• Establishing Reasons and Recommendation on How to Increase Biomedical Technical Training in Alaska

      Fuqua, Julianna (2016-12-01)
      There is an acknowledgement in literature about the increasing healthcare needs, and the disparity among rural area healthcare needs. This project explores and establishes that there is a need for increased biomedical technical training in the State of Alaska. The need and recommendations are discovered through research of current methods within the State and in other locations and analyzes different ways they are currently obtained in Alaska, and suggest hiring locally as a way to increase the number of trained biomedical technicians in Alaska.
    • Estimated Costs to Alaskans of the Proposed 1993 BTU Energy Tax

      Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1993)
      The BTU tax proposed by the Clinton administration in March 1993 levied an excise tax on all forms of energy at the rate of 25. 7 cents per million Btus of heat content. In addition, a surcharge of 34.2 cents per million Btus was to be added for all petroleum-based fuels. The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) developed a worksheet for estimating direct and indirect Btu taxes to households. We used this methodology to estimate overall taxes that would be paid by Alaskans. We made one adjustment to the NASEO methodology by removing the direct consumption of coal by the military from the analysis. Under the adjusted NASEO methodology, the average Alaskan household would pay a total of $154 per year in direct taxes for energy consumed by the household, plus about $251 in indirect taxes, mostly in the form of higher prices for goods and services which use energy in their production. These calculations assign all of the costs of the Btu tax to United States households. Therefore, there is no additional tax burden which falls separately on "business," and in reality some of the tax burden would fall on foreigners.
    • Estimated Household Costs for Home Energy Use

      Saylor, Ben; Haley, Sharman; Szymoniak, Nick (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2008-05)
      This memo estimates how much of their income Alaska households spend for home energy uses, after years of rising energy prices.1 We made the estimates at the request of State Senator Lyman Hoffman. We include costs for electricity, heat, and other home energy uses—but do not include costs for transportation fuel. Keep in mind that these are truly estimates. Because of time lags in data collection and reporting, actual consumer price data for 2008 are not available. To estimate consumer energy prices as of May 2008, we used statistical models of the relationship between oil prices and consumer prices. We also used the most recent data on per capita personal income from the Bureau of Economic Analysis to estimate 2007 annual household income. These estimates are likely to overstate actual household expenditures. As energy costs rise, households find ways to consume less. How much less, we don’t know. For these estimates, we used consumption households reported at the time of the 2000 U.S. Census. Also, the estimates in this memo reflect what energy would cost households for a year, at May 2008 prices. Consumers of course haven’t yet seen a full year at these prices, and we don’t know where prices will go from here.2 Therefore, these estimates are really like a cost index—that is, they estimate what it would cost to buy a specific amount of energy, at specific prices. That’s not the same as actual annual household expenditures. Still, these estimates give a good picture of what
    • Estimating Future Costs for Alaska Public Infrastructure At Risk from Climate Change

      Saylor, Ben; Larsen, Peter; Goldsmith, Scott; Wilson, Meghan; Smith, Orson; Strzepek, Ken; Chinowsky, Paul (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2007)
      Scientists expect Alaska’s climate to get warmer in the coming years— and the changing climate could make it roughly 10% to 20% more expensive to build and maintain public infrastructure in Alaska between now and 2030 and 10% more expensive between now and 2080. These are the first estimates of how much climate change might add to future costs for public infrastructure in Alaska, and they are preliminary. “Public infrastructure” means all the federal, state, and local infrastructure that keeps Alaska functioning: roads, bridges, airports, harbors, schools, military bases, post offices, fire stations, sanitation systems, the power grid, and more. Privately owned infrastructure will also be affected by climate change, but this analysis looks only at public infrastructure.
    • Estimating Visits to Denali National Park and Preserve

      Fix, Peter; Ackerman, Andrew; Fay, Ginny (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1/1/13)
    • Evaluating Differences in Household Subsistence Harvest Patterns between the Ambler Project and Non-Project Zones

