• Active seismic studies in valley glacier settings: strategies and limitations

      Zechmann, Jenna M.; Booth, Adam D.; Truffer, Martin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Amundson, Jason M.; Larsen, Christopher S. (International Glaciological Society, 2018-09-20)
      Subglacial tills play an important role in glacier dynamics but are difficult to characterize in situ. Amplitude Variation with Angle (AVA) analysis of seismic reflection data can distinguish between stiff tills and deformable tills. However, AVA analysis in mountain glacier environments can be problem- atic: reflections can be obscured by Rayleigh wave energy scattered from crevasses, and complex basal topography can impede the location of reflection points in 2-D acquisitions. We use a forward model to produce challenging synthetic seismic records in order to test the efficacy of AVA in crevassed and geo- metrically complex environments. We find that we can distinguish subglacial till types in moderately cre- vassed environments, where ‘moderate’ depends on crevasse spacing and orientation. The forward model serves as a planning tool, as it can predict AVA success or failure based on characteristics of the study glacier. Applying lessons from the forward model, we perform AVA on a seismic dataset col- lected from Taku Glacier in Southeast Alaska in March 2016. Taku Glacier is a valley glacier thought to overlay thick sediment deposits. A near-offset polarity reversal confirms that the tills are deformable.
    • Alaska Native scholars: a mixed methods investigation of factors influencing PhD attainment

      Jones, Alberta J.; Barnhardt, Ray; Vinlove, Amy; Leonard, Beth; Roehl, Roy (2018-05)
      This study entitled, "Alaska Native Scholars: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Factors Influencing PhD Attainment," investigates the contributing factors influencing the attainment of PhD degrees by Alaska Natives. Originating from a cross-section of rural and urban Alaska communities and tribal ethnicities, this group of scholars attended graduate schools throughout the country. Today many of these PhDs work in universities, conduct research, and advocate for Indigenous people in various leadership roles, both in and outside of Alaska. This study's assumption is these PhD graduates have gained valuable lessons along their path to success and an examination of these factors is relevant to advancing that successs. The findings analyze results from a survey instrument with approximately a 92% response rate from all living Alaska Native PhD/EdD graduates that were able to be located at the time, up to early 2015. Survey participants shared personal, demographic, cultural, social, academic, and economic factors both supporting and hindering PhD attainment. Survey data was validated by ten personal interviews with PhDs from eight different Alaska Native tribes. One goal of this study was to increase our knowledge of the circumstances and factors of Alaska Native doctoral graduates and to build upon knowledge necessary to increase interest and enrollment of Alaska Native PhD graduates. Some questions examined by this study are: What sets of factors do AN PhDs have in common which led to their success? What challenges and barriers are specific to the Alaska Native demographics? If patterns of successful factors exist, can these factors be replicated to expand Alaska Native participation in PhD or other graduate programs? Are there 'lessons learned' in terms of aiding university PhD programs in attracting and graduating Alaska Native students? A stronger PhD representation of this population has implications for leadership, education, business, and policy-making roles serving to increase Indigenous self-determination. Additionally, this research has implications for universities seeking to address gaps in Alaska Native and American Indian faculty representation.
    • Analysis of low-frequency seismic signals generated during a multiple-iceberg calving event at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Walter, Fabian; Amundson, Jason M.; O'Neel, Shad; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Fricker, Helen A. (American Geophysical Union, 2012-03-27)
      We investigated seismic signals generated during a large-scale, multiple iceberg calving event that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, on 21 August 2009. The event was recorded by a high-rate time-lapse camera and five broadband seismic stations located within a few hundred kilometers of the terminus. During the event two full-glacier-thickness icebergs calved from the grounded (or nearly grounded) terminus and immediately capsized; the second iceberg to calve was two to three times smaller than the first. The individual calving and capsize events were well-correlated with the radiation of low-frequency seismic signals (<0.1 Hz) dominated by Love and Rayleigh waves. In agreement with regional records from previously published ‘glacial earthquakes’, these low-frequency seismic signals had maximum power and/or signal-to-noise ratios in the 0.05–0.1 Hz band. Similarly, full waveform inversions indicate that these signals were also generated by horizontal single forces acting at the glacier terminus. The signals therefore appear to be local manifestations of glacial earthquakes, although the magnitudes of the signals (twice-time integrated force histories) were considerably smaller than previously reported glacial earthquakes. We thus speculate that such earthquakes may be a common, if not pervasive, feature of all full-glacier-thickness calving events from grounded termini. Finally, a key result from our study is that waveform inversions performed on low-frequency, calving-generated seismic signals may have only limited ability to quantitatively estimate mass losses from calving. In particular, the choice of source time function has little impact on the inversion but dramatically changes the earthquake magnitude. Accordingly, in our analysis, it is unclear whether the smaller or larger of the two calving icebergs generated a larger seismic signal.
    • Animal Assisted Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders: A Meta-Synthesis

