel is the aviation center of the delta. It is also the largest community in the Y-K Delta and the economic, governmental, and cultural center of the region. Aniak to the northeast and St. Marys to the northwest are also economic and mail distribution hubs for the delta. The economic, social, political, cultural, and regulatory factors affecting aviation safety in the Y-K Delta—and the Capstone-equipped aircraft flying there—are the focus of this report. The Capstone area does include communities outside the Y-K Delta—Iliamna, Unalakleet, Dillingham, King Salmon and McGrath— but the focus of Capstone activity is aircraft and flight activity based in Bethel, Aniak, and St. Marys. This report builds on two previous reports, Air Safety in Southwest Alaska – Capstone Baseline Safety Report (baseline report) and the Capstone Phase I Interim Safety Study, 2000/2001 (interim study).
    • FAA Capstone Program: Phase II Baseline Report (Southeast Alaska)

      Berman, Matthew; Daniels, Wayne; Brian, Jerry; Hill, Alexandra; Kirk, Leonard; Martin, Stephanie; Seger, Jason; Wiita, Amy (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      This report provides the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with information on air safety and aviation infrastructure in southeast Alaska as of December 31, 2002. The data will establish a baseline to enable the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) to conduct an independent evaluation of how the Capstone program affects aviation safety in the region. The FAA contracted with UAA’s Institute of Social and Economic Research and Aviation Technology Division to do a variety of training and evaluation tasks related to the Capstone program. The program is a joint effort of industry and the FAA to improve aviation safety and efficiency in select regions of Alaska, through government-furnished avionics equipment and improvements in ground infrastructure.
    • Factors Influencing Success of Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems in Remote Alaska Communities: Results of an Informal Survey

      Fay, Ginny; Udovyk, Nataliya (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2011-10)
      In 2008 the Alaska State Legislature created and funded the Renewable Energy Fund. As a result of this available funding, the number of wind-diesel hybrid power systems is increasing dramatically in rural Alaska. Development, integration, and operation of complex wind technologies in remote, rural communities are challenging. With multiple communities in Alaska installing and operating these systems, it is important to understand the factors that influence successful completion, operation and long-term maintenance of projects (Fay, Schwoerer and Keith 2010; Colt, Goldsmith and Wiita 2003). As of fall 2011, over $107 million has been spent constructing wind projects in 27 communities (Alaska Energy Authority 2011). The majority of these systems were built since 2008 and utilized $50.8 million in appropriations from the REF by the Alaska legislature (Fay, Crimp and Villalobos-Melendez 2011) This report summarizes the findings of an informal survey conducted on the most important characteristics of a successful wind-diesel hybrid power project in small remote rural communities. The survey was done to help guide socioeconomic research in Alaska on community capacity under a U.S. Department of Energy project entitled “Making Wind Work for Alaska: Supporting the Development of Sustainable, Resilient, Cost-Effective Wind-Diesel Systems for Isolated Communities”.
    • Facts of the Matter: Looking Past Today's Rhetoric on the Environment and Responsible Development

      Parish, David (University of Alaska Anchorage. Bookstore, 2019-02-04)
      In his highly acclaimed book, Facts of the Matter: Looking Past Today's Rhetoric on the Environment and Responsible Development, Alaskan David Parish promotes a fact-based approach toward environmental stewardship, responsible development, improved public health, and the elimination of poverty. In it, he examines how the traditional approaches to natural resource development, with the "us versus them" divides, can be bridged. David Parish has worked around the globe as an independent business and nonprofit consultant, lobbyist, and entrepreneur. For over 30 years, Alaska has been his home base for his diverse set of local, national and international clients that include energy and mining industry leaders as well as environmental activists and Indigenous leaders. “His goal is to spearhead a real conversation about environment, economic growth, and the needs of our increasing global population.”
    • Fairbanks Gang Assessment

      Parker, Khristy; McMullen, Jennifer; Rosay, André B.; Daniels, Shea (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2010-05)
      The Justice Center at University of Alaska Anchorage partnered with the Fairbanks Gang Reduction and Intervention Network (GRAIN) to perform a thorough assessment of the gang problem in Fairbanks following the protocol outlined by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)’s Comprehensive Gang Model. Law enforcement data show that there are at least 12 active gangs in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, with the percentage of crime reported to law enforcement attributable to gangs (2007-2009) varying from a low of 4.3% in 2007 to a high of 7.2% in 2008. The complete assessment, contained in this report, includes a review of community demographic data, law enforcement data, student and school data, and community perceptions data.
    • Faith-based motivation for health behavior change: a pilot of the Daniel Plan in a small, rural Alaskan community

      Williams, Anna J. (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2017-05-01)
      Motivating patients to make beneficial lifestyle changes such as improved diet and exercise habits is a challenging but important role for Nurse Practitioners. This project addressed this problem by exploring one promising method for motivating patients, that of faith-based interventions. The Daniel Plan, a previously successful faith-based, six-week small group study was implemented in a small, rural Alaskan community. Data collection included biometric measurements and self-report questionnaires on nutrition and physical activity. All those who completed the study lost weight and improved their diet and exercise habits. Participants reported that the group setting and the spiritual focus were most effective in facilitating their positive changes. These results support previous evidence that faith-based wellness interventions should be considered as a valuable tool for facilitating health behavior changes. They also indicate the importance of incorporating spirituality assessments into the care of patients as a potential way of motivating them to make such changes. More specifically, this project identified that the Daniel Plan was an effective program to recommend to those patients who identify with Biblical teachings.
    • FASD Costs: Evidence from Hawaii Medicaid Data

      Hanson, Bridget; Porter, Rebecca; Guettabi, Mouhcine (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2019)
      Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), a collection of permanent yet preventable developmental disabilities and birth defects resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure, are associated with substantial costs. We use information from Hawaii Medicaid data for individuals who have at least one FASD-related condition. The total spending for these individuals between 2011 and 2015 was $460,515,584. Of that total, more than $32 million is directly associated with FASD-related visits/codes. We find that the average FASD-related visit costs $121, which is more expensive than the average medicaid visit. We also find that the frequency of FASD-related visits increases with age. We find evidence that the number of initial conditions is positively associated with the number of visits and accumulated medical costs and that 20% of the patients are responsible for 85.85% of the total spending. This paper was supported by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cooperative Agreement 5NU01DD001143.