• The Salinity Threshold of Market Squid Embryos in Southeast Alaska

      Sekerak, Vasily J. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-03-07)
      My initial project focused on the way market squid embryo morphology can possibly be effected by ocean salinity levels during development. This was to be accomplished by testing two sets of embryos with three replicates each. These two sets would comprise a salinity level that matched the ocean conditions of Sitka sound, and a comparative salinity which would represent the low salinity levels of the inner passages of Southeast Alaska. Once the embryos hatched they would be transferred into tanks especially designed to safely contain soft tissue organisms. After several weeks of paralarval development, the squid would then be euthanized in accordance with regulations and their statoliths would be removed and analyzed for and morphological differences. As it currently stands my project has achieved a working prototype of the circulatory current aquarium that I had originally proposed in the beginning. This aquarium system exists on larger scales, however I was able to draft, develop and test my own small scale version. This scaled down aquarium allows for larval stage vertebrates and invertebrates on a focused level that’s optimized for smaller labs.
    • Samantha's Births

      Wall, Emily (Prairie Schooner, 2016)
    • Saturday Creek

      Wall, Emily (Cirque, 2016-07-18)
    • Sayeik

      Holton, Luke (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-09-02)
      The original purpose of this film project was to document the current sociopolitical attitude towards revitalization of Tlingit place names within Southeast Alaska. Several high-visibility name revitalizations (Utqiagvik, Denali, Tlux’satanjin, etc) have been facilitated by the Alaska Historical Commission in the previous years, and this film addresses the cultural impact that name revitalization might have on Alaska Native populations.
    • Scaling of maneuvering performance in baleen whales: larger whales outperform expectations

      Segre, Paolo S.; Gough, William T.; Roualdes, Edward A.; Cade, David E.; Czapanskiy, Max F.; Fahlbusch, James; Kahane-Rapport, Shirel R.; Oestreich, William K.; Bejder, Lars; Bierlich, K.C.; et al. (Journal of Experimental Biology, 2022-03)
      Despite their enormous size, whales make their living as voracious predators. To catch their much smaller, more maneuverable prey, they have developed several unique locomotor strategies that require high energetic input, high mechanical power output and a surprising degree of agility. To better understand how body size affects maneuverability at the largest scale, we used bio-logging data, aerial photogrammetry and a high-throughput approach to quantify the maneuvering performance of seven species of free-swimming baleen whale. We found that as body size increases, absolute maneuvering performance decreases: larger whales use lower accelerations and perform slower pitch-changes, rolls and turns than smaller species. We also found that baleen whales exhibit positive allometry of maneuvering performance: relative to their body size, larger whales use higher accelerations, and perform faster pitch-changes, rolls and certain types of turns than smaller species. However, not all maneuvers were impacted by body size in the same way, and we found that larger whales behaviorally adjust for their decreased agility by using turns that they can perform more effectively. The positive allometry of maneuvering performance suggests that large whales have compensated for their increased body size by evolving more effective control surfaces and by preferentially selecting maneuvers that play to their strengths.
    • The School-to-Prison Pipeline: How Education Has Failed Our Most Vulnerable Students: A Meta-Synthesis

      Vandivier, Andrew (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      Beginning in the 1980’s, America began a ‘war on crime’, taking a tougher stance with longer sentencing on minor crimes. During this same time, and acting in concert, federal educational legislation began the policy of Zero Tolerance within schools. This meant that disciplinary issues, previously handled within schools, were now being addressed as criminal charges. This increased harshness and severity in punishment for school aged youth created a school-to-prison pipeline in which tens of thousands of students became incarcerated in juvenile and adult correctional facilities. The unintended consequence of creating safer school environments was that a disproportionate number of economically disadvantaged, minority, and youth with emotional disturbances were excluded from their learning environments and locked away in correctional institutions. Over the past four decades increased awareness about this disproportionality, along with a better understanding of mental health issues, has caused an upward trend in alternative educational strategies for our most at-risk and vulnerable student populations. Many of these alternative school settings still lack appropriate behavioral management interventions, social services, and mental health clinicians necessary to deal with root cause issues, but we are gradually trending back away from exclusionary, restrictive, and punitive punishments.
    • Sea otter effects on trophic structure of seagrass communities in southeast Alaska