      McDaniel, Shirley (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      Animal assisted intervention (AAI), which is an umbrella term for all types of animal therapy, is a therapy method that has been utilized for hundreds of years. Though it has gained more recognition in recent years, research is ongoing. Varied studies have been documented on the effectiveness of AAI as a therapy tool for those who have physical, mental, emotional, or social disabilities. This meta-thesis will introduce varied types of (AAI) and share documented studies and reviews, with the primary focus being on AAI’s effectiveness as a therapy tool for those with psychiatric disorders.
    • The archaeology of human- dog relations in Northwest Alaska

      Hill, Erica (Routledge, 2018)
      Some 1500 years ago, on a gravel spit extending into the Chukchi Sea, people living at the site of Ipiutak buried several members of their community.
    • Are They Over-Represented? Culturally Diverse Students In Special Education: A Meta-Synthesis

      DeWilde, Lillian A. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on over-prevalence of culturally diverse students represented in special education examines the possible reasons why there are more non-white students receiving special education services then previous years. Specific areas researched include looking at culturally relevant educational practices. Additionally, addressing the identity and self-esteem issues that may occur from being placed in special education. This meta-synthesis meshes the author’s experiences as a special education teacher, parent, and an Alaskan Native woman. The author’s intent is to also explore preventative practices to insure that culturally diverse students are not placed in special education unnecessarily.
    • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning for All Students: A Meta-Synthesis

      Harmon, Casey (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      This meta-synthesis investigates the increasingly powerful and promising fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning as these technologies filter into the sphere of education. Smart technologies have been quickly gaining momentum in our society and have piqued the interest of many educators and administrators that are considering early adoption and applications of these new and promising technologies that may be able to offer teachers, administrators, and students new ways to access information and student learning. However, it is not without some resistance toward these technologies, that we consider their diverse applications in classrooms. This research of 43 articles address the applications, caveats, biases, and possibilities that these new, smart technologies using artificial intelligence and machine learning can offer to improve the education of students with and without disabilities.
    • Artistic Statement

      Meadow, Olive (Brend); Brend, Olive Mallory (2022-04-03)
    • Assessing prevalence and correlates of blue‑colored fesh in lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) across their geographic range

      Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Beaudreau, Anne H.; Thomas, Michael D.; Basnett, Bonnie L.; Lam, Laurel S.; Hamilton, Scott L.; Andrews, Kelly S.; Schram, Julie B.; Watson, Jessica; Samhouri4, Jameal F. (Springer, 2021-08-17)
      Intraspecific variation in external and internal pigmentation is common among fishes and explained by a variety of biological and ecological factors. Blue-colored flesh in fishes is relatively rare but has been documented in some species of the sculpin, greenling, and perch families. Diet, starvation, photoprotection, and camouflage have all been suggested as proximate mechanisms driving blue flesh, but causal factors are poorly understood. We evaluated the relative importance of biological and spatial factors that could explain variation in blue coloration in 2021 lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) captured across their range in the northeastern Pacific, from southeast Alaska to southern California. The probability of having blue flesh was highest for fish that were female, caught in shallower water, and smaller in body size. The incidence of blueness varied by region (4–25% of all fish) but was also confounded by differences in sex ratios of fish caught among regions. We analyzed the multivariate fatty acid composition of a subset of 175 fish from across the sampling range to test for differences in trophic biomarkers in blue lingcod. Lingcod fatty acid composition differed between regions and flesh colors but not between sexes. Blue-fleshed fish had lower concentrations of total fatty acids, 18:1ω-9, 16:1ω-7, 18:1ω-7, and ω-6 fatty acids, suggesting differences in energetics and energy storage in blue fish. While our data indicate potential links between diet and blue flesh in lingcod, important questions remain about the physiological mechanisms governing blueness and its biological consequences.
    • Assessing the Behavioural Responses of Small Cetaceans to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

