• Generational Silence: Impact on the Over-Identification of Alaskan Native Students with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

      Van Flein, Barbara (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      This meta-synthesis investigates the research and literature on the connections between historical trauma and the over-identification of Alaska Native students receiving special education services under the specific learning disability category. Historical trauma is defined. Intergenerational transmission is explained. The silence surrounding trauma and the loss of language fluency is explored and contextualized as a problematic factor in the disproportionate number of Alaska Native students being labeled as having a learning disability. The implications of misidentifying students, as well the life-long impact of receiving a disability label are discussed. Suggestions are reviewed with a focus on the ongoing development and practice of a special education teacher through the lenses of multiculturalism, critical theory and postmodernist thought. Not addressed in this meta-synthesis are issues of identity as they relate to and connect with historical trauma, colonialism and language.
    • Ghost Factors of Laboratory Carbonate Chemistry Are Haunting Our Experiments

      Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Dassow, G. Von; Schram, Julie B.; Klinger, T.; Hill, T. M.; Lowe, A. T.; Chan, F.; Yoshioka, R. M.; Kroeker, K. J. (The University of Chicago, 2020-10-23)
      For many historical and contemporary experimental studies in marine biology, seawater carbonate chemistry remains a ghost factor, an uncontrolled, unmeasured, and often dynamic variable affecting experimental organisms or the treatments to which investigators subject them. We highlight how environmental variability, such as seasonal upwelling and biological respiration, drive variation in seawater carbonate chemistry that can influence laboratory experiments in unintended ways and introduce a signal consistent with ocean acidification. As the impacts of carbonate chemistry on biochemical pathways that underlie growth, development, reproduction, and behavior become better understood, the hidden effects of this previously overlooked variable need to be acknowledged. Here we bring this emerging challenge to the attention of the wider community of experimental biologists who rely on access to organisms and water from marine and estuarine laboratories and who may benefit from explicit considerations of a growing literature on the pervasive effects of aquatic carbonate chemistry changes.
    • Glacier retreat creating new Pacific salmon habitat in western North America

      Pitman, Kara J.; Moore, Jonathan W.; Huss, Matthias; Sloat, Matthew R.; Whited, Diane C.; Beechie, Tim J.; Brenner, Rich; Hood, Eran; Milner, Alexander M.; Pess, George R.; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-12-07)
      Glacier retreat poses risks and benefits for species of cultural and economic importance. One example is Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), supporting subsistence harvests, and commercial and recreational fisheries worth billions of dollars annually. Although decreases in summer streamflow and warming freshwater is reducing salmon habitat quality in parts of their range, glacier retreat is creating new streams and lakes that salmon can colonize. However, potential gains in future salmon habitat associated with glacier loss have yet to be quantified across the range of Pacific salmon. Here we project future gains in Pacific salmon freshwater habitat by linking a model of glacier mass change for 315 glaciers, forced by five different Global Climate Models, with a simple model of salmon stream habitat potential throughout the Pacific Mountain ranges of western North America. We project that by the year 2100 glacier retreat will create 6,146 (±1,619) km of new streams accessible for colonization by Pacific salmon, of which 1,930 (±569) km have the potential to be used for spawning and juvenile rearing, representing 0 to 27% gains within the 18 sub-regions we studied. These findings can inform proactive management and conservation of Pacific salmon in this era of rapid climate change.
    • Glacier, fjord, and seismic response to recent large calving events, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, M.; Luthi, M. P.; Fahnestock, M.; West, M.; Motyka, R. J. (American Geophysical Union, 2008-11-18)
      The recent loss of Jakobshavn Isbræ’s extensive floating ice tongue has been accompanied by a change in near terminus behavior. Calving currently occurs primarily in summer from a grounded terminus, involves the detachment and overturning of several icebergs within 30 – 60 min, and produces long-lasting and far-reaching ocean waves and seismic signals, including ‘‘glacial earthquakes’’. Calving also increases near-terminus glacier velocities by 3% but does not cause episodic rapid glacier slip, thereby contradicting the originally proposed glacial earthquake mechanism. We propose that the earthquakes are instead caused by icebergs scraping the fjord bottom during calving.
    • Granular decoherence precedes ice mélange failure and glacier calving at Jakobshavn Isbræ

