• Deconstructing Asperger Syndrome: A Meta-Synthesis

      Herron, Douglas (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      This meta-analysis of the literature examines the unique attributes of Asperger’s syndrome (AS), the uncertainty that has been created with the newly revised Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-5), and what these changes mean. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to use the analysis as a platform to question and “deconstruct” the pre-conceived notions and beliefs about the disorder. Asperger’s syndrome is conceptualized as a disability. This way of thinking can cause one to miss the hidden strengths or abilities that those with Asperger’s syndrome possess. What is often considered a disability may in fact be viewed as ability.
    • Deglacierization of a marginal basin and implications for outburst floods

      Kienholz, Christian; Pierce, Jamie; Hood, Eran; Amundson, Jason M.; Wolken, Gabriel; Jacobs, Aaron; Hart, Skye; Jones, Katreen Wikstrom; Abdel-Fattah, Dina; Johnson, Crane; et al. (Frontiers in Earth Science, 2020-05-27)
      Suicide Basin is a partly glacierized marginal basin of Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, that has released glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) annually since 2011. The floods cause inundation and erosion in the Mendenhall Valley, impacting homes and other infrastructure. Here, we utilize in-situ and remote sensing data to assess the recent evolution and current state of Suicide Basin. We focus on the 2018 and 2019 melt seasons, during which we collected most of our data, partly using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). To provide longer-term context, we analyze DEMs collected since 2006 and model glacier surface mass balance over the 2006–2019 period. During the 2018 and 2019 outburst flood events, Suicide Basin released ∼ 30 Å~ 106 m3 of water within approximately 4–5 days. Since lake drainage was partial in both years, these ∼ 30 Å~ 106 m3 represent only a fraction (∼ 60%) of the basin’s total storage capacity. In contrast to previous years, subglacial drainage was preceded by supraglacial outflow over the ice dam, which lasted ∼ 1 day in 2018 and 6 days in 2019. Two large calving events occurred in 2018 and 2019, with submerged ice breaking off the main glacier during lake filling, thereby increasing the basin’s storage capacity. In 2018, the floating ice in the basin was 36 m thick on average. In 2019, ice thickness was 29 m, suggesting rapid decay of the ice tongue despite increasing ice inflow from Mendenhall Glacier. The ice dam at the basin entrance thinned by more than 5 m a–1 from 2018 to 2019, which is approximately double the rate of the reference period 2006–2018. While ice-dam thinning reduces water storage capacity in the basin, that capacity is increased by declining ice volume in the basin and longitudinal lake expansion, with the latter process challenging to predict. The potential for premature drainage onset (i.e., drainage before the lake’s storage capacity is reached), intermittent drainage decelerations, and early drainage termination further complicates prediction of future GLOF events.
    • Depredating sperm whales in the Gulf of Alaska: local habitat use and long distance movements across putative population boundaries

      Straley, Janice M.; Schorr, G. S.; Thode, A. M.; Calambokidis, J.; Lunsford, C. R.; Chenoweth, Ellen M.; O'Connell, V. M.; Andrews, R. D. (Inter-Research Science Publisher, 2014-05-08)
      Satellite tags were attached to 10 sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus (1 whale was tagged in 2 different years) to determine the movements of sperm whales involved in removal of sablefish from longline fishing gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Tags transmitted from 3 to 34 d (median = 22) in 2007 and 7 to 158 d (median = 45) in 2009. Seven whales stayed in the GOA; all were associating with fishing vessels along the slope. Two whales headed south in June shortly after being tagged; one reached the inner third of the Sea of Cortez; the other’s last location was offshore Mexico at 14°N. A third whale stayed in the GOA until October and then headed south, reaching central Baja, Mexico, 158 d after tagging. The whales that travelled to lower latitudes followed no pattern in timing of departure, and at least 2 had different destinations. All whales passed through the California Current without stopping and did not travel to Hawaii; both are areas with known concentrations of sperm whales. Whales travelled faster when south of 56°N than when foraging in the GOA (median rate of median horizontal movement = 5.4 [range: 4.1 to 5.5] and 1.3 [range: 0.6 to 2.5] km h−1, respectively). Tagged sperm whales primarily travelled over the slope, but one spent considerable time over the ocean basin. Information on the timing and movement patterns of sperm whales may provide a means for fishermen to avoid fishing at whale hot spots, potentially reducing interactions between whales and fishermen.
    • Developing an Effective Learning Environment for Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Meta-Synthesis

      Gressett, Rosanne (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-01)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on developing an effective learning environment for children with Asperger Syndrome examines four critical areas that help support academic and social growth and self-advocacy. Early intervention and social skills instruction, while considering the specific needs of the child are foremost and provide the foundation from which all future learning will evolve. Effective learning not only encompasses approaches that are person-centered but also requires adaptations that support transition. For the Asperger child, as he moves into adulthood, transitioning can be especially challenging. As an adult, with ongoing support and interventions, transitions can be opportunities for self-awareness and growth.
    • The Digital Public Library of America and Academic Libraries: How the DPLA Advances Teaching, Learning, and Research

      Lamb, Jonas; Paulus, Michael J; Yarmey, Kristen; Shaughnessy, Kathryn; Gore, Emily (ACRL 2015 Conference, 2015-03-26)
      A timeline detailing some of the more significant events in DPLA history.
    • Direct observations of submarine melt and subsurface geometry at a tidewater glacier

      Sutherland, D. A.; Jackson, R. H.; Kienholtz, C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Dryer, W. P.; Duncan, D.; Eidam, E. F.; Motyka, R. J.; Nash, J. D. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2019-07-26)
      Ice loss from the world’s glaciers and ice sheets contributes to sea level rise, influences ocean circulation, and affects ecosystem productivity. Ongoing changes in glaciers and ice sheets are driven by submarine melting and iceberg calving from tidewater glacier margins. However, predictions of glacier change largely rest on unconstrained theory for submarine melting. Here, we use repeat multibeam sonar surveys to image a subsurface tidewater glacier face and document a time-variable, three-dimensional geometry linked to melting and calving patterns. Submarine melt rates are high across the entire ice face over both seasons surveyed and increase from spring to summer. The observed melt rates are up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted by theory, challenging current simulations of ice loss from tidewater glaciers.
    • Disaccharide Residues are Required for Native Antifreeze Glycoprotein Activity.

      Sun, Yuling; Giubertoni, Giulia; Bakker, Huib J; Liu, Jie; Wagner, Manfred; Ng, David Y W; Devries, Arthur L; Meister, Konrad (ACS Publications, 2021-05-06)
      Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are able to bind to ice, halt its growth, and are the most potent inhibitors of ice recrystallization known. The structural basis for AFGP’s unique properties remains largely elusive. Here we determined the antifreeze activities of AFGP variants that we constructed by chemically modifying the hydroxyl groups of the disaccharide of natural AFGPs. Using nuclear magnetic resonance, two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, and circular dichroism, the expected modifications were confirmed as well as their effect on AFGPs solution structure. We find that the presence of all the hydroxyls on the disaccharides is a requirement for the native AFGP hysteresis as well as the maximal inhibition of ice recrystallization. The saccharide hydroxyls are apparently as important as the acetyl group on the galactosamine, the α-linkage between the disaccharide and threonine, and the methyl groups on the threonine and alanine. We conclude that the use of hydrogen-bonding through the hydroxyl groups of the disaccharide and hydrophobic interactions through the polypeptide backbone are equally important in promoting the antifreeze activities observed in the native AFGPs. These important criteria should be considered when designing synthetic mimics.
    • The Disproportional Representation Dilemma: A Meta-Synthesis

      LeFevere, April D. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2013)
      A disproportionate number of students, with specific identifiable characteristics like ethnic background, race and socioeconomic conditions are being erroneously referred and placed in special education and left out of programs for the gifted and talented due to problems within the systems of both regular and special education. With a shifting in the representations of the majority ethnic group and overall increases in the number of minorities attending public school, a system built with one norm (White, middle class) and matching leadership is unable to meet the needs of a diverse population of children. Teacher training programs and district in-services for current staffs need to address the diversity teachers will face in classrooms. New ways are needed to identify and measure abilities in order to help address individual student needs along a continuum of progress to build programs based on student strengths and not deficits identified through biased means. This paper is a metasynthesis of the literature surrounding the dilemma of disproportionate representation in special education with a specific focus on over representation.
    • Disproportionality in Special Education: What Does the Future Hold?

      Perez, Liana (University of Alaska Southeast, 2019)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on disproportionality of minorities in special education examines the profound effects that inappropriately qualifying and placing culturally and linguistically diverse students into special education programs has on our nation. With the most current data showing the continuous increase of minorities in the US school systems, it is crucial that we develop methods and strategies that will help decrease the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in our special education programs. It is pertinent that educators and administrators examine their own biases, beliefs, practices and policies to ensure social justice, respect and cultural responsiveness are being implemented in each and every classroom and school
    • Dissolved organic matter in wetland soils and streams of Southeast Alaska: Source, Concentration, and Chemical Quality

      Fellman, Jason B.; Hood, Eran; Boone, Rich; Jones, Jeremy; White, Dan; D'Amore, David (2008-12)
      Dissolved organic matter (DOM) transported from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems is an important source of C, N and energy for the metabolism of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria. I examined the concentration and chemical quality of DOM exported from coastal temperate watersheds in southeast Alaska to determine if wetland soils are an important source of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) to aquatic ecosystems. I addressed this question through a combination of high resolution temporal and spatial field measurements in three watersheds near Juneau, Alaska by using a replicated experimental design that characterized DOM export from three different soil types (bog, forested wetland and upland forest) within each of the watersheds. PARAFAC modeling of fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and BDOC incubations were used to evaluate the chemical quality and lability of DOM. Overall, my findings show that wetland soils contribute substantial biodegradable DOM to streams and the response in BDOC delivery to streams changes seasonally, with soil type, and during episodic events such as stormflows. In particular, the chemical quality of DOM in streamwater and soil solution was similar during the spring runoff and fall wet season, as demonstrated by the similar contribution of protein-like fluorescence in soil solution and in streams. These findings indicate a tight coupling between wetland DOM source pools and streams is responsible for the export of BDOC from terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, seasonal changes in soil-stream linkages can have a major influence on watershed biogeochemistry with important implications for stream metabolism and the delivery of labile DOM to coastal ecosystems. Soil DOM additions in small streams draining the three soil types showed that DOM leached from watershed soils is readily used as a substrate by stream heterotrophs and at the same time modified in composition by the selective degradation of the proteinaceous fraction of DOM. These findings indicate terrestrial DOM inputs to streams are an important source of C to support stream heterotrophic production. Thus, the production of protein-rich, labile DOM and subsequent loss in stream runoff has the potential to be an important loss of C and N from coastal temperate watersheds.
    • Dynamic jamming of iceberg-choked fjords

      Peters, Ivo R.; Amundson, Jason M.; Cassotto, Ryan; Fahnestock, Mark; Darnell, Kristopher N.; Truffer, Martin; Zhang, Wendy W. (American Geophysical Union, 2015-02-02)
      We investigate the dynamics of ice mélange by analyzing rapid motion recorded by a time-lapse camera and terrestrial radar during several calving events that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland. During calving events (1) the kinetic energy of the ice mélange is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the total energy released during the events, (2) a jamming front propagates through the ice mélange at a rate that is an order of magnitude faster than the motion of individual icebergs, (3) the ice mélange undergoes initial compaction followed by slow relaxation and extension, and (4) motion of the ice mélange gradually decays before coming to an abrupt halt. These observations indicate that the ice mélange experiences widespread jamming during calving events and is always close to being in a jammed state during periods of terminus quiescence. We therefore suspect that local jamming influences longer timescale ice mélange dynamics and stress transmission.
    • Early Childhood Special Education in Norway and the United States: A Meta-Synthesis

      Brainerd, Julia (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This meta-synthesis investigates various aspects of early childhood special education in Norway and the U.S. Both countries strive to provide services for young children with disabilities in inclusive settings. However, the differences in policy, levels of governmental regulation and involvement, local organization of service delivery, and provision of social benefits shape very different realities for children with disabilities, their families, and their service providers in Norway and the U.S. This inquiry of 43 articles addresses such issues as overall quality of services and support available to children with disabilities and their families, qualifications of personnel who work with children with disabilities, funding of various early childhood settings that these children attend, and availability and accessibility of inclusive early childhood environments for children with disabilities in both Norway and the U.S.
    • Ecclystenoid Circulation in Chinoecetes Baird: And How Laboratory Holdings Effect Hormone Expression

      Deal, Cole (2017-07-15)
      Laboratory studies have been very important in understanding the physiology of commercially important crustaceans although removing crabs from their natural habitat can remove the crab from natural biological cues such as photoperiod, tidal cycles, and habitat. By assaying for circulating ecdysteroids in hemolymph of Dungeness crab, we can better understand how artificial settings are affecting the physiology of these crustaceans, in turn how they determine the outcome of laboratory studies by monitoring these differences between environments. The main goal of this project will be to determine whether there is a clear and present difference in ecdysteroid concentration between Tanner crab that have been exposed to lunar cycles; meaning they have tidal, temperature, depth and photoperiod influences, compared to lab setting Tanner crab, which will not have these external influences acting upon them.
    • Ecosystem response persists after a prolonged marine heat wave

      Suryan, R. M.; Arimitsu, M. L.; Coletti, H. A.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Zador, S. G.; Lindeberg, M. R.; Straley, Janice M. (Nature Research, 2021-03-18)
      Some of the longest and most comprehensive marine ecosystem monitoring programs were established in the Gulf of Alaska following the environmental disaster of the Exxon Valdez oil spill over 30 years ago. These monitoring programs have been successful in assessing recovery from oil spill impacts, and their continuation decades later has now provided an unparalleled assessment of ecosystem responses to another newly emerging global threat, marine heatwaves. The 2014–2016 northeast Pacific marine heatwave (PMH) in the Gulf of Alaska was the longest lasting heatwave globally over the past decade, with some cooling, but also continued warm conditions through 2019. Our analysis of 187 time series from primary production to commercial fisheries and nearshore intertidal to offshore oceanic domains demonstrate abrupt changes across trophic levels, with many responses persisting up to at least 5 years after the onset of the heatwave. Furthermore, our suite of metrics showed novel community-level groupings relative to at least a decade prior to the heatwave. Given anticipated increases in marine heatwaves under current climate projections, it remains uncertain when or if the Gulf of Alaska ecosystem will return to a pre-PMH state.
    • Educating Students After Acquiring a Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Synthesis

      Noel, Caroline (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012)
      Since the addition of traumatic brain injury, as a specific category, to the Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990, schools around the United States have become more aware of this complex, unique disability. More students are now being serviced correctly by special education teachers and support personnel, in the educational setting. As more students are entering the education system, under the disability category of traumatic brain injury, and receiving the correct individualized services for their disability, the more students are graduating from high school and going on to be successful in a college education. These individuals are able to have access to accommodations they need in school and possibly for the rest of their lives. This meta-synthesis of the literature on student reentry after a traumatic brain injury, investigates the sudden onset of injury, the academic reentry process, common characteristics as a result of injury, family dynamics caused by an injured member, and the life of an individual, post injury
    • Educating Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder at a Secondary Level: A Meta-Synthesis

      Knoebel, James (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis reviews literature on current practices being employed for working with students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at a secondary level. Specific areas addressed within this meta-synthesis include the characteristics of students with that are higher functioning on the autism spectrum, the inclusion of students with ASD, limitations to including students with ASD into general education classes, and the perceptions of all of the stakeholders (students, parents, educators) in regards to educating this population at a secondary level. Additionally, effective interventions were explored to determine the best practices to utilize as part of an arrangement of supports that create quality learning experiences. This meta-synthesis intertwines the findings from the research studies with the author’s experiences as a professional working with students with autism spectrum disorder.
    • Educational Technology: Benefits, Challenges and Effective Practices for Students Experiencing Learning Disabilities.