      Guettabi, Mouhcine; Greenberg, Joshua; Little, Joseph; Joly, Kyle (National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016-08-01)
      Western Alaska is one of largest inhabited, roadless areas in North America and, indeed, the world. Access, via a new road that would transverse Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (GAAR), to a mining district in a vast roadless section of northwest Alaska has been proposed. Given the potential effects of the road on nearby communities, we analyzed how communities connected to the road system compare to their unconnected counterparts. Specifically, using zero inflated negative binomial models, we analyzed subsistence harvest data to understand factors that influence subsistence production at the household level. We found substantial difference in these factors between communities near the proposed road (project zone (PZ) communities and a comparable set of road accessible communities outside the region, and were affected by household characteristics such as the gender of the head of household, number of children, and income. Total subsistence production of project zone communities was 1.8 – 2.5 times greater than that of non-project zone communities. Communities with a higher percentage of Alaska Native residents had greater per capita subsistence harvests. Higher household income levels were associated with lower subsistence harvest levels. Roads can provide access for hunters from outside the region to traditional subsistence hunting grounds used by local residents that would not be very accessible if not for the road. Our proxy for competition (number of nonlocal moose hunters) indicates that resident moose harvest amounts are inversely related to the number of hunters in a particular area. If subsistence harvest patterns for project zone communities currently off the road changed to mirror existing non-project zone harvests due to the road, the financial cost would be USD $6,900 – 10,500 per household per year (assuming an $8/lb. ‘replacement’ cost for subsistence harvests). This represents about 33% of the median household income. Taken together, our results suggest that the proposed road should be expected to substantially impact subsistence production in communities that are not currently connected to the road system. The scale of our data did not allow for the comparison of the impacts of the different proposed routes but the impacts of different routes is likely minor in relation to the presence or absence of the proposed road
    • Evaluating the Patient Experience in Outpatient Detoxification: Implications for Improvement of the Early Stages of Alcohol and/or Opioid Use Disorder and Recovery Treatment Processs

      Ampong, David Nana (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2021-05-01)
      Background and Literature Review: Anchorage is among the cities besieged by the alcohol and opioid crisis. The city has numerous outpatient MAT programs and substance treatment settings that can provide outpatient detoxification programs. Although the literature supports outpatient detoxification as feasible, safe, and affordable, it does not provide a specific model of outpatient detoxification. The Alaska Treatment Center (ATC) offers outpatient detoxification based on a biopsychosocial model of detoxification. Since the ATC outpatient detoxification seeks to expand treatment through this model, it is necessary to evaluate the patients’ experiences to improve clinical practice and substance treatment. Purpose: This project aimed to evaluate patient experiences in outpatient detoxification at ATC and identify promising strategies for improvement of the model to formulate strategic practice advancement using empirical data from participants. Methods: The project was quasi-experimental in design and informed by Lewin’s three stage change model. Descriptive statistics of demographic and survey responses were presented using frequencies and percentages for categorical and ordinal variables. A 45-item survey collapsed into three areas: the initial encounter, relationship during treatment, and overall impression. A spearman’s rank correlation was conducted to test the internal consistency and construct validity of the instrument. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ .05. All analyses were conducted using SPSS Version 26. Implementation Plan/Procedure: The Generic Short Patient Experiences Questionnaire (GSPEQ) was modified and approved for use in this project by the University of Alaska Anchorage Institutional Review Board. The survey instrument was administered to 42 participants who received outpatient detoxification from ATC. The findings revealed successful completion rate of detoxification, with a significant correlation between before detoxification, rho = 0.1414, p = .007, and after detoxification, rho = -0.439, p = .769. Conclusion: The findings led to a modification of the ATC biopsychosocial model to encompass theoretical, contextual, conceptual, systematical, empirical, and implementational analysis. Consequently, flow charts, modified decision trees, and theory of change were integrated into the ATC policies and the electronic medical record. The project revealed that detoxification is a vital step in substance treatment and may be successfully provided in outpatient treatment settings using the right model of treatment. Organizational changes such as hiring additional staff and sharing the model with other MAT programs are still in progress.
    • Evaluation Capacity Building in Pretrial Diversion Services: A Case Study