      Raymond, Wendel W.; Schram, Julie B.; Eckert, Ginny L.; Galloway, Aaron W. E. (Inter-Research, 2021-09-16)
      Previous research in southeast Alaska on the effects of sea otters Enhydra lutris in seagrass Zostera marina communities identified many but not all of the trophic relationships that were predicted by a sea otter-mediated trophic cascade. To further resolve these trophic connections, we compared biomass, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope (SI), and fatty acid (FA) data from 16 taxa at 3 sites with high and 3 sites with low sea otter density (8.2 and 0.1 sea otters km−2, respectively). We found lower crab and clam biomass in the high sea otter region but did not detect a difference in biomass of other seagrass community taxa or the overall community isotopic niche space between sea otter regions. Only staghorn sculpin differed in δ13C between regions, and Fucus, sugar kelp, butter clams, dock shrimp, and shiner perch differed in δ15N. FA analysis indicated multivariate dissimilarity in 11 of the 15 conspecifics between sea otter regions. FA analysis found essential FAs, which consumers must obtain from their diet, including 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA), were common in discriminating conspecifics between sea otter regions, suggesting differences in consumer diets. Further FA analysis indicated that many consumers rely on diverse diets, regardless of sea otter region, potentially buffering these consumers from sea otter-mediated changes to diet availability. While sea otters are major consumers in this system, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the differences in biomarkers between regions with and without sea otters
    • Seasonal and interannual variations in ice melange and its impact on terminus stability, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Cassotto, Ryan; Fahnestock, Mark; Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, Martin; Joughin, Ian (International Glaciological Society, 2014-09-29)
      We used satellite-derived surface temperatures and time-lapse photography to infer temporal variations in the proglacial ice melange at Jakobshavn Isbræ, a large and rapidly retreating outlet glacier in Greenland. Freezing of the melange-covered fjord surface during winter is indicated by a decrease in fjord surface temperatures and is associated with (1) a decrease in ice melange mobility and (2) a drastic reduction in iceberg production. Vigorous calving resumes in spring, typically abruptly, following the steady up-fjord retreat of the sea-ice/ice-melange margin. An analysis of pixel displacement from time-lapse imagery demonstrates that melange motion increases prior to calving and subsequently decreases following several events. We find that secular changes in ice melange extent, character and persistence can influence iceberg calving, and therefore glacier dynamics over daily-to-monthly timescales, which, if sustained, will influence the mass balance of an ice sheet.
    • Seasonal Characteristics of Humpback Whales {Megaptera novaeangliae) in Southeastern Alaska

      Straley, Janice M.; Gabriele, Christine M.; Baker, C. Scott (National Park Service Alaska System Support Office, 1995-11)
      Humpback whales were studied in southeastern Alaska to assess seasonal distribution and numbers, migration patterns, length of stay, female reproductive histories, and calf survival. A mean annual estimate and 95% confidence interval of whales present in the study areas was 404 ± 54 individuals. The longest length of stay was nearly 7 months, and the shortest transit to the Hawaiian mating and calving grounds was 39 days. Generally, birth intervals did not vary from one calf every two or three years; individual variation ranged from one to five years. There were few resightings of whales first seen as calves. The recovery of North Pacific humpback whales will only occur through an increase in the survival of calves to become sexually mature and reproducing adults.
    • Seasonal presence and potential influence of humpback whales on wintering Pacific herring populations in the Gulf of Alaska

      Straley, Janice M.; Moran, John M.; Boswell, Kevin M.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Heintz, Ron A.; Quinn II, Terrance J.; Witteveen, Brianna Harmony; Rice, Stanley D.; Moran, J. R. (2018-01)
      This study addressed the lack of recovery of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in relation to humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) predation. As humpback whales rebound from commercial whaling, their ability to influence their prey through top-down forcing increases. We compared the potential influence of foraging humpback whales on three herring populations in the coastal Gulf of Alaska: Prince William Sound, Lynn Canal, and Sitka Sound (133–147°W; 57–61°N) from 2007 to 2009. Information on whale distribution, abundance, diet and the availability of herring as potential prey were used to correlate populations of overwintering herring and humpback whales. In Prince William Sound, the presence of whales coincided with the peak of herring abundance, allowing whales to maximize the consumption of overwintering herring prior to their southern migration. In Lynn Canal and Sitka Sound peak attendance of whales occurred earlier, in the fall, before the herring had completely moved into the areas, hence, there was less opportunity for predation to influence herring populations. North Pacific humpback whales in the Gulf of Alaska may be experiencing nutritional stress from reaching or exceeding carrying capacity, or oceanic conditions may have changed sufficiently to alter the prey base. Intraspecific competition for food may make it harder for humpback whales to meet their annual energetic needs. To meet their energetic demands whales may need to lengthen their time feeding in the northern latitudes or by skipping the annual migration altogether. If humpback whales extended their time feeding in Alaskan waters during the winter months, the result would likely be an increase in herring predation
    • Seawater acidification more than warming presents a challenge for two Antarctic macroalgal-associated amphipods