      Cassotto, Ryan; Burton, Justin C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Fahnestock, Mark; Truffer, Martin (Springer Nature, 2021-05-27)
      The stability of the world’s largest glaciers and ice sheets depends on mechanical and thermodynamic processes occurring at the glacier–ocean boundary. A buoyant agglomeration of icebergs and sea ice, referred to as ice mélange, often forms along this boundary and has been postulated to affect ice-sheet mass losses by inhibiting iceberg calving. Here, we use terrestrial radar data sampled every 3 min to show that calving events at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, are preceded by a loss of flow coherence in the proglacial ice mélange by up to an hour, wherein individual icebergs flowing in unison undergo random displacements. A particle dynamics model indicates that these fluctuations are likely due to buckling and rearrangements of the quasi-two-dimensional material. Our results directly implicate ice mélange as a mechanical inhibitor of iceberg calving and further demonstrate the potential for real-time detection of failure in other geophysical granular materials.
    • Haa Dachx̱ánxʼi Sáani Kagéiyi Yís: Haa Yoo X̱ʼatángi Kei Naltseen

      Twitchell, X̲ʼunei Lance (2018)
      The Tlingit language has experienced drastic losses over the past two decades in terms of total number of speakers and places where the language is used. This steady decline in speakers was drastically accelerated as the last generation who grew up in a time when Tlingit was the primary language of homes and communities reach their sixties, seventies, eighties, and nineties. The youngest first language speakers are in their 60s, although most of them are in their eighties because intergenerational transmission severely declined in the second half of the 1900s, and has only recently returned with a few families who have committed to speaking with their children. Recent estimates have determined that the Tlingit language has about 80 birth speakers of various levels, and 50 second language learners that could be considered at the “intermediate” level or higher according to ACTFL scales. There are probably only 10 speakers remaining who could be considered fully fluent and capable of higher forms of speaking, and most of them are over 70 years old. This combines to create an unprecedented crisis for the Tlingit language, which will require massive shifts in cultural values, ways of living, institutional cultures, and educational practices if the language is going to survive the next 50 years and have more than a handful of speakers. Instead of merely surviving, or preserving, the goal of the Tlingit Language Continuity Movement1 is to have 3,000 speakers of the language by 2050. The current population of the Tlingit people is about 20,000 and of Tlingit territory is around 100,000. This means that 3,000 speakers would be 15% fluency among the Tlingit people and 3% within Tlingit territory, rising from 0.65% and 0.13% respectively. This dissertation documents some of the events that have led to massive language decline, and proposes a series of interconnected methods that would result in language revitalization. In particular, increasing adult fluency, creating safe acquisition environments, mending a people and their language, and following a 30-year action plan is the proposed method to revitalizing the Tlingit language. These chapters are based upon the following research methods: reviewing published Tlingit language materials and recorded Tlingit language, documenting Tlingit language speakers and their thoughts on language learning and use, and incorporating theories from sociolinguistics, language revitalization, and post-colonial decolonizing methodologies.
    • Hesitations of Co-Teaching in Public Education: A Meta-Synthesis

      School, Paul (University of Alaska Southeast, 2019-04-13)
      Although federally mandated, co-teaching and inclusion are not a common practice in the public-school setting. Special education can be very different depending on the building, teacher, population of students and district. Universal design was created to allow all programs and curriculum to be adapted to meet the needs of children in special education so they can access the general education classroom and learning materials. Many schools still have a special education classrooms where children in special education go to receive their education. In an ideal co-teaching model, both the general education and special education teacher would work together to provide education for children in special education in the general education classroom. Although special education needs to be individualized to meet the unique needs of individual learners, students taught in isolation miss social interactions, group dynamics, self- acceptance and the opportunity to gain the same knowledge as their peers without a diagnosed disability. This meta-synthesis research will look deeper into the teacher’s perspective in why or why not co-teaching is practiced at their school.
    • His and Her Brains? Effectively Educating Our Boys: A Meta-Synthesis

      Auldridge, Gina (University of Alaska Southeast, 2019)
      The statistical data from the U.S. Department of Education shows a decline in the performance and graduation rates for boys since 1967. By contrast, performance and graduation rates for girls has steadily increased and actually passed the boys in 1981. As reading scores for boys with disabilities continues to be among the lowest in the nation, girls are becoming more competitive in math, science, and AP courses. As this trend has continued in these opposing directions for some time, it has come to the attention of administrators, educators, and even reporters when more schools fail to make adequate yearly progress towards student performance measurements. This meta-synthesis of the literature on the academic achievement of boys as compared to girls examines the effectiveness of brain-based instruction and what impact it has on those outcomes.
    • The History of Special Education: The Changes That Made Special Education: A Meta-Synthesis

      (Simonsmeier) Pereira, Emily (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      For centuries we have been documenting the world around us, taking note of every change. Most of the changes are small and over looked, but once they are coupled with a few other small changes they become something big and meaningful. Special education has a history just like that, it started with people wanting change, people advocating, acts and laws being wrote and pushed through Congress. Before the world knew it all these small tasks combined together in history to create a momentous event in history. No longer were students with disabilities forced to stay at home, they could now attend public school, and with the years to follow rights. Rights to have education just the same as any other student. The right to learn in environment that is best for them. The right to funding to help provide the services they need. The right to learn. This meta-synthesis of the literature on history of special education investigates the changes that took place throughout education to create special education and the services and programs that help better our students.
    • Holding on to Listening: Applying Current Research to Emergent Literacy: A Meta-Synthesis

      Frisque, Susan (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      This meta-synthesis investigates connections between listening and emergent literacy. Recent articles in the fields of educational research and educational neuroscience are reviewed and summarized. Seven themes emerged from this analysis of 48 articles, included in this meta- synthesis. These emergent themes, or theme clusters, include: (a) the development, or lack of development of a left hemisphere “reading network”; (b) links between sensory and literacy skills; (c) correlations between language and musical abilities; (d) environmental factors impacting language and literacy; (e) vocabulary acquisition; (f) aural and oral strategies, or strategies involving listening and speaking; and (g) computer aided instruction.
    • How Alaska Natives Learn and Changes to Alaska Education that would Ensure Success: A Review of the Literature

      Kookesh, Sally Woods (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      I have examined 47 articles that related to Alaska Native/American Indian education and culturally responsive education. I found problems in K-12 education for Alaska Natives; historical contexts; cultural context; building bridges; and the future for K-12 education for Alaska Natives were common themes throughout my review of the literature. Problems with education was established 200 years ago and Alaska Natives still perform lower than their non-Native counterparts; historical context tells a story of past Native educational and mainstream practices; cultural context can play a positive role in closing the achievement gap through language, culture, and involving the community; building bridges can occur between Native and non-Native systems by using best practices and local ways of knowing in a diverse cultural climate; and looking forward by changing K-12 education for Alaska Natives through involving Native parents, communities, educators, and universities as equal collaborators in education for Alaska Natives.
    • How Can Neuroimaging Inform Our Treatment of Reading Disorders in Children With Learning Disabilities?

      Rueter, Joseph (2015-04-28)
      Neuroimaging technology in the last two decades has allowed a direct 3 dimensional view of the processing activity in an individual’s brain while completing a particular cognitive task enabling the characterization of functional brain areas and typical processing pathways. This meta-synthesis examines current studies of the neuroimaging of reading in both typical proficient readers, and individuals with developmental dyslexia and examines how these studies can inform our treatment of reading disorders. Functional Imaging studies with fMRI, DTI, MEG, and EEG techniques have documented that the brains of individuals with dyslexia have distinct physical differences and an atypical processing of reading tasks when compared to their normal reading peers. These differences in both form and function can be determined in young pre-reading age children, enabling the early identification (with 90% accuracy) of individuals that will later struggle with the disability. Researchers in the field indicate that DD is an evolving progressive disorder beginning with a distinct phonological disorder and evolves into semantic word recognition disorder as the child ages. The underlying causes for DD that are being currently advocated are a Magnocellular/vision deficit, a cerebellar deficit, and/or a phonological deficit. Studies indicate that more than one of these deficits may be contributing factors, however 90% of individuals presenting with the DD have a phonological deficit as a major contributor making this the target area of most early interventions. Many studies have contrasted the functional scans of DD readers before, and after phonological interventions in an attempt to characterize a neuro-plastic change resulting from the intervention. These contrast studies indicate that many individuals with dyslexia will normalize their atypical processing of written information to appear to process written text much like their proficient reading peers. However, there are still many individuals with dyslexia who do not respond to interventions with normalization, but instead compensate for their atypical processing of written text by recruiting disparate areas in the brain to accomplish the same task. These researchers’ results indicate central challenge of developing interventions guided by the neurology. These interventions should target activation of a given brain system identified to be the source of the deficit in an individual’s Dyslexia with the intent to induce a neuro plastic, normalizing change in brain.
    • How Can Neuroimaging Inform Our Treatment of Reading Disorders in Children With Learning Disabilities?

      Rueter, Joseph (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015-04-28)
      Neuroimaging technology in the last two decades has allowed a direct 3 dimensional view of the processing activity in an individual’s brain while completing a particular cognitive task enabling the characterization of functional brain areas and typical processing pathways. This meta-synthesis examines current studies of the neuroimaging of reading in both typical proficient readers, and individuals with developmental dyslexia and examines how these studies can inform our treatment of reading disorders. Functional Imaging studies with fMRI, DTI, MEG, and EEG techniques have documented that the brains of individuals with dyslexia have distinct physical differences and an atypical processing of reading tasks when compared to their normal reading peers. These differences in both form and function can be determined in young pre-reading age children, enabling the early identification (with 90% accuracy) of individuals that will later struggle with the disability. Researchers in the field indicate that DD is an evolving progressive disorder beginning with a distinct phonological disorder and evolves into semantic word recognition disorder as the child ages. The underlying causes for DD that are being currently advocated are a Magnocellular/vision deficit, a cerebellar deficit, and/or a phonological deficit. Studies indicate that more than one of these deficits may be contributing factors, however 90% of individuals presenting with the DD have a phonological deficit as a major contributor making this the target area of most early interventions. Many studies have contrasted the functional scans of DD readers before, and after phonological interventions in an attempt to characterize a neuro-plastic change resulting from the intervention. These contrast studies indicate that many individuals with dyslexia will normalize their atypical processing of written information to appear to process written text much like their proficient reading peers. However, there are still many individuals with dyslexia who do not respond to interventions with normalization, but instead compensate for their atypical processing of written text by recruiting disparate areas in the brain to accomplish the same task. These researchers’ results indicate central challenge of developing interventions guided by the neurology. These interventions should target activation of a given brain system identified to be the source of the deficit in an individual’s Dyslexia with the intent to induce a neuro plastic, normalizing change in brain.
    • How Landscape Ecology Informs Global Land-Change Science and Policy

      Buma, Brian; Mayer, Audrey; Davis, Amelie; Gagne, Sara; Loudermilk, E. Louise; Scheller, Robert; Schmiegelow, Fiona; Wiersma, Yolanda; Franklin, Janet (Oxford University Press, 2016)
      Landscape ecology is a discipline that explicitly considers the influence of time and space on the environmental patterns we observe and the processes that create them. Although many of the topics studied in landscape ecology have public policy implications, three are of particular concern: climate change; land use–land cover change (LULCC); and a particular type of LULCC, urbanization. These processes are interrelated, because LULCC is driven by both human activities (e.g., agricultural expansion and urban sprawl) and climate change (e.g., desertification). Climate change, in turn, will affect the way humans use landscapes. Interactions among these drivers of ecosystem change can have destabilizing and accelerating feedback, with consequences for human societies from local to global scales. These challenges require landscape ecologists to engage policymakers and practitioners in seeking long-term solutions, informed by an understanding of opportunities to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic drivers on ecosystems and adapt to new ecological realities.
    • How to Most Effectively Move Toward More Inclusive Classrooms for Students Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

