• Quantifying flow and stress in ice mélange, the world’s largest granular material.

      Burton, J. C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Cassotto, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Dennin, M. (PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018-03-29)
      Tidewater glacier fjords are often filled with a collection of calved icebergs, brash ice, and sea ice. For glaciers with high calving rates, this “m ́elange” of ice can be jam-packed, so that the flow of ice fragments is mostly determined by granular interactions. In the jammed state, ice m ́elange has been hypothesized to influence iceberg calving and capsize, dispersion and attenuation of ocean waves, injection of freshwater into fjords, and fjord circulation. However, detailed measurements of ice m ́elange are lacking due to difficulties in instrumenting remote, ice-choked fjords. Here we characterize the flow and associated stress in icem ́elange, using a combination of terrestrial radar data, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. We find that, during periods of terminus quiescence, ice m ́elange experiences laminar flow over timescales of hours to days. The uniform flow fields are bounded by shear margins along fjord walls where force chains between granular icebergs terminate. In addition, the average force per unit width that is transmitted to the glacier terminus, which can exceed 107N/m, increases exponentially with them ́elange length-to-width ratio. These “buttressing” forces are sufficiently high to inhibit the initiation of large-scale calving events, supporting the notion that ice m ́elange can be viewed as a weak granular ice shelf that transmits stresses from fjord walls back to glacier termini.
    • Quasi-static granular flow of ice mélange

      Amundson, Jason M.; Burton, J. C. (American Geophysical Union, 2018-09-11)
      We use Landsat 8 imagery to generate ice mélange velocity fields at Greenland’s three most productive outlet glaciers: Jakobshavn Isbræ, Helheim Glacier, and Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. Winter velocity fields are generally steady and highly uniform. Summer velocity fields, on the other hand, tend to be much more variable and can be uniform, compressional, or extensional. We rarely observe compressional flow at Jakobshavn Isbræ or extensional flow at Helheim Glacier, while both are observed at Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. Transverse velocity profiles from all three locations are suggestive of viscoplastic flow, in which deformation occurs primarily in shear zones along the fjord walls. We analyze the transverse profiles in the context of quasi-static flow using continuum rheologies for granular materials and find that the force per unit width that ice mélange exerts on glacier termini increases exponentially with the ice mélange length-to-width ratio and the effective coefficient of friction. Our estimates of ice mélange resistance are consistent with other independent estimates and suggest that ice mélange may be capable of inhibiting iceberg calving events, especially during winter. Moreover, our results provide geophysical-scale support for constitutive relationships for granular materials and suggest a potential avenue for modeling ice mélange dynamics with continuum models.
    • Rapid submarine melting driven by subglacial discharge, LeConte Glacier, Alaska

      Motyka, R. J.; Dryer, William P.; Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark (American Geophysical Union, 2013-09-27)
      We show that subglacial freshwater discharge is the principal process driving high rates of submarine melting at tidewater glaciers. This buoyant discharge draws in warm seawater, entraining it in a turbulent upwelling flow along the submarine face that melts glacier ice. To capture the effects of subglacial discharge on submarine melting, we conducted 4 days of hydrographic transects during late summer 2012 at LeConte Glacier, Alaska. A major rainstorm allowed us to document the influence of large changes in subglacial discharge. We found strong submarine melt fluxes that increased from 9.1 ± 1.0 to 16.8 ± 1.3 m d1 (ice face equivalent frontal ablation) as a result of the rainstorm. With projected continued global warming and increased glacial runoff, our results highlight the direct impact that increases in subglacial discharge will have on tidewater outlet systems. These effects must be considered when modeling glacier response to future warming and increased runoff.
    • Raven’s Work in Tlingit Ethno-geography

      Thornton, Thomas F.; Deur, Douglas; Adams, Bert (University of Hawaii Press, 2019-01-01)
    • Receding Glacier: Memories in Rock Walls

      Meadow, Olive (Brend); Brend, Olive Mallory (2022-04)
    • Recycling Attitudes and Behavior among a Clinic-Based Sample of Low-Income Hispanic Women in Southeast Texas

      Pearson, Heidi C.; Dawson, Lauren, N.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki (2012-04-06)
      We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18–55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (P,0.05), lower acculturation (P,0.01), knowing what to recycle (P,0.01), knowing that recycling saves landfill space (P,0.05), and disagreeing that recycling takes too much time (P,0.001). A Sobel test revealed that acculturation mediated the relationship between recycling knowledge and recycling behavior (P,0.05). We offer new information on recycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population.
    • A Regular Interim Evaluation Report - University of Alaska Southeast - October 25-26, 2004