      Castro, J.; Borges, F. O.; Cid, A.; Laborde, M. I.; Rosa, R.; Pearson, Heidi C. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-01-05)
      Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have recently emerged as a relatively affordable and accessible method for studying wildlife. Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) UAVs are appropriate for morphometric, behavioural, abundance and demographic studies of marine mammals, providing a stable, nonintrusive and highly manoeuvrable platform. Previous studies using VTOL UAVs have been conducted on various marine mammal species, but specific studies regarding behavioural responses to these devices are limited and scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate behavioural responses of common (Delphinus delphis) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins to a VTOL UAV flown at different altitudes. A multirotor (quadcopter) UAV with an attached GoPro camera was used. Once a dolphin group was located, the UAV was flown at a starting height of 50 m directly above the group, subsequently descending 5 m every 30 s until reaching 5 m. We assessed three behavioural responses to a VTOL UAV at different heights: (i) direction changes, (ii) swimming speed and (iii) diving. Responses by D. delphis (n = 15) and T. truncatus (n = 10) groups were analysed separately. There were no significant responses of T. truncatus to any of the studied variables. For D. delphis, however, there were statistically significant changes in direction when the UAV was flown at a height of 5 m. Our results indicate that UAVs do not induce immediate behavioural responses in common or bottlenose dolphins when flown at heights > 5 m, demonstrating that the use of VTOL UAVs to study dolphins has minimal impact on the animals. However, we advise the use of the precautionary principle when interpreting these results as characteristics of this study site (e.g., high whale-watching activity) may have habituated dolphins to anthropogenic disturbance.
    • Assessing the Role of Photochemistry in Driving the Composition of Dissolved Organic Matter in Glacier Runoff

      Holt, Amy D.; Kellerman, Anne M.; Li, Wenbo; Stubbins, Aron; Wagner, Sasha; McKenna, Amy; Fellman, Jason B.; Hood, Eran; Spencer, Robert G. M. (American Geophysical Union, 2021-11-04)
      Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in glacier runoff is aliphatic-rich, yet studies have proposed that DOM originates mainly from allochthonous, aromatic, and often aged material. Allochthonous organic matter (OM) is exposed to ultraviolet radiation both in atmospheric transport and post-deposition on the glacier surface. Thus, we evaluate photochemistry as a mechanism to account for the compositional disconnect between allochthonous OM sources and glacier runoff DOM composition. Six endmember OM sources (including soils and diesel particulate matter) were leached and photo-irradiated for 28 days in a solar simulator, until >90% of initial chromophoric DOM was removed. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry was used to compare the molecular composition of endmember leachates pre- and post-irradiation to DOM in supraglacial and bulk runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet and Juneau Icefield (Alaska), respectively. Photoirradiation drove molecular level convergence between the initially aromatic-rich leachates and aromatic-poor glacial samples, selectively removing aromatic compounds (−80 ± 19% relative abundance) and producing aliphatics (+75 ± 35% relative abundance). Molecular level glacier runoff DOM composition was statistically indistinguishable to post-irradiation leachates. Bray-Curtis analysis showed substantial similarity in the molecular formulae present between glacier samples and post-irradiation leachates. Post-irradiation leachates contained 84 ± 7.4% of the molecular formulae, including 72 ± 17% of the aliphatic formulae, detected in glacier samples. Our findings suggest that photodegradation, either in transit to or on glacier surfaces, could provide a mechanistic pathway to account for the disconnect between proposed aromatic, aged sources of OM and the aliphatic-rich fingerprint of glacial DOM.
    • Auke Lake Campus Site Development Plan

      Kramer, Chin & Mayo (Kramer, Chin & Mayo, 1976-08)
    • Autism: An Evolutionary Etiology: A Meta-Synthesis

      Titus, Cristina Bruketta (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis attempts a detailed look at how Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) evolved from Kanner’s initial identification in 1943 to today’s current understanding. Emphasis will be placed on characteristic change, prevalence increase, causality, and evolution of treatments, techniques, and methods. Equal weight will also be placed on what the best overall treatments, techniques, and methods should be used with an individual with autism.
    • Background and Interventions for Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Meta-Synthesis

      Geagel, Kelley (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      I have many reasons why I decided to focus my attention on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder for my thesis. Individuals with FASD can benefit from many of the same strategies that other individuals could benefit from. Due to lack of brain development in some individuals the severity or the need for services could vary.
    • Behavioral observations and stable isotopes reveal high individual variation and little seasonal variation in sea otter diets in Southeast Alaska