      Stout, Kristine (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
      This meta-synthesis examines the use of technology with special education students experiencing learning disabilities. The primary areas of examination are benefits, challenges and effective practices. During the review of the literature there were nine themes that were evident amongst the 39 articles. These themes related to the benefits, challenges and effective practices for use of technology with students experiencing learning disabilities. The emerging themes that are identified as being benefits to students and teachers who use technology are motivation and interest, accommodation potential, and ease of use. Challenges that came up as emerging themes are training, matching technology to student need, generalization, and technical issues. The effective practices that emerged most prominently were student data driving decision making and evidence or research based practices.
    • Eelgrass pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae synthesizes essential fatty acids

      Yoshioka, R. M.; Schram, Julie B.; Galloway, Aaron W. E. (Inter-Research, 2019-07-25)
      Negative consequences of parasites and disease on hosts are usually better understood than their multifaceted ecosystem effects. The pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae (Lz) causes eelgrass wasting disease but has relatives that produce large quantities of nutritionally valuable long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we quantify the fatty acids (FA) of Lz cultured on artificial media, eelgrass-based media, and eelgrass segments to investigate whether Lz may similarly produce LCPUFA. We also assess whether fieldcollected lesions show similar FA patterns to laboratory-inoculated eelgrass. We find that Lz produces DHA as its dominant FA along with other essential FA on both artificial and eelgrass-based media. DHA content was greater in both laboratory-inoculated and field-collected diseased eelgrass relative to their respective controls. If Lz’s production scales in situ, it may present an unrecognized source of LCPUFA in eelgrass ecosystems.
    • Effect of topography on subglacial discharge and submarine melting during tidewater glacier retreat.

      Amundson, Jason M.; Carroll, D. (American Geophysical Union, 2017-12-07)
      To first order, subglacial discharge depends on climate, which determines precipitation fluxes and glacier mass balance, and the rate of glacier volume change. For tidewater glaciers, large and rapid changes in glacier volume can occur independent of climate change due to strong glacier dynamic feedbacks. Using an idealized tidewater glacier model, we show that these feedbacks produce secular variations in subglacial discharge that are influenced by subglacial topography. Retreat along retrograde bed slopes (into deep water) results in rapid surface lowering and coincident increases in subglacial discharge. Consequently, submarine melting of glacier termini, which depends on subglacial discharge and ocean thermal forcing, also increases during retreat into deep water. Both subglacial discharge and submarine melting subsequently decrease as glacier termini retreat out of deep water and approach new steady state equilibria. In our simulations, subglacial discharge reached peaks that were 6–17% higher than preretreat values, with the highest values occurring during retreat from narrow sills, and submarine melting increased by 14% for unstratified fjords and 51% for highly stratified fjords. Our results therefore indicate that submarine melting acts in concert with iceberg calving to cause tidewater glacier termini to be unstable on retrograde beds. The full impact of submarine melting on tidewater glacier stability remains uncertain, however, due to poor understanding of the coupling between submarine melting and iceberg calving.
    • Effective climate change adaptation means supporting community autonomy

      Pisor, Anne; Basurto, Xavier; Douglass, Kristina; Mach, Katharine; Ready, Elspeth; Tylianakis, Jason; Hazel, Ashley; Kline, Michelle; Kramer, Karen; Lansing, J. Stephen; et al. (2022-02-28)
      Communities want to determine their own climate change adaptation strategies, and scientists and decision-makers should listen to them — both the equity and efficacy of climate change adaptation depend on it. We outline key lessons researchers and development actors can take to support communities and learn from them.