• U.A. Journal 1983-02-23 (v.2 no.7)

      University of Alaska, Juneau, 1983-02-23
    • U.A. Journal 1983-03-09 (v.2 no.8)

      University of Alaska, Juneau, 1983-03-09
    • U.A. Journal 1983-04-13 (v.2 no.9)

      University of Alaska, Juneau, 1983-04-13
    • The UN local communities and Indigenous peoples' platform: A traditional ecological knowledge-based evaluation

      Shawoo, Zoha; Thornton, Thomas F. (Wiley, 2019-01-02)
      This review evaluates the potential of the proposed local communities and Indigenous peoples’ platform to effectively engage traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for climate policy. Specifically, we assess the platform's potential to enable greater representation and participation of Indigenous peoples (IPs) within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). An analytical framework based on the extensive TEK and environmental management literature is developed, with a set of criteria identified against which to evaluate the platform. We find that although the process of designing the platform appears to be inclusive of Indigenous views, the structure itself does not recognize the roles that unequal power relations and colonialism play in marginalizing IPs. Limited attention is paid to the institutional barriers within the UNFCCC and the drawbacks of pursuing knowledge “integration” as an end in itself. Based on this, recommendations for improving the platform structure are put forward including using a rights based framing, giving greater decision-making power to IPs, and developing mechanisms to ensure the holistic integrity of TEK and build the overall resilience of climate mitigation and adaptation systems.
    • A unified dataset of colocated sewage pollution, periphyton, and benthic macroinvertebrate community and food web structure from Lake Baikal (Siberia)

      Meyer, Michael F.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Shchapov, Kirill; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Schram, Julie B.; Snow, Daniel D.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Karnaukhov, Dmitry Yu.; Brousil, Matthew R.; et al. (Wiley Periodicals LLC, 2021)
      Sewage released from lakeside development can introduce nutrients and micropollutants that can restructure aquatic ecosystems. Lake Baikal, the world’s most ancient, biodiverse, and voluminous freshwater lake, has been experiencing localized sewage pollution from lakeside settlements. Nearby increasing filamentous algal abundance suggests benthic communities are responding to localized pollution. We surveyed 40-km of Lake Baikal’s southwestern shoreline from 19 to 23 August 2015 for sewage indicators, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and microplastics, with colocated periphyton, macroinvertebrate, stable isotope, and fatty acid samplings. The data are structured in a tidy format (a tabular arrangement familiar to limnologists) to encourage reuse. Unique identifiers corresponding to sampling locations are retained throughout all data files to facilitate interoperability among the dataset’s 150+ variables. For Lake Baikal studies, these data can support continued monitoring and research efforts. For global studies of lakes, these data can help characterize sewage prevalence and ecological consequences of anthropogenic disturbance across spatial scales.
    • A unifying framework for iceberg-calving models

      Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, Martin (International Glaciological Society, 2010-07-09)
      We propose a general framework for iceberg-calving models that can be applied to any calving margin. The framework is based on mass continuity, the assumption that calving rate and terminus velocity are not independent and the simple idea that terminus thickness following a calving event is larger than terminus thickness at the event onset. The theoretical, near steady-state analysis used to support and analyze the framework indicates that calving rate is governed, to first order, by ice thickness, thickness gradient, strain rate, mass-balance rate and backwards melting of the terminus; the analysis furthermore provides a physical explanation for a previously derived empirical relationship for ice-shelf calving (Alley and others, 2008). In the calving framework the pre- and post-calving terminus thicknesses are given by two unknown but related functions. The functions can vary independently of changes in glacier flow and geometry, and can therefore account for variations in calving behavior due to external forcings and/or self-sustaining calving processes (positive feedbacks). Although the calving framework does not constitute a complete calving model, any thickness-based calving criterion can easily be incorporated into the framework. The framework should be viewed as a guide for future attempts to parameterize calving.
    • Universal Design for Learning as a Method for an Inclusive Classroom: A Meta-Synthesis

      Ross, Carrie (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      The movement for students with special education needs to have access to the general education curriculum, to be educated with nondisabled peers, and to learn in the least restrictive environment has been ongoing and continues to be an issue in education today. Although past and current education laws support and encourage the inclusion of students with special education needs, many states and school districts still struggle to move to inclusion models, reform the school system, and provide appropriate support and training to teachers on best practices for teaching in an inclusive setting. This meta-synthesis looks at one possible model as an effective method for implementing inclusion. The model being considered and analyzed is known as Universal Design for Learning (UDL).
    • University of Alaska Southeast Juneau, Sitka, and Ketchikan, Alaska, Year One Review Report, Fall, 2011

      Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, 2011)
      A Confidential Peer-Evaluation Report Prepared for the Northwest Commission of Colleges and Universities
    • Use of Response to Intervention in Social, Emotional and Behavioral Domains: A Meta-Synthesis