      Partch, Serena Shores; Edwards, Steven M.; Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1984-03-27)
      Despite increasing use of adult pretrial diversion programs in recent years, the limited capacity to produce, analyze, and translate evaluation data in pretrial diversion programs has frequently resulted in policy and programmatic decisions being made on the basis of little or no empirical information. This paper presents a case study of the development of an evaluation system for the Alaska Pretrial Intervention (PTI) program of the Alaska Department of Law which can generate timely results for policymaking as well as monitor staff productivity.
    • Evaluation of a JAIBG-Funded Project: Voice and Location Telephone Monitoring of Juveniles

      Schafer, N. E.; Martin, Pamela (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2001-03)
      Direct supervision of juvenile probationers is seldom possible in many communities in Alaska due to their remoteness, so alternative supervision strategies are desirable. Electronic monitoring or voice recognition systems can substitute for institutionalization or face-to-face supervision by a probation officer. This report describes and evaluates the use of a voice and location telephone monitoring system for the supervision of juvenile probationers throught the Mat-Su Youth Corrections Office in Palmer. In practice, VALUE — Voice And Location Update Evaluation — was used primarily as a transitional tool for clients "stepping down" from traditional electronic monitoring to release from supervision.
    • Evaluation of a JAIBG-Funded Project: Emmonak Elders' Group

      Schafer, N. E.; Knox, Corey (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 2001-07)
      Since 1999, the Emmonak Elders' Group Project has handled certain non-felony juvenile cases in the village of Emmonak, a predominately Yup'ik community on the Yukon Delta of western Alaska. The project permits youth to remain within the community while their offenses are adjudicated through the body of elders – thus avoiding formal justice system processing which usually entails removal from the village. Youths are held accountable within the context of the local community and its traditions. This article describes the results of an initial evaluation of the program in early 2001, after the court had been in operation for approximately a year and a half. The evaluation comprised a review of program files, direct observations of meetings, discussions with community residents and interviews with parents and juveniles. It primarily focused on project implementation: how the court was established, its procedures, and the working relationships among institutions and individual participants.
    • Evaluation of a Public Health Nursing Expedited Partner Therapy Program

      McNulty, Colleen (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) is an important strategy in reducing reinfection for clients with a positive chlamydia or gonorrhea lab test. It also reduces the time it takes to treat partners, therefore decreasing the rapid spread of these diseases. In 2012, the Alaska Section of Public Health Nursing began to establish an EPT process. The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine uptake in EPT clinical services and to identify barriers both in the process and in staff knowledge and support of EPT practice. Several methods of data collection were used including historical data review, focus group discussion and online survey. Based on the data review, EPT was offered to only 13.7% of clients with a positive chlamydia and/or gonorrhea tests, although of the clients who used EPT, 94.7% reported that using EPT was a positive option for them. Both the focus group discussion and online survey demonstrated that the process set up for provision of EPT by public health nurses was lengthy and difficult for staff to follow. There were also barriers with nurses using EPT due to fear of a potential allergic reaction (35.4%) and fear it could increase antimicrobial resistance (12.5%). The recommendations made were to: reduce the number of required steps of the process for providing EPT to clients; provide ongoing education on evidence-based reporting of EPT services; and to provide support for the public health nurse staff.
    • An Evaluation of Cancer Education Webinars in Alaska.