      Schram, Julie B.; Schoenrock, Kathryn M.; McClintock, James B.; Amsler, Charles D.; Angus, Robert A. (Inter-Research, 2016-07-08)
      Elevated atmospheric pCO2 concentrations are triggering seawater pH reductions and seawater temperature increases along the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). These factors in combination have the potential to influence organisms in an antagonistic, additive, or synergistic manner. The amphipods Gondogeneia antarctica and Paradexamine fissicauda represent prominent members of macroalgal-associated mesograzer assemblages of the WAP. Our primary objective was to investigate amphipod behavioral and physiological responses to reduced seawater pH and elevated temperature to evaluate potential cascading ecological impacts. For 90 d, amphipods were exposed to combinations of seawater conditions based on present ambient (pH 8.0, 1.5°C) and predicted end-of-century conditions (pH 7.6, 3.5°C). We recorded survival, molt frequency, and macroalgal consumption rates as well as change in wet mass and proximate body composition (protein and lipid). Survival for both species declined significantly at reduced pH and co-varied with molt frequency. Consumption rates in G. antarctica were significantly higher at reduced pH and there was an additive pH−temperature effect on consumption rates in P. fissicauda. Body mass was reduced for G. antarctica at elevated temperature, but there was no significant effect of pH or temperature on body mass in P. fissicauda. Exposure to the pH or temperature levels tested did not induce significant changes in whole body biochemical composition of G. antarctica, but exposure to elevated temperature resulted in a significant increase in whole body protein content of P. fissicauda. Our study indicates that while elevated temperature causes sub-lethal impacts on both species of amphipods, reduced pH causes significant mortality.
    • Secondary Transition Planning: Reponsibilities and Strategies. A Meta-Synthesis

      Arnold, Art (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-02)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature, on transition planning for youth with disabilities, examines several important facets that impact the post school outcomes for students with disabilities. Eight specific areas have been highlighted that point out the common theme areas of this metasynthesis. Research recognizes the responsibilities of the regular and special education teachers to the secondary transition process and the roles of the student and parent are not minimized at all. Professional development and continuous training are needed and highlighted for teachers, counselors, administrators, parents and students. There are specific successful strategies and methods to apply to the transition planning process. Raising expectations will likely result in positive post school outcomes as well. However, it is only too often that teachers, counselors, parents, and students are ill prepared for secondary transitions from high school to employment or further training. Expectations are too low and students are not prepared to make decisions about their employment or training in spite of the fact that self determination and self advocacy are strong tools that can and will promote positive outcomes for students. Indeed, individualized transition planning and person centered planning are valuable tools.
    • Sediment redistribution beneath the terminus of an advancing glacier, Taku Glacier (T’aakú Kwáan Sít’i), Alaska.

      Zechmann, Jenna M.; Truffer, Martin; Motyka, R. J.; Amundson, Jason M.; Larsen, Christopher F.; la (Cambridge University Press, 2020-12-23)
      The recently-advancing Taku Glacier is excavating subglacial sediments at high rates over multidecadal timescales. However, sediment redistribution over shorter timescales remains unquantified. We use a variety of methods to study subglacial and proglacial sediment redistribution on decadal, seasonal, and daily timescales to gain insight into sub- and proglacial landscape formation. Both excavation and deposition were observed from 2003 to 2015 (2.8 ± 0.9ma−1 to +2.9 ± 0.9ma−1). The observed patterns imply that a subglacial conduit has occupied the same site over the past decade. Outwash fans on the subaerial end moraine experience fluvial sediment reworking almost year-round, with net sediment gain in winter and net sediment loss in summer, and an overall mass gain between 2005 and 2015.We estimate that tens of meters of sediment still underlie the glacier terminus, sediments which can be remobilized during future activity. However, imminent retreat from the proglacial moraine will limit its sediment supply, leaving the moraine vulnerable to erosion by bordering rivers. Retreat into an over-deepened basin will leave the glacier vulnerable to increased frontal ablation and accelerating retreat.
    • Seismic Tremor Reveals Spatial Organization and Temporal Changes of Subglacial Water System

