• Observing calving-generated ocean waves with coastal broadband seismometers, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Amundson, Jason M.; Clinton, John F.; Fahnestock, Mark; Truffer, Martin; Luthi, Martin P.; Motyka, Roman J. (International Glaciological Society, 2012)
      We use time-lapse photography, MODIS satellite imagery, ocean wave measurements and regional broadband seismic data to demonstrate that icebergs that calve from Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, can generate ocean waves that are detectable over 150 km from their source. The waves, which are recorded seismically, have distinct spectral peaks, are not dispersive and persist for several hours. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that calving events at Jakobshavn Isbræ can stimulate seiches, or basin eigenmodes, in both Ilulissat Icefjord and Disko Bay. Our observations furthermore indicate that coastal, land-based seismometers located near calving termini (e.g. as part of the new Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)) can aid investigations into the largely unexplored, oceanographic consequences of iceberg calving.
    • Ocean warming and acidification alter Antarctic macroalgal biochemical composition but not amphipod grazer feeding preferences

      Schram, Julie B.; Schoenrock, Kathryn M.; McClintock, James B.; Amsler1, Charles D.; Angus, Robert A. (Inter-Research, 2017-10-13)
      Increased anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 concentrations have resulted in ocean warming and alterations in ocean carbonate chemistry, decreasing seawater pH (ocean acidification). The combination of ocean warming and acidification (OWA) may alter trophic interactions in marine benthic communities along the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Abundant and diverse macroalgae–grazer assemblages, dominated by macroalgae (e.g. chemically defended Desmarestia anceps and D. menziesii) and gammarid amphipods (e.g. Gondogeneia antarctica), occur on the nearshore benthos along the WAP. In the present study, the amphipod G. antarctica and macroalgae D. anceps and D. menziesii were exposed for 39 and 79 d, respectively, to combinations of current and predicted near-future temperature (1.5 and 3.5°C, respectively) and pH (8.0 and 7.6, respectively). Protein and lipid levels of macroalgal tissues were quantified, and 5-way choice amphipod feeding assays were performed with lyophilized macroalgal tissues collected at time zero and following exposure to the 4 temperature-pH treatments. For D. anceps, we found a significant interactive temperature-pH effect on lipid levels and significantly lower protein levels at reduced pH. In contrast, tissues of D. menziesii exhibited significantly greater lipid levels after exposure to reduced pH, but there was no temperature effect on lipid or protein levels. Despite shifts in macroalgal biochemical composition, there were no changes in amphipod feeding preferences. Our results indicate that despite altered macroalgal nutritional quality under OWA, both macroalgae retained their ability to deter amphipod feeding. This deterrent capacity could become an important contributor to net community resistance of macroalgae−mesograzer assemblages of the WAP to predicted OWA.
    • Oceanographic Determinants of the Abundance of Common Dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the South of Portugal.

      Castro, J.; Couto, A.; Borges, F. O.; Laborde, M. I.; Pearson, H. C.; Rosa, R.; Cid, A.; Pearson, Heidi C. (MDPI, 2020-08)
      Off mainland Portugal, the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is the most sighted cetacean, although information on this species is limited. The Atlantic coast of Southern Portugal is characterized by an intense wind-driven upwelling, creating ideal conditions for common dolphins. Using data collected aboard whale-watching boats (1929 sightings and 4548 h effort during 2010–2014), this study aims to understand the relationships between abundance rates (AR) of dolphins of different age classes (adults, juveniles, calves and newborns) and oceanographic [chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST)] variables. Over 70% of the groups contained immature animals. The AR of adults was negatively related with Chl-a, but not related to SST values. The AR of juveniles was positively related with SST. For calves and newborns, although the relationship between SST and AR is similar to that observed for juveniles, the effect could not be distinguished from zero. There was no relationship between Chl-a levels and the AR of juveniles, calves and newborns. These results corroborate previous findings that common dolphins tend to occur in highly productive areas demonstrating linkages between their abundance and oceanographic variables, and that this region may be a potential nursery ground.
    • Old Worlds, New Travels: Jack London’s People of the Abyss, Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises, and the Cultural Politics of Travel

      Maier, Kevin (The International Theodore Dreiser Society and The University of Nebraska Press, 2016)
    • On Becoming Human in Lingít Aaní: Encountering Levinas through Indigenous Inspirations