      Cueva, Katie; Cueva, Melany; Revels, Laura; Hensel, Michelle; Dignan, Mark (2019-11-27)
    • Evaluation of Future Purposes and Functions of the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority

      Essayad, Musa; Gordon, David (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 1990)
      In their endeavor to sketch a strategic plan for the 1990s, the board of directors of the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) asked the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) of the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) to render independent, professional advice on how to establish a framework for evaluating AIDEA's direction and options for the future. The analysis and findings of the study are based on the policy and functional issues unique to AIDEA, and on the experiences of similar development financing institutions in other countries. A summary of findings and recommendations follows this introduction, and four subsequent chapters detail our findings.
    • An Evaluation of Oral Health Training for Long-Term Care Facility Staff and its Relation to Residents' Dental Plaque Levels

      Barrow, Olivia Christine (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2016-08-01)
      The overall goal of this project was to decrease dental plaque scores of residents living at Wild Flower Court (WFC) facility through improved oral health education of staff members. The examiner evaluated WFC nursing staff’s knowledge on providing patients with oral care and denture maintenance both before and after oral care training. The staff knowledge levels were correlated with residents’ plaque levels to determine if a relationship existed. The hypothesis was that WFC residents would have lower dental plaque levels after nursing staff received the oral health and denture maintenance training. Twenty-seven full-time WFC staff members received the oral health and denture maintenance training and were given a knowledge pre-test and post-training test. The same test was given at one and two month follow-ups to determine levels of retained knowledge. A baseline plaque index (PI) was collected on thirty-six WFC residents 65 years of age and older using a modified version of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and a modified Budtz-Jorgensen PI. The PI was collected from residents prior to staff receiving training, and then again at one and two months after staff training. Among the staff that received oral health and denture maintenance training, the post-test revealed a statistically significant increase in knowledge from the pretest (α ≤ .05). Decreased resident PI levels were observed at the one and two month follow-ups. The study provides evidence that educational training to the staff can effectively reduce the PI levels of WFC residents. iii
    • Evaluation of Pre-Trial Diversion Project, State of Alaska, Department of Law

      Ring, Peter Smith; Bruce, Kevin (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-01)
      In February 1978 the Alaska Department of Law initiated a pilot pretrial intervention (PTI) project in Anchorage directed at first-time property offenders with no history of violence and no current drug or alcohol dependency. The project was aimed at reducing recidivism and costs to the criminal justice system, and included a built-in evaluation component. This report explores the PTI project's impact by (1) comparing PTI clients with other defendants; (2) investigating compliance of PTI clients with contracts to which they agree at time of program entry; (3) comparing costs of PTI compared with those generated in ordinary criminal cases; (4) evaluating the program's administration, identifying its deficiencies, and suggesting improvements; and (5) looking at recidivism rates of PTI clients.
    • Evaluation of Provider-Directed Communication Strategies Regarding Complementary and Alternative Health: An Integrative Review

      Garhart, Emily (University of Alaska Anchorage, 2015-12-01)
      Aim Identify health care provider-directed facilitators and barriers to successful patientprovider communication regarding complementary and alternative medicine, and synthesize the research evidence into succinct best-evidence strategies to generate optimum patient-provider dialogue. Background Complementary and alternative medicine use is prevalent among U.S. consumers. However, consumers infrequently disclose their use, and providers inconsistently inquire about it. Currently, there is little guidance for a method on facilitating communication. In addition, no studies have synthesized the variety of factors that influence communication of this topic as a means to help identify potentially effective strategies for improving it. Method. An integrative review of publications from 2000 to 2015. A five-stage methodological framework guided the data analysis. Results Thirty-two qualitative and quantitative articles and literature reviews met inclusion criteria. All data extracted and include in this review supported two key domains of understanding, representing interpersonal and organizational characteristics. Conclusion Findings indicated that successful communication about complementary and alternative medicine will not occur unless it is considered integral to the medical encounter, required by policies, and supported by appropriate resources. Implications for Advanced Practice Nurses Conversations that include complementary and alternative approaches will support the core concept of patient-centered care and ensure the greatest level of patient safety.
    • Evaluation of Special Olympics Curriculum