      Street, Elizabeth; Kinkead, Joyce (Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, 2004)
    • Response to Intervention and Students with Emotional and/or Behavior Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis

      Price, Vicki R. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The reauthorization of IDEA in 2006 mandated RTI programs would be implemented for students with academic and behavioral problems. The multi-tiered approach uses assessments, data collection, and observation to develop and employ appropriate supports and interventions. Students with EBD benefit from RTI data collected using PBIS. Professional development is essential for the success of PBIS. The data collected from RTI using PBIS helps IEP teams who provide support to students with EBD, to develop goals and objectives by designing instructional strategies to help students develop pro-social behaviors. This meta-synthesis of the literature of RTI/PBIS and students with EBD reviews the ways data collected using these interventions are used for professional development and instructional strategies
    • Response to Intervention Effective Practices: A Meta-Synthesis

      Clement, Tracy (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The purpose of this meta-synthesis is to assess the effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework. This paper reviewed research articles and other literature that explored effective practices within the RtI program, in an effort to properly implement interventions, and expedite the identification of a learning disability. After reviewing the research it was concluded that the RtI process, if implemented correctly could benefit students who are at risk academically and behaviorally. The research indicates that there are many components to RtI, including fidelity of instruction, proven curriculum, effective leadership, and regular progress monitoring, training and professional development. All of these factors are key to the efficiency of the RtI program. Some other components identified for the consideration of an effective RtI program was teacher collaboration, teacher self-efficacy and teacher perceptions; the inclusion of the family were also noted as important.
    • Rett Syndrome: A Place for Angels

      Cox, Deborah Ann (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      Rett syndrome is a thief! It robs little girls of their projected life. It lulls their families into a false sense of security while their little girls develop normally for 6 to 18 months. Then it insidiously robs them of their skills and abilities until they are trapped in a body that won't respond. These little girls are called "silent angels" (Hunter, 2007). Rett syndrome (RS) was originally identified in 1966 by the Austrian neurologist Andreas Rett, but his research and findings were written in an obscure form of the German language the medical world could not and did not translate. It wasn't until 1983, that Rett syndrome was re-identified and labeled as its own disorder (Hunter, 2007). The Rett Syndrome Research Foundation (2006) summarizes the condition best with: Rett syndrome is a debilitating neurological disorder diagnosed almost exclusively in females. Children with Rett syndrome appear to develop normally until 6 to 18 months of age when they enter a period of regression, losing speech and motor skills. Most develop repetitive hand movements, irregular breathing patterns, seizures and extreme motor control problems. Rett syndrome leaves its victims profoundly disabled, requiring maximum assistance with every aspect of daily living. There is no cure. (Retrieved October 14, 2008 from http://www.rsrf.org/about_rett_syndrome/) Research is ever going to regards to Rett syndrome. What is known as of now is that Rett syndrome is caused by a mutation of the gene MECP2. It is not passed down in families and it knows no ethnic boundaries. The majority of Rett girls live to adulthood (RSRF, 2006). The male child doesn't usually survive birth with Rett syndrome.
    • Rising

      Wall, Emily (Common Ground Review, 2016)
    • The Role of Teacher Bias in the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education Programs: A Meta-Synthesis

      Rae, Hilary (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on the disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs examines the extent to which teacher bias impacts that disproportion. The factors that contribute to culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students being overrepresented in special education and underrepresented in gifted education are complex and have deep social and political roots. One such root is that of cultural bias that may be exhibited by teachers working with students whose cultural backgrounds vary from their own. Examining how this bias can impact ways that educators interact with minority students, and how it may affect the assessment and referral of CLD students to special education will help to illuminate ways in which practicing educators can work towards alleviating this bias.
    • The Salinity Threshold of Market Squid Embryos in Southeast Alaska

      Sekerak, Vasily J. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-03-07)
      My initial project focused on the way market squid embryo morphology can possibly be effected by ocean salinity levels during development. This was to be accomplished by testing two sets of embryos with three replicates each. These two sets would comprise a salinity level that matched the ocean conditions of Sitka sound, and a comparative salinity which would represent the low salinity levels of the inner passages of Southeast Alaska. Once the embryos hatched they would be transferred into tanks especially designed to safely contain soft tissue organisms. After several weeks of paralarval development, the squid would then be euthanized in accordance with regulations and their statoliths would be removed and analyzed for and morphological differences. As it currently stands my project has achieved a working prototype of the circulatory current aquarium that I had originally proposed in the beginning. This aquarium system exists on larger scales, however I was able to draft, develop and test my own small scale version. This scaled down aquarium allows for larval stage vertebrates and invertebrates on a focused level that’s optimized for smaller labs.
    • Samantha's Births