      Neely, Sol (The Journal of the International Association for Environmental Philosophy, 2016-04)
      Calls for taking up wisdom in its place risk re-inscribing coloniality at the level of signification if attempts to resituate intelligibility in the specificity of place are not enacted through a careful translation of experience between victims and perpetrators of colonial violence. At some level, decolonization ought to be conceived as a kind of translation. Emmanuel Levinas' project to "translate" Judaism into Greek is one way of staging such decolonial translation by providing us an internal critique of coloniality while remaining receptive to indigenous inspirations that enrich eco-phenomenological ways of encountering place. In the final instance, however, this paper calls for encountering place through the indigenous languages that make place ethically legible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Outlet glacier response to forcing over hourly to interannual timescales, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Podrasky, David; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Amundson, Jason M.; Cassoto, Ryan; Joughin, Ian (International Glaciological Society, 2012-09-07)
      The loss of the floating ice tongue on Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, in the early 2000s has been concurrent with a pattern of thinning, retreat and acceleration leading to enhanced contribution to global sea level. These changes on decadal timescales have been well documented. Here we identify how the glacier responds to forcings on shorter timescales, such as from variations in surface melt, the drainage of supraglacial lakes and seasonal fluctuations in terminus position. Ice motion and surface melt were monitored intermittently from 2006 to 2008. Dual-frequency GPS were deployed 20–50 km upstream of the terminus along the glacier center line. Gaps in surface melt measurements were filled using a temperature-index model of ablation driven by surface air temperatures recorded during the same time period. Our results corroborate the premise that the primary factors controlling speeds on Jakobshavn Isbræ are terminus position and geometry. We also observe that surface speeds demonstrate a complex relationship with meltwater input: on diurnal timescales, velocities closely match changes in water input; however, on seasonal timescales a longer, more intense melt season was observed to effectively reduce the overall ice flow of the glacier for the whole year.
    • Parent-Teacher Partnership: Diagnosing the Divide: A Meta-Synthesis

      Martin, Jennifer (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      Relationships between educators and parents are a requirement of IDEA 2004. Often these interactions have been characterized by misunderstanding, tension, and parents’ contentions that teachers do not have the best interests of their child as a focus. This causes a divide in the parent-school relationship. As times have changed, this divide has as well…it has grown. So what are the reasons that the divide continues to grow? What causes parents to distrust teachers and schools or become un-involved in their child’s education? What causes teachers to distance themselves from parents? What can we do about it? This meta-synthesis delves into these questions of the parent/teacher divide, and the implications of what schools need to do to fix the ever-widening gulf. The research suggests that there are many ways that we can bridge this divide. However, to make this happen, schools need to be proactive, family-centered, and be willing to work with parents outside of regular school hours. Both school and parents need to be able and willing to look at their own feelings and preconceived notions about school and parent involvement.
    • Pectoral herding: an innovative tactic for humpback whale foraging

      Kosma, Madison, M.; Werth, Alexander J.; Szabo, Andrew R.; Straley, Janice M. (The Royal Society, 2019-09-23)
      Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) have exceptionally long pectorals (i.e. flippers) that aid in shallow water navigation, rapid acceleration and increased manoeuvrability. The use of pectorals to herd or manipulate prey has been hypothesized since the 1930s. We combined new technology and a unique viewing platform to document the additional use of pectorals to aggregate prey during foraging events. Here, we provide a description of ‘pectoral herding’ and explore the conditions that may promote this innovative foraging behaviour. Specifically, we analysed aerial videos and photographic sequences to assess the function of pectorals during feeding events near salmon hatchery release sites in Southeast Alaska (2016–2018). We observed the use of solo bubble-nets to initially corral prey, followed by calculated movements to establish a secondary boundary with the pectorals—further condensing prey and increasing foraging efficiency. We found three ways in which humpback whales use pectorals to herd prey: (i) create a physical barrier to prevent evasion, (ii) cause water motion to guide prey towards the mouth, and (iii) position the ventral side to reflect light and alter prey movement. Our findings suggest that behavioural plasticity may aid foraging in changing environments and shifts in prey availability. Further study would clarify if ‘pectoral herding’ is used as a principal foraging tool by the broader humpback whale population and the conditions that promote its use.
    • People with Disabilities and the Justice System: A Meta-Synthesis

      West, Erica C. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
      Individuals with disabilities are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. This meta-synthesis explores the experiences of juveniles and adults with disabilities in the criminal justice system. Topics discussed include rates and characteristics of offenders with disabilities in the criminal justice system, experiences of offenders with disabilities within the justice system, recidivism risk factors for offenders with disabilities, and recommendations and needed changes for the criminal justice system.
    • Personal History of the University of Alaska, Southeast

      Jones, William Russell (University of Alaska Southeast, 2003)
      Written by Dr. W. Russell Jones, Professor Emeritus, University of Alaska Southeast. Dr. Jones joined the University of Alaska in Juneau in 1971 as Associate Professor of Education. He went on to hold a number of administrative positions. Dr. Jones retired from the position of Vice Chancellor of the University of Alaska Southeast in 1984. This volume covers the history of higher education institutions in Southeast Alaska from 1969 through 1988, including the mergers of the University of Alaska, Juneau with Juneau-Douglas Community College, Islands Community College, and Ketchikan Community College and the formation of University of Alaska Southeast.
    • pH effects on the molecular structure and charging state of b-Escin biosurfactants at the air-water interface