      LaRoche, Nicole; King, Sydney L.; Rogers, Matthew C.; Eckert, Ginny L.; Pearson, Heidi C. (Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2021-10-28)
      Two complementary approaches were used to assess year-round variation in the diet of sea otters Enhydra lutris around Prince of Wales Island (POW) in southern Southeast Alaska, a region characterized by mixed-bottom habitat. We observed sea otters foraging to determine diet composition during the spring and summer. Then, we obtained sea otter vibrissae, which record temporal foraging patterns as they grow, from subsistence hunters to identify year-round changes in sea otter diets via stable isotope analysis of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). We compared the stable isotopes from sea otter vibrissae and sea otter prey items that were collected during spring, summer, and winter. Overall, year-round sea otter diet estimates from stable isotope signatures and visual observations from spring and summer were dominated by clams in terms of biomass, with butter clams Saxidomus gigantea the most common clam species seen during visual observations. Our results indicate that these sea otters, when considered together at a regional level around POW, do not exhibit shifts in the main prey source by season or location. However, sea otter diets identified by stable isotopes had a strong individual-level variation. Behavioral variation among individual sea otters may be a primary driving factor in diet composition. This study provides quantitative diet composition data for modeling predictions of invertebrate population estimates that may aid in the future management of shellfisheries and subsistence hunting and the development of co-management strategies for this protected species.
    • Best Practices for the Inclusion of Special Education Students: A Meta-Synthesis

      Lindquist, Christina (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      This meta-synthesis of literature explores how successful a variety of inclusive practices may be in educating students with special needs. The general and special education teachers’ education and attitude related to inclusion greatly influences the success of the inclusive programs they design and employ for the students they teach. The inclusive program should include a variety of strategies for engaging the student and helping the student to have successful academic and behavioral outcomes
    • The Bias, Stigma, and Social Construct of a Disability Label: A Meta-Synthesis

      Wallace, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The current climate in education is moving toward more inclusive education which means more and more students with a special education need are attending class in the general education classroom with a general education teacher. Sadly, many general education teachers in these inclusive classrooms are not prepared to have students with special education needs in their classroom because they do not have the knowledge or experience teaching these exceptional students. Research suggests teachers hold a bias toward students with a special education label and have preconceived notions of how these students will perform in their classroom. It is unfortunate for these students because at this time is when they need help the most. School is not only about learning what a person needs to know, but also when children learn about themselves and their peers. Research suggests that students given special education labels tend to have more difficulty due to the label they are given. This presumption of a label sets students up to interacting with teachers based on the label. This meta-synthesis of the literature on labels, bias, stigmatization, and the social construct of the disability label investigates how students with special needs, and the people around them, respond to the special needs label.
    • Bibliography of Publications

      Straley, Janice M. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
    • Black Carbon / Juneau Icefield

      Nathlich, Abigail (2017-07-15)
      The original objective of my project was to look at how black carbon is quickening the melt rate of the Juneau Icefield as well as what the effects are on snow melt in urban and rural areas around Juneau. The hope for the results of this study are to see a visible representation of how quickly (or not quickly) the black carbon is melting the snowpack. It will be important to continue this study to look at how it is changing long term, but for now we are in the beginning stages of this study. We know that black carbon is effecting the icefield and the glaciers but this will help us to see what exactly it is effecting and how severe it is.
    • Blocking a wave: frequency band gaps in ice shelves with periodic crevasses

      Freed-Brown, Julian; Amundson, Jason M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Zhang, Wendy W. (International Glaciological Society, 2012)
      We assess how the propagation of high-frequency elastic-flexural waves through an ice shelf is modified by the presence of spatially periodic crevasses. Analysis of the normal modes supported by the ice shelf with and without crevasses reveals that a periodic crevasse distribution qualitatively changes the mechanical response. The normal modes of an ice shelf free of crevasses are evenly distributed as a function of frequency. In contrast, the normal modes of a crevasse-ridden ice shelf are distributed unevenly. There are ‘band gaps’, frequency ranges over which no eigenmodes exist. A model ice shelf that is 50 km in lateral extent and 300 m thick with crevasses spaced 500 m apart has a band gap from 0.2 to 0.38 Hz. This is a frequency range relevant for ocean-wave/ice-shelf interactions. When the outermost edge of the crevassed ice shelf is oscillated at a frequency within the band gap, the ice shelf responds very differently from a crevasse-free ice shelf. The flexural motion of the crevassed ice shelf is confined to a small region near the outermost edge of the ice shelf and effectively ‘blocked’ from reaching the interior.