      McDiarmid, Williamson, G.; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      When the 2001 Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in Anchorage in March 2001, among the many benefits Anchorage residents reported was better understanding of people with disabilities. The games brought close to 2,000 athletes with mental disabilities and more than 740 coaches from 70 countries to Alaska. Schools offer one of the best forums to help children with mental disabilities be accepted and included. The Special Olympics World Winter Games Organizing Committee developed several programs to help Alaska school administrators, teachers, and athletic coaches build meaningful opportunities for all students to train and complete together. These included programs for school enrichment, athlete leadership, unified sports, sports partnership, and a partners club. Chapter II provides more detail about the curriculum evaluation surveys. Chapter III profiles the responses of Alaskan educators. Chapter IV discusses the results of our evaluation, and Chapter V describes how future Special Olympics organizing committees might use this information for planning. The appendixes include the survey questionnaires and copies of relevant documents.
    • Evaluation of the Alaska Interagency Aviation Safety Initiative

      Berman, Matthew; Martin, Stephanie; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2005)
      Aviation crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatalities in Alaska. From 1990 through 1999, aviation crashes in Alaska caused 106 work-related pilot deaths. This rate is nearly five times the rate for U.S. pilots as a whole.1 In 2000, Congress passed legislation aimed at reducing the number of occupational aviation fatalities in Alaska by 50 percent for the years 2000 through 2009. This legislation created an interagency initiative—the Alaska Aviation Safety Initiative—to improve safety in Alaska through the combined efforts of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSB), the NOAAs National Weather Service (NWS), and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The final Initiative tasks require the agencies to evaluate the programs created to promote aviation safety in Alaska. To that end, NIOSH contracted with the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). The following report looks at programs, infrastructure changes, accidents and accident rates between 1997 and 2004. It addresses the following questions: • Has flying become safer in Alaska? • Which types of flying (e.g., general aviation, commuter vs. air taxi flights) are the most risky, and which have shown changes in safety? • Where in Alaska is it most risky to fly? Has this changed? • To what extent can the data show that specific programs are associated with improved safety?
    • Evaluation of the Alaska Native Health Board Sanitation Facility Operation and Maintenance Program: Final Report on Phase III Projects and Extended Phase II Projects

      Haley, Sharman; Larson, Eric; Frazier, Rosyland; DeRoche, Patricia (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      The Alaska Native Health Board (ANHB) has a multi-year project funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wastewater Management, to administer sanitation facilities operations and maintenance (O&M) demonstration grants in rural Alaska. Nine projects were funded in the first wave, beginning in April 1996. Nineteen projects, including two carry- overs from the first wave, were funded in the second wave, which started in April 1997. The third and last wave, with seven projects, started in April 1998. The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage is monitoring and evaluating the individual sanitation facility O&M projects and the program overall. EPA initially funded this work; it is now funded by ANHB. The research design and the underlying program design differ somewhat across the three phases. The innovation in the Phase III design was the addition of mentor communities to assist project communities. This report comprises the final evaluation for the seven Phase III community projects and four Phase II projects that extended beyond the deadline for the Phase II report.
    • Evaluation of the Alaska Native Health Board Sanitation Facility Operation and Maintenance Program: Phase II

      Haley, Sharman (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      The Alaska Native Health Board is administering a demonstration grant program intended to improve the capacity of rural Alaska communities to operate and maintain their water and sewer systems. This multi-year program began in 1996 and is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wastewater Management. The Institute of Social and Economic Research at the University of Alaska Anchorage is evaluating the individual projects and the program overall. This report is the final evaluation of the 16 Phase II community projects for which data collection was substantially complete as of September 30, 1999. Phase II started in 1997. A coordinating committee for the project reviewed applications from 68 communities. It selected 18 whose proposed plans focused on improving operations and maintenance by improving utility structure and management and by educating customers about utility operations. ANHB also offered two Phase I communities continuation funding. We report here on 16 rather than 20 communities because several extended their projects past September 1999 and one was dropped from the program. There are several parts to this evaluation included with this report.