      Day, Mary (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      Educating students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment possible has been part of federal law for educating students with disabilities since 1975. The most common term for implementing this mandate is inclusion. While this term and its practice have been used for years, there is still great diversity in how it is viewed, adopted, and implemented. This has led to varying degrees of success and the effective use of inclusion has proven elusive. This meta-synthesis looks at what the literature says about this controversial issue, and in particular what the barriers are to successful inclusion, what are the features of successful inclusion programs, and how to best set the stage for success in a school as it plans to move toward more inclusion than it currently practices.
    • Humpback Whale Movements and Behavior in Response to Whale-Watching Vessels in Juneau, AK

      Schuler, Alicia, R.; Piwetz, Sarah; Clemente, Jacopo Di; Steckler, David; Mueter, Franz; Pearson, Heidi C. (2019-11-20)
      The whale-watching industry in Juneau, Alaska relies primarily on the presence of North Pacific humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). To meet demands from the rapidly growing tourism industry, the number of whale-watching vessels in this region has tripled over the last 18 years. As a result, increased vessel presence could have negative effects on humpback whales, ranging from short-term behavioral disturbance to long-term impacts. The current humpback whale viewing regulations are outdated and may not be as effective as they were 18 years ago, when both the whale-watching industry and humpback whale population were smaller. The present study assessed how humpback whale movement and behavioral patterns were affected by (1) vessel presence and number of vessels present, and (2) time spent in the presence of vessels. The study also determined how humpback whale behavioral state transitions were affected by vessel presence. A total of 201 humpback whale focal follows were conducted during summer 2016 and 2017. Based on linear mixed effects models, whales in the presence (vs. absence) of vessels exhibited 38.9% higher deviation in linear movement (p = 0.001), 6.2% increase in swimming speed (p = 0.047) and a 6.7% decrease in inter-breath intervals (IBI) (p = 0.025). For each additional vessel present, deviation increased by 6.2% (p = 0.022) and IBI decreased by 3.4% (p = 0.001). As time spent in the presence of vessels increased, respiration rate increased (p = 0.011). Feeding and traveling humpback whales were likely to maintain their behavioral state regardless of vessel presence, while surface active humpback whales were likely to transition to traveling in the presence of vessels. These short-term changes in movement and behavior in response to whale-watching vessels could lead to cumulative, long-term consequences, negatively impacting the health and predictability of the resource on which the industry relies. Current formal vessel approach regulations and voluntary guidelines should be revisited to reduce vessel pressure and mitigate potential negative effects of this growing whale-watching industry.
    • Humpback whales feed on hatchery-released juvenile salmon