      Glikman, Dana; Rey, Natalia García; Richert, Manuela; Meister, Konrad; Braunschweig, Björn (Elsevier, 2021-09-20)
      Saponins like b-escin exhibit an unusually high surface activity paired with a remarkable surface rheology which makes them as biosurfactants highly interesting for applications in soft matter colloids and at interfaces. We have applied vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) to study b-escin adsorption layers at the air-water interface as a function of electrolyte pH and compare the results from SFG spectroscopy to complementary experiments that have addressed the surface tension and the surface dilational rheology. SFG spectra of b-escin modified air-water interfaces demonstrate that the SFG intensity of OAH stretching vibrations from interfacial water molecules is a function of pH and dramatically increases when the pH is increased from acidic to basic conditions and reaches a plateau at a solution pH of > 6. These changes are attributable to the interfacial charging state and to the deprotonation of the carboxylic acid group of b-escin. Thus, the change in OAH intensity provides qualitative information on the degree of protonation of this group at the air-water interface. At pH < 4 the air-water interface is dominated by the charge neutral form of b-escin, while at pH > 6 its carboxylic acid group is fully deprotonated and, consequently, the interface is highly charged. These observations are corroborated by the change in equilibrium surface tension which is qualitatively similar to the change in OAH intensity as seen in the SFG spectra. Further, once the surface layer is charge neutral, the surface elasticity drastically increases. This can be attributed to a change in prevailing intermolecular interactions that change from dominating repulsive electrostatic interactions at high pH, to dominating attractive interactions, such as hydrophobic and dispersive interactions, as well as, hydrogen bonding at low pH values. In addition to the clear changes in OAH intensity from interfacial H2O, the SFG spectra exhibit drastic changes in the CAH bands from interfacial b-escin which we relate to differences in the net molecular orientation. This orientation change is driven by tighter packing of b-escin adsorption layers when the b-escin moiety is in its charge neutral form (pH < 4).
    • Pilot investigation into the age structure of market squid, Doryteuthis opalescens, in the Gulf of Alaska

      Navarro, Michael; Wehde, Dawn (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-03-08)
      The objective of my URECA funded project was to conduct a pilot investigation that aimed to provide a data set of the age, size, and maturity of market squid, Doryteuthis opalescens, collected in the Gulf of Alaska. The information I collected was used to infer the establishment of a residential or transient population of market squid in the sampled area. I hypothesized that squid collected offshore (> 100m from the shoreline) would be less sexually mature and younger than squid collected inshore which supports the establishment of a residential population. In comparison, no significant differences between size, maturity, and age between squid collected offshore and inshore supports that the squid are from a transient population.
    • Place Names as Evidence for Historic Resource and Property Rights Among the Tlingit: An Interactive Approach

      Sorum-Birk, Elise (2017-07-15)
      My goal was to create an interactive app of Tlingit place names in the Juneau area in order to use it as a tool for education and resource management. The secondary objective was to write an academic paper about the project and to present at the Alaska Native Studies Conference in Fairbanks.
    • Populus tremuloides seedling establishment: An underexplored vector for forest type conversion after multiple disturbances

      Gill, Nathan S.; Sangermano, Florencia; Buma, Brian; Kulakowski, Dominik (Elsevier, 2017-11-15)
      Ecosystem resilience to climate change is contingent on post-disturbance plant regeneration. Sparse gymnosperm regeneration has been documented in subalpine forests following recent wildfires and compounded disturbances, both of which are increasing. In the US Intermountain West, this may cause a shift to non-forest in some areas, but other forests may demonstrate adaptive resilience through increased quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) dominance. However, this potential depends on ill-defined constraints of aspen sexual regeneration under current climate. We created an ensemble of species distribution models for aspen seedling distribution following severe wildfire to define constraints on establishment. We recorded P. tremuloides seedling locations across a post-fire, post-blowdown landscape. We used 3 algorithms (Mahalanobis Typicalities,Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network, and MaxEnt) to create spatial distribution models for aspen seedlings and to define constraints. Each model performed with high accuracy and was incorporated into an ensemble model, which performed with the highest overall accuracy of all the models. Populus tremuloides seedling distribution is constrained primarily by proximity to unburned aspen forest and annual temperature ranges, and secondarily by light availability, summer precipitation, and fire severity. Based on model predictions and validation data, P. tremuloides seedling regeneration is viable throughout 54% of the post-fire landscape, 97% of which was previously conifer-dominated. Aspen are less susceptible to many climatically-sensitive disturbances (e.g. fire, beetle outbreak, wind disturbance), thus, aspen expansion represents an important adaptation to climate change. Continued aspen expansion into post-disturbance landscapes through sexual reproduction at the level suggested by these results would represent an important adaptation to climate change and would confer adaptive forest resilience by maintaining forest cover, but would also alter future disturbance regimes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services.
    • Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome and Child Development: A Meta-Synthesis