      Wall, Emily (Prairie Schooner, 2016)
    • Saturday Creek

      Wall, Emily (Cirque, 2016-07-18)
    • Sayeik

      Holton, Luke (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-09-02)
      The original purpose of this film project was to document the current sociopolitical attitude towards revitalization of Tlingit place names within Southeast Alaska. Several high-visibility name revitalizations (Utqiagvik, Denali, Tlux’satanjin, etc) have been facilitated by the Alaska Historical Commission in the previous years, and this film addresses the cultural impact that name revitalization might have on Alaska Native populations.
    • Scaling of maneuvering performance in baleen whales: larger whales outperform expectations

      Segre, Paolo S.; Gough, William T.; Roualdes, Edward A.; Cade, David E.; Czapanskiy, Max F.; Fahlbusch, James; Kahane-Rapport, Shirel R.; Oestreich, William K.; Bejder, Lars; Bierlich, K.C.; et al. (Journal of Experimental Biology, 2022-03)
      Despite their enormous size, whales make their living as voracious predators. To catch their much smaller, more maneuverable prey, they have developed several unique locomotor strategies that require high energetic input, high mechanical power output and a surprising degree of agility. To better understand how body size affects maneuverability at the largest scale, we used bio-logging data, aerial photogrammetry and a high-throughput approach to quantify the maneuvering performance of seven species of free-swimming baleen whale. We found that as body size increases, absolute maneuvering performance decreases: larger whales use lower accelerations and perform slower pitch-changes, rolls and turns than smaller species. We also found that baleen whales exhibit positive allometry of maneuvering performance: relative to their body size, larger whales use higher accelerations, and perform faster pitch-changes, rolls and certain types of turns than smaller species. However, not all maneuvers were impacted by body size in the same way, and we found that larger whales behaviorally adjust for their decreased agility by using turns that they can perform more effectively. The positive allometry of maneuvering performance suggests that large whales have compensated for their increased body size by evolving more effective control surfaces and by preferentially selecting maneuvers that play to their strengths.
    • The School-to-Prison Pipeline: How Education Has Failed Our Most Vulnerable Students: A Meta-Synthesis

      Vandivier, Andrew (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      Beginning in the 1980’s, America began a ‘war on crime’, taking a tougher stance with longer sentencing on minor crimes. During this same time, and acting in concert, federal educational legislation began the policy of Zero Tolerance within schools. This meant that disciplinary issues, previously handled within schools, were now being addressed as criminal charges. This increased harshness and severity in punishment for school aged youth created a school-to-prison pipeline in which tens of thousands of students became incarcerated in juvenile and adult correctional facilities. The unintended consequence of creating safer school environments was that a disproportionate number of economically disadvantaged, minority, and youth with emotional disturbances were excluded from their learning environments and locked away in correctional institutions. Over the past four decades increased awareness about this disproportionality, along with a better understanding of mental health issues, has caused an upward trend in alternative educational strategies for our most at-risk and vulnerable student populations. Many of these alternative school settings still lack appropriate behavioral management interventions, social services, and mental health clinicians necessary to deal with root cause issues, but we are gradually trending back away from exclusionary, restrictive, and punitive punishments.
    • Sea otter effects on trophic structure of seagrass communities in southeast Alaska

      Raymond, Wendel W.; Schram, Julie B.; Eckert, Ginny L.; Galloway, Aaron W. E. (Inter-Research, 2021-09-16)
      Previous research in southeast Alaska on the effects of sea otters Enhydra lutris in seagrass Zostera marina communities identified many but not all of the trophic relationships that were predicted by a sea otter-mediated trophic cascade. To further resolve these trophic connections, we compared biomass, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope (SI), and fatty acid (FA) data from 16 taxa at 3 sites with high and 3 sites with low sea otter density (8.2 and 0.1 sea otters km−2, respectively). We found lower crab and clam biomass in the high sea otter region but did not detect a difference in biomass of other seagrass community taxa or the overall community isotopic niche space between sea otter regions. Only staghorn sculpin differed in δ13C between regions, and Fucus, sugar kelp, butter clams, dock shrimp, and shiner perch differed in δ15N. FA analysis indicated multivariate dissimilarity in 11 of the 15 conspecifics between sea otter regions. FA analysis found essential FAs, which consumers must obtain from their diet, including 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA), were common in discriminating conspecifics between sea otter regions, suggesting differences in consumer diets. Further FA analysis indicated that many consumers rely on diverse diets, regardless of sea otter region, potentially buffering these consumers from sea otter-mediated changes to diet availability. While sea otters are major consumers in this system, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the differences in biomarkers between regions with and without sea otters