      Chenoweth, Ellen M.; Straley, Janice M.; McPhee, Megan V.; Atkinson, Shannon; Reifenstuhl, Steve (The Royal Society Publishing, 2017-06-07)
      Humpback whales are remarkable for the behavioural plasticity of their feeding tactics and the diversity of their diets. Within the last decade at hatchery release sites in Southeast Alaska, humpback whales have begun exploiting juvenile salmon, a previously undocumented prey. The anthropogenic source of these salmon and their important contribution to local fisheries makes the emergence of humpback whale predation a concern for the Southeast Alaska economy. Here, we describe the frequency of observing humpback whales, examine the role of temporal and spatial variables affecting the probability of sighting humpback whales and describe prey capture behaviours at five hatchery release sites. We coordinated twice daily 15 min observations during the spring release seasons 2010–2015. Using logistic regression, we determined that the probability of occurrence of humpback whales increased after releases began and decreased after releases concluded. The probability of whale occurrence varied among release sites but did not increase significantly over the 6 year study period. Whales were reported to be feeding on juvenile chum, Chinook and coho salmon, with photographic and video records of whales feeding on coho salmon. The ability to adapt to new prey sources may be key to sustaining their population in a changing ocean.
    • Ice me ́lange dynamics and implications for terminus stability, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Amundson, Jason M.; Fahnestock, M.; Truffer, M.; Brown, J.; Luthi, M. P.; Motyka, R. J. (American Geophysical Union, 2010-01-21)
      We used time-lapse imagery, seismic and audio recordings, iceberg and glacier velocities, ocean wave measurements, and simple theoretical considerations to investigate the interactions between Jakobshavn Isbræ and its proglacial ice me ́lange. The me ́lange behaves as a weak, granular ice shelf whose rheology varies seasonally. Sea ice growth in winter stiffens the me ́lange matrix by binding iceberg clasts together, ultimately preventing the calving of full-glacier-thickness icebergs (the dominant style of calving) and enabling a several kilometer terminus advance. Each summer the me ́lange weakens and the terminus retreats. The me ́lange remains strong enough, however, to be largely unaffected by ocean currents (except during calving events) and to influence the timing and sequence of calving events. Furthermore, motion of the me ́lange is highly episodic: between calving events, including the entire winter, it is pushed down fjord by the advancing terminus (at 40 m d1), whereas during calving events it can move in excess of 50 103 m d1 for more than 10 min. By influencing the timing of calving events, the me ́lange contributes to the glacier’s several kilometer seasonal advance and retreat; the associated geometric changes of the terminus area affect glacier flow. Furthermore, a force balance analysis shows that large-scale calving is only possible from a terminus that is near floatation, especially in the presence of a resistive ice me ́lange. The net annual retreat of the glacier is therefore limited by its proximity to floatation, potentially providing a physical mechanism for a previously described near-floatation criterion for calving.
    • Ice Nucleation Activity of Perfluorinated Organic Acids.

      Schwidetzky, Ralph; Sun, Yuling; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Kunert, Anna T; Bonn, Mischa; Meister, Konrad (ACS Publications, 2021-03-31)
      Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are widely used synthetic chemical compounds, highly resistant to environmental degradation. The widespread PFA contamination in remote regions such as the High Arctic implies currently not understood long-range atmospheric transport pathways. Here, we report that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) initiates heterogeneous ice nucleation at temperatures as high as −16 °C. In contrast, the eight-carbon octanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, and deprotonated PFOA showed poor ice nucleating capabilities. The ice nucleation ability of PFOA correlates with the formation of a PFOA monolayer at the air−water interface, suggesting a mechanism in which the aligned hydroxyl groups of the carboxylic acid moieties provide a lattice matching to ice. The ice nucleation capabilities of fluorinated compounds like PFOA might be relevant for cloud glaciation in the atmosphere and the removal of these persistent pollutants by wet deposition.
    • Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Is Insufficient to Explain Cryopreservation Abilities of Antifreeze Proteins

      Sun, Yuling; Maltseva, Daria; Liu, Jie; Hooker II, Theordore; Mailänder, Volker; Ramløv, Hans; DeVries, Arthur, L.; Bonn, Mischa; Meister, Konrad (American Chemical Society, 2022-01-26)
      Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and glycoproteins (AFGPs) are exemplary at modifying ice crystal growth and at inhibiting ice recrystallization (IRI) in frozen solutions. These properties make them highly attractive for cold storage and cryopreservation applications of biological tissue, food, and other water-based materials. The specific requirements for optimal cryostorage remain unknown, but high IRI activity has been proposed to be crucial. Here, we show that high IRI activity alone is insufficient to explain the beneficial effects of AF(G)Ps on human red blood cell (hRBC) survival. We show that AF(G)Ps with different IRI activities cause similar cell recoveries of hRBCs and that a modified AFGP variant with decreased IRI activity shows increased cell recovery. The AFGP variant was found to have enhanced interactions with a hRBC model membrane, indicating that the capability to stabilize cell membranes is another important factor for increasing the survival of cells after cryostorage. This information should be considered when designing novel synthetic cryoprotectants.