      Blasingame, Jane (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      Exposure to acute stress and maltreatment during the first forty-eight months of life may result in a chain reaction of chemical and biological changes negatively impacting the growth and development of the brain. Especially affected is the neurohormonal structure of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal or HPA axis, which regulates stress hormones. Corpus callosum, the left neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdala are major brain structures which are adversely affected by chronic acute stress. Psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may result from severe stress, neglect and maltreatment especially when acute stress comes about during critical periods of developmental.
    • Preparing Information Literate Teachers: A Review of the Literature

      Ward, Jennifer Diane; Duke, Thomas Scott (Elsevier, 2010)
    • Proof without Words: On Sums of Squares and Triangles

      Piotrowski, Andrzej (Taylor & Francis, 2018-01-30)
      Summary. We visually display a relationship between sums of squares and the sum of an even number of triangular numbers. Connections to some proofs without words appearing in the literature are briefly discussed.
    • A Prospectus on Substantive Change

      University of Alaska Southeast (University of Alaska Southeast, 1987-10)
    • The protandric life history of the Northern spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros: molecular insights and implications for fishery management.

      Levy, Tom; Tamone, Sherry L; Manor, Rivka; Bower, Esther D; Sagi, Amir (Nature, 2020-01-28)
      The Northern spot shrimp, Pandalus platyceros, a protandric hermaphrodite of commercial importance in North America, is the primary target species for shrimp fisheries within Southeast Alaska. Fishery data obtained from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicate that spot shrimp populations have been declining significantly over the past 25 years. We collected spot shrimps in Southeast Alaska and measured reproductive-related morphological, gonadal and molecular changes during the entire life history. The appendix masculina, a major sexual morphological indicator, is indicative of the reproductive phase of the animal, lengthening during maturation from juvenile to the male phase and then gradually shortening throughout the transitional stages until its complete disappearance upon transformation to a female. This morphological change occurs in parallel with the degeneration of testicular tissue in the ovotestis and enhanced ovarian vitellogenesis. Moreover, we obtained the entire mRNA sequence of the yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin, and monitored its transcript levels throughout the entire shrimp life-cycle. Vitellogenin transcript levels in the hepatopancreas increased in the early transitional stage until reaching a peak prior to extruding eggs. Such transcriptomic analyses, coupled with a comprehensive description of the gonad, external sex characters and timing of the reproductive life history of spot shrimps contribute to a better understanding of the hermaphroditic reproduction process in the cold Southeast Alaskan waters. This knowledge can contribute to a revision of current conservation efforts to maintain wild populations sustainable for both commercial and ecological considerations.
    • The Purple Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Demonstrates a Compartmentalization of Gut Bacterial Microbiota, Predictive Functional Attributes, and Taxonomic Co-Occurrence

      Hakim, Joseph A.; Schram, Julie B.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Morrow, Casey D.; Crowley, Michael R.; Watts, Stephen A.; Bej, Asim K. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019-01-26)
      The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (order Camarodonta, family Strongylocentrotidae) can be found dominating low intertidal pool biomass on the southern coast of Oregon, USA. In this case study, three adult sea urchins were collected from their shared intertidal pool, and the bacteriome of their pharynx, gut tissue, and gut digesta, including their tide pool water and algae, was determined using targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA genes and bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut tissue demonstrated Arcobacter and Sulfurimonas (Epsilonproteobacteria) to be abundant, whereas the gut digesta was dominated by Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Propionigenium (Fusobacteria), and Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes). Alpha and beta diversity analyses indicated low species richness and distinct microbial communities comprising the gut tissue and digesta, while the pharynx tissue had higher richness, more closely resembling the water microbiota. Predicted functional profiles showed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Level-2 categories of energy metabolism, membrane transport, cell motility, and signal transduction in the gut tissue, and the gut digesta represented amino acid, carbohydrate, vitamin and cofactor metabolisms, and replication and repair. Co-occurrence network analysis showed the potential relationships and key taxa, such as the highly abundant Arcobacter and Propionigenium, influencing population patterns and taxonomic organization between the gut tissue and digesta. These results demonstrate a trend of microbial community integration, allocation, predicted metabolic roles, and taxonomic co-occurrence patterns in the S. purpuratus gut ecosystem.