      Vore, Margot E.; Bartholomaus, Timothy, C.; Winberry, J. Paul; Walter, Jacob I.; Amundson, Jason M. (American Geophysical Union, 2019-02-09)
      Subglacial water flow impacts glacier dynamics and shapes the subglacial environment. However, due to the challenges of observing glacier beds, the spatial organization of subglacial water systems and the time scales of conduit evolution and migration are largely unknown. To address these questions, we analyze 1.5‐ to 10‐Hz seismic tremor that we associate with subglacial water flow, that is, glaciohydraulic tremor, at Taku Glacier, Alaska, throughout the 2016 melt season. We use frequency‐dependent polarization analysis to estimate glaciohydraulic tremor propagation direction (related to the subglacial conduit location) and a degree day melt model to monitor variations in melt‐water input. We suggest that conduit formation requires sustained water input and that multiconduit flow paths can be distinguished from single‐conduit flow paths. Theoretical analysis supports our seismic interpretations that subglacial discharge likely flows through a single‐conduit in regions of steep hydraulic potential gradients but may be distributed among multiple conduits in regions with shallower potential gradients. Seismic tremor in regions with multiple conduits evolves through abrupt jumps between stable configurations that last 3–7 days, while tremor produced by single‐conduit flow remains more stationary. We also find that polarized glaciohydraulic tremor wave types are potentially linked to the distance from source to station and that multiple peak frequencies propagate from a similar direction. Tremor appears undetectable at distances beyond 2–6 km from the source. This new understanding of the spatial organization and temporal development of subglacial conduits informs our understanding of dynamism within the subglacial hydrologic system.
    • Selective Mutism: The Child Silenced by Social Anxiety. A Meta-Synthesis

      Merrill, Kellie (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This meta-synthesis explores the subject of selective mutism across multiple age groups. Selective mutism is present in a very small percentage of students. Given the small number of students that have this disorder there is limited resources and professional collaboration options available for teachers. The low incident rate of selective mutism often leads to students being forgotten about in the classroom setting. Teachers do not know how to help them overcome their disorder and the students are not able to ask for the help they need. This exploration into selective mutism reviewed 30 articles on the topic and attempted to provide identifying characteristics of the disorder as well as interventions for educators to implement while working with students selective mutism.
    • Septo-Optic Dysplasia (SOD): Educational Issues in Literature for Teachers and Parents

      Bailey, Stephen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-06-20)
      Ninety-nine articles published in professional journals related to septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) or the education of young blind children were reviewed by a special education teacher and parent of a blind one year old boy diagnosed with SOD. The articles were classified by publication type (e.g., research studies, descriptive articles, guides, position papers, reviews of literature). Fifty-three of the 99 articles were research studies; these 53 research studies were classified by research design (i.e., quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods); the participants and data sources of each study were identified; and the findings of each study were summarized. All 99 articles were then analyzed using a modified version of the Stevick-Callaizi-Keen method to draw out the essential themes of this body of literature. The 11 themes that emerged from this analysis included: (a) septo-optic dysplasia and optic nerve hypoplasia; (b) parenting and early intervention; (c) cognitive development; (d) language development; (e) orientation and mobility; (f) social behavior; (g) assistive technology; (h) educational placement; (i) emergent literacy; (j) Braille literacy; and (k) assessment. These themes were then considered from the author's roles of parent and teacher.
    • Sexuality: Ancient Andean South America

      Hill, Erica (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015)
    • The Social and Emotional Impact of Videogames in the Classroom: A Meta-Synthesis

      Kaminsky, Michael (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
      As videogames become more and more prevalent in today’s culture, the effects of gameplay on child development has grown as a concern for parents, educators, and researchers. The aim of this paper is to explore the possible social and emotional impacts of including videogames in the classroom. This paper specifically investigated the impact of videogame play on student self-esteem, social skills, and emotional well-being. This was done through a meta-synthesis of the existing literature on the social and emotional aspects of videogame play. Results indicate that there are likely both positive and negative impacts from gameplay but there is a need for more studies to be done. Research findings were often contradictory and based on data collection instruments that are vulnerable to participant interpretation and therefore less reliable than other methods of collecting data.
    • Social Stories™ for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta Synthesis

      Walton, Carolyn (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      Throughout the last decade, the popularity of Social Stories™ by Carol Gray (or if deviated from Gray’s story prescriptions, social stories) to help decrease challenging behaviors and to increase positive social skills has risen. This strategy has been used primarily for individuals under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Despite the widespread approval by teachers, many limitations affect the validity of the Social Story™ or social story intervention and what skills people (i.e. receptive and expressive language, reading skills, cognitive abilities) need in order for this approach to be successful. Further research is needed in order to solidify the findings from several research studies. This meta-synthesis of the literature on Social Stories™ and/ social stories examines the effectiveness of this type of intervention for individuals on the Autism Spectrum.
    • Soundings 1987-10-09 (v.1 no.1)

      University of Alaska Southeast, 1987-10-09