Now showing items 1-20 of 2000

    • Economic Impact of Studded Tires in Alaska

      Larson, Eric (University of Alaska School of Engineering, 2002)
      Studded tires in Alaska create economic impacts for vehicle owners, the government and the community as a whole. For each of these groups this chapter describes and estimates the economic impacts of studded tires. These impacts include spending for studded tires, revenues collected from the tire tax, the costs of road maintenance, and the savings from traffic crashed avoided by the use of studded tires.
    • Human Dimensions of the Arctic System: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Dynamics of Social Environment Relationships

      Huntington, Henry; Berman, Matthew; Cooper, Lee W.; Hamilton, Larry; Hinzman, Larry; Kielland, Knut; Kirk, Elizabeth; Kruse, Jack; Lynch, Amanda; McGuire, A. David; et al. (National Science Foundation, 200)
      In 1997 the National Science Foundation Arctic System Science (ARCSS) program launched the Human Dimensions of the Arctic System (HARC) initiative. Its goal is to “understand the dynamics of linkages between human populations and the biological and physical environment of the Arctic, at scales ranging from local to global.” ....This section describes several HARC projects to give an idea of the scope of the initiative and the breadth of inquiry that has so far been undertaken.
    • An Assessment of Safety Belt Use In Alaska Summer 2003

      Hanna, Virgene (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2003)
      To be eligible for certain federal grants, states must document levels of compliance with seatbelt laws. During June, July and August of 2003, ISER researchers recorded and analyzed seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers in both passenger cars and trucks. In the sample area (which includes 85 percent of the state's population), 80 percent of drivers and 76 percent of outboard passengers were wearing seatbelts. these numbers reflect an increase of just over 13 percent over what was observed in 2002.
    • Supplemental To Analysis of Socio-Economic Aspects of Specified Year 2000 Redistricting Questions

      Tuck, Bradford (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      This material supplements a document prepared for the Alaska Redistricting Board in May 2001. This supplement discusses certain socio-economic linkages relative to the Final Plan and Proclamation of Redistricting, prepared by the Alaska Redistricting Board in June 2001. It relies on the same exonomic concepts and methodology used in the initial analysis, including central place theory and interindustry economics. It addresses four issues(1) the integration of the Delta area with the rest of House District 12; (2) the socio-economic integration of Valdez with the rest of the House District 32 and the Anchorage ares; 93) the socio-economic integration of House District 37; and (4) linkages between Cordova and the rest of House District 5.
    • Dividing Alaska, 1867-2000: Changing Land Ownership and Management

      Hull, Teresa; Leask, Linda (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      When the U.S. bought Alaska in 1867, it acquired an area twice the size of the 13 original American colonies and three quarters as big as the Louisiana Purchase. This paper looks broadly at changing land ownership and management in Alaska from 1867 through today. For almost a century, the federal government gave up only a sliver of Alaska’s 375 million acres, mostly through homesteading and other land programs. But when Alaska became a state in 1959, Congress gave the new state rights to about 104 million acres. Then, in 1971, Congress settled Alaska Native land claims with a land grant of 44 million acres and payment of $1 billion. The last major division of Alaska lands came in 1980, when Congress added 104 million acres to national parks, wildlife refuges, and other conservation units.
    • Kids Count Alaska 2000

      Dinges, Norman; Lampman, Claudia; Ragan, Shawna (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      Children living in small isolated places lead much different lives from those in bigger communities on the road system. Many villages still lack adequate water and sewer systems, and some still rely on honey buckets. In the past 20 years, state and federal agencies have built sanitation systems in many rural places–but it’s an enormous and ongoing job. Part of the problem is that many areas of Alaska require specially adapted systems that are very expensive to build and operate. In this data book, we look at (1) the indicators of children’s well-being the Kids Count program uses nationwide; and (2) other measures that reflect conditions Alaskan children face—and that illustrate the sharp differences among regions of a state twice the size of the original 13 American colonies.
    • Kids Count Alaska 2001

      Hanna, Virgene; Lampman, Claudia (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      Children living in small isolated places lead much different lives from those in bigger communities on the road system. Many villages still lack adequate water and sewer systems, and some still rely on honey buckets. In the past 20 years, state and federal agencies have built sanitation systems in many rural places–but it’s an enormous and ongoing job. Part of the problem is that many areas of Alaska require specially adapted systems that are very expensive to build and operate. In this data book, we look at (1) the indicators of children’s well-being the Kids Count program uses nationwide; and (2) other measures that reflect conditions Alaskan children face—and that illustrate the sharp differences among regions of a state twice the size of the original 13 American colonies.
    • An Assessment of Safety Belt Use In Alaska Summer 2001

      Hanna, Virgene (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      To be eligible for certain federal grants, states must document levels of compliance with seatbelt laws. During June, July and August of 2001, ISER researchers recorded and analyzed seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers in both passenger cars and trucks. In the sample area (which includes 85 percent of the state's population), 63 percent of drivers and 60 percent of outboard passengers were wearing seatbelts. these numbers reflect an increase of just over 1 percent over what was observed in 2000.
    • An Assessment of Safety Belt Use In Alaska Summer 2000

      Hanna, Virgene (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      In 1984, the Alaska State Legislature passed a law requiring children aged six and under to be restrained while being transported in a vehicle. this law was amended in February of 1989 to require the use of safety belts by children under sixteen and by adults. To be eligible for certain federal grants, states must document levels of compliance with seatbelt laws. During June, July and August of 2000, ISER researchers recorded and analyzed seat belt use by drivers and front seat passengers in both passenger cars and trucks. In the sample area (which includes 85 percent of the state's population), 62 percent of drivers and 61 percent of outboard passengers were wearing seatbelts. these numbers reflect an increase of less than 1 percent over 1999.
    • Interim Evaluation: PRAXIS Preparation and Professional Development Institute

      Jester, Timothy; McDiarmid, G. Williamson (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      The primary goal of the PRAXIS Preparation and Professional Development Institute is to help Alaska Natives pass the PRAXIS exams required for teacher certification in the state. The goal of this evaluation is to provide information to the project staff on how well the Institute is achieving the goals for which it was designed. This report was prepared for the Cook Inlet Tribal Council and the Together Reaching Educational Excellence (TREE) Program.
    • What's the Economic Importance of Alaska's Healthy Ecosystems?

      Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      About one quarter of Alaska’s jobs depend in one way or another on the state's fish, wildlife, scenic beauty, recreational opportunities, and public lands. That’s a rough estimate of what healthy ecosystems contribute to the economy. Salmon and other natural assets depend on habitat, clean water, and other benefits from Alaska’s ecosystems.2 Those natural assets in turn support jobs—about 84,000, once we adjust for some double-counting across industries. We include only jobs that depend on healthy ecosystems and natural assets and that are sustainable year after year. About half the ecosystem-related jobs rely on commercial, sport, and subsistence harvests of fish and wildlife. Tourism, recreation, and government management of public lands and resources support the other half. Another way of measuring the economic importance of Alaska’s ecosystems is what economists call “net willingness to pay.” That’s an estimate of how much more Americans would be willing to pay—besides what they already spend— to maintain Alaska’s natural assets. That method allows economists to assign a dollar value to things like scenery. Why would we want to put an economic value on such intangibles? It’s a useful way of show- ing that—aside from other kinds of value—Alaska’s healthy ecosystems have enormous economic value. Our ability to estimate net (or additional) willingness to pay for ecosystem benefits does vary, depending on what’s being valued.
    • Alaska Natives and the "New Harpoon": Economic Performance of the ANCSA Regional Corporations

      Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      In this paper I develop and analyze 20 years of data on the economic performance of the 12 regional corporations created by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 (ANCSA).The act was a radical departure from previous U.S. policy toward indigenous peoples. Alaska's 75,000 Aleuts, Eskimos, and Indians received almost $1 billion in cash and acquired clear title to more than 40 million acres of land, an area larger than New England. This wealth was vested in 12 regional and almost 200 village-level business corporations. As a group, the 12 regional corporations lost 80 percent of their original cash endowment -- about $380 million -- in direct business operations between 1973 and 1993. But behind this poor overall financial performance is a surprising amount of cross-sectional variation. I first show that allocation of business assets to different economic sectors plays a statistically significant but empirically minor role in explaining this differential performance. I then construct panel data on shareholder employment, wages, and quasirents and test the hypothesis that the regional corporations traded off business profits for Native jobs. The data strongly reject this hypothesis. Quasirents from Native shareholder employment were important to only three firms -- the rest lost money without any countervailing employment. Case history evidence suggests that internal sharing networks and common preferences helped the high-employment firms to deliver both jobs and dividends. Overall, these results suggest caution in the use of group-based lump-sum transfers as economic development tools.
    • Economic Importance of Healthy Alaska Ecosystems

      Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      Alaska's healthy ecosystems are scarce and valuable economic resources. As population, income, education and development pressures increase worldwide, the relative scarcity -- and hence the value -- of these ecosystems is almost certain to increase significantly. However, because most ecosystem services are provided as public goods rather than through private markets, the value of these services must be registered and acted on within the public policy arena. this report presents an itiial assessment of the economic importance of Alaska's ecosystesm in their unimpaired state.
    • Cost Analysis of Selected Flush Haul Water and Wastewater Systems in Rural Alaska

      Colt, Steve (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      This research memorandum presents and compares estimates of the operating costs of selected flush haul sanitation systems in rural Alaska. The estimates are based on actual operating experience. An accurate picture of operating costs is important when evaluating flush haul systems because communities are generally responsible for paying these costs. People need to know these costs in advance when choosing among alternative systems.In previous work (Colt 1994) I estimated life-cycle costs for prospective flush haul systems in Buckland and Mekoryuk. These systems have now been operating for several years. In addition, flush haul systems have recently been installed in Galena, Napakiak, Nunapitchuk, Quinhagak, Shishmaref, and Tuntutuliak. As part of the Alaska Native Health Board Operation and Maintenance Demonstration Project, we collected operating data from the communities of Buckland, Galena, and Nunapitchuk. Additional data for systems in Mekoryuk, Quinhagak, and Tuntutuliak has been collected by others (Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation 1998). This paper therefore considers the six communities listed above. This work was undertaken with the assistance and contributions of the Alaska Native Health Board Operation & Maintenance Demonstration Project.
    • Trends in Alaska's People and Economy

      Martin, Stephanie; Killorin, Mary; Leask, Linda (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      This 16 page document outlines expected trends for Alaska's people and economy between 2001 and 2020. It was prepared for the Alaska Humanities Forum in October 2001 under the theme of "Alaska 20/20 Partnership - Bringing Alaskans Together to Chart Our Future".
    • Effectiveness and Fiscal Impact of Homeward Bound

      Haley, Sharman; Killorin, Mary; Hensley, Priscilla; Hill, Alexandra; Martin, Stephanie; Wiita, Amy Lynn; Ungadruk, Ben (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      The Rural Alaska Community Action Program and the Homeward Bound program contracted with ISER to evaluate Homeward Bound, which began in February 1997. This analysis is based on limited data and a small sample - 33 Homeward Bound clients and 35 people who were referred to the program but did not enter. We found a wide variation in how often people use services and which services they use - and the small sample and wide variation limit the ability of statistics to say whether apparent difference are real of chance variations....There are only an estimate 300 chronic, homeless alcoholics in Anchorage (defined as people who have been picked up by the Community Service Patrol at least 30 time in one year). But they're expensive to the community - because they so frequently use state and city rescue and protection services, emergency medical care, and alcohol treatment facilities, among other things. This report finds that the clients of the Homeward Bound program cost the justice system less, use some city services less frequently, and are less likely to need advanced life support services when an ambulance is required.
    • Financing Water and Sewer Operation and Maintenance in Rural Alaska

      Haley, Sharman (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      Are existing sanitation systems simply too expensive for many Alaska villages? Or could small utilities operate in the black if they increased their charges and toughened collection policies? How much difference do village leadership and commitment to good sanitation make? Could alternative technologies provide adequate sanitation for less? To help shed some light on these questions, the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Alaska Anchorage prepared this volume. It presents seven recent analyses, by various authors, of some aspects of financing water and sewer operations and maintenance in rural Alaska. We added an introductory chapter, a final chapter drawing some conclusions from the various analyses and discussing policy issues, and an executive summary. The analyses look at methods villages use to pay for O&M; the share of small sanitation systems operating in the red; the costs of selected closed-haul systems (one alternative to piped systems); the fiscal capacity of small rural communities; and steps that might help small sanitation systems meet their costs. These studies are not comprehensive, and in some cases they raise as many questions as they answer. But they provide valuable information on a public policy issue Alaska will continue to grapple with for the foreseeable future.
    • ANILCA and the Seward Economy

      Goldsmith, Scott; Martin, Stephanie (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) established the Kenai Fjords National Park and the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge on the doorstep of Seward, a small community on Resurrection Bay in the Kenai Peninsula of south central Alaska. The community originally opposed both, primarily because citizens felt they would preclude economic development through restrictions on the use of the natural resources of the region. In the first decade after statehood, Seward had lost a large share of its economic base virtually overnight as a result of the Good Friday earthquake in 1964. It struggled through the rest of the decade, but was never able to recover its role as the transportation gateway into south central Alaska, which shifted to the port at Anchorage. In the 1970s growth in the seafood and timber industries, the pipeline construction boom, and state government spending combined to help the economy grow. Still, Seward never was a partner in the oil and gas development that stimulated growth in the western half of the Kenai Peninsula, and market driven fluctuations in both the seafood and timber industries were a continuing source of economic instability. As a result when ANILCA became law, Seward residents saw it as another obstacle to development rather than an opportunity. In fact since ANILCA the Seward economy has expanded and strengthened. Annual average employment has increased at a rate of 3.7 percent per year. The economy hasbecome less dependent on the unstable harvesting and processing of seafood and timber. Through the 1980s the seafood and timber industries did expand, but their economic contributions to the community have fallen in the 1990s. The opening of a state prison in 1988 added another source of stable employment and income. Most of the economic growth, particularly since 1990, has been driven by the visitor industry. Although there is no direct way to track this industry, employment in trade, services, and transportation—the sectors that provide the most visitor-related jobs—grew at an annual rate of 5.9 percent. Retail sales from summer visitors have grown at an 9.9 percent annual rate (inflation adjusted) since 1987.
    • Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Anchorage

      Goldsmith, Scott; Frazier, Rosyland (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2001)
      In the spring of 2001, the Mayor of Anchorage, George Wuerch, tasked a Kitchen Cabinet Task Force with the goal of developing recommendations to help heal racism in Anchorage. The Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) of the University of Alaska Anchorage agreed to assist the Task Force by conducting a series of focus groups in the community. The purpose of these focus groups was to obtain an assessment of attitudes and opinions about the quality of life in Anchorage from the perspective different racial groups and to solicit recommendations for improving race relations within the community....A more detailed analysis of the focus groups, based on a review of the focus group transcripts, would add more depth and detail, but we feel the main ideas identified during the focus groups are described in this report.
    • Tax Cap 2000: Five Economic Studies

      Goldsmith, Scott; Hill, Alexandra (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska., 2000)
      Passage of the tax cap would result in a substantial shift in purchasing power away from local government toward households, the federal government, state government, certain businesses, and non-residents. It would reduce the cost of owning property and impact the price of real estate. It would change the way local government finances public services. It would change the quality of life. Whether one views these economic changes as positive or negative depends on them perspective of the viewer. Clearly the tax cap would have far reaching economic effects that should be carefully considered before deciding whether it would be good or bad for the economy.