      Ragland, Hannah (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The use of Response to Intervention (RTI) was formalized with the passage of revisions to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2004. This reform bill provided Special Education programs direction on an emerging approach to assess and recommend students for special education services, RTI. The intent of RTI was to address concerns with the previous model of Special Education qualification for learning disabilities based on discrepancies in IQ achievement. The discrepancy model gave clear criteria for identifying students with special needs, but quickly became known as the “wait to fail'' model. Rather than delaying identification of students with special needs until the point they were failing, RTI provided a method for early identification of struggling students, and research-based academic interventions to address problems prior to Special Education referral.
    • The Use of Technology to Teach Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis

      Boitnott, V. Joy (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This meta-synthesis of empirical and non-empirical literature reviewed 43 journal articles that evaluated the availability and use of technology to educate and socialize learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Aspersers Disorder. Students with these disorders cannot be defined or categorized each individual is unique and elegant; challenging caregiver's and educator's creativity to teach and guide them toward a quality of life they would not find on their own. There are tools and research to support unique education on many levels of learning from academics to socialization. The literature indicates that while there is a wealth of technology available and new technology is constantly being developed cost can not only prohibit production it can lessen the quality. What gets into the classroom tool box is determined by the tenacity of the educator.
    • Using Family Centered Systems Theory to Bridge the School and Family Gap in Special Education: A Review of the Literature

      Beard, Brandon (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      In this review I looked at 22 articles that explored two of the primary interventional perspectives used when addressing the needs of exceptional students. A number of the articles elucidate the present prevalence of student based practices in U.S. schools, administration, and legislation. The body of the literature surveys how family centered interventions can be, and are used, to better serve students by integrating the needs and concerns of the family, as well as those of the student. The review was concluded with a discussion of the importance of finding a balance between the current legislative trend which emphasizes a student's needs based on an annual standards driven success model, versus a model which emphasizes the development of the whole child at home, and in the school, during all educational and developmental stages.
    • Using line acceleration to measure false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) click and whistle source levels during pelagic longline depredation

      Wild, Lauren; Straley, Janice M.; Barnes, Dustin; Bayless, Ali; O'Connell, Victoria; Oleson, Erin; Sarkar, Jit; Behnken, Linda; Falvey, Dan; Martin, Sean; et al. (Acoustical Society of America, 2016-11-22)
      False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) depredate pelagic longlines in offshore Hawaiian waters. On January 28, 2015 a depredation event was recorded 14m from an integrated GoPro camera, hydrophone, and accelerometer, revealing that false killer whales depredate bait and generate clicks and whistles under good visibility conditions. The act of plucking bait off a hook generated a distinctive 15 Hz line vibration. Two similar line vibrations detected at earlier times permitted the animal’s range and thus signal source levels to be estimated over a 25-min window. Peak power spectral density source levels for whistles (4–8 kHz) were estimated to be between 115 and 130 dB re 1 lPa2/Hz @ 1 m. Echolocation click source levels over 17–32 kHz bandwidth reached 205 dB re 1lPa @ 1 m pk-pk, or 190 dB re 1lPa @ 1 m (root-meansquare). Predicted detection ranges of the most intense whistles are 10 to 25 km at respective sea states of 4 and 1, with click detection ranges being 5 times smaller than whistles. These detection range analyses provide insight into how passive acoustic monitoring might be used to both quantify and avoid depredation encounters.
    • Using movements, genetics and trophic ecology to differentiate inshore from offshore aggregations of humpback whales in the Gulf of Alaska

      Witteveen, Briana Harmony; Straley, Janice M.; Chenoweth, Ellen M.; Baker, C. Scott; Barlow, Jay; Matkin, Craig O.; Gabriele, Christine M.; Neilson, Janet L.; Steel, Debbie J.; von Ziegesar, Olga; et al. (Inter-Research Science Publisher, 2011-09-23)
      Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae have been studied in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) since the late 1960s, but information about whales foraging offshore is limited. A large-scale collaborative project (SPLASH) provided opportunities to study humpback whales in both inshore and offshore habitats. Using identification photographs and biopsy samples, we explored individual movements, the distribution of mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplotypes, and trophic levels for humpback whales within 3 regions (Kodiak, KOD; Prince William Sound, PWS; and southeastern Alaska, SEAK) of the GOA to determine whether inshore and offshore aggregations of humpback whales are distinct. Each region was divided into inshore and offshore habitats, creating 6 subregions for comparison. Results documenting 2136 individual whales showed that movement within the study area was most frequent between inshore and offshore subregions within a region. In general, movement between regions was minimal. Tissue samples of 483 humpback whales included 15 mtDNA haplotypes. Pairwise chi-squared tests showed haplotype differences between subregions, but inshore PWS was the only subregion with a haplotype composition significantly different than all other subregions. Trophic levels, as inferred from stable nitrogen isotope ratios, were significantly different among subregions, ranging from 3.4 to 4.5. Pairwise comparisons showed that inshore PWS was again the only subregion that significantly differed from all others. Results suggest that the combined inshore and offshore habitats for KOD and the inshore and offshore habitats for SEAK should each be considered as single regional feeding aggregations, while inshore PWS may represent a separate aggregation from PWS offshore.