• Ice thickness estimates of Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska, from active-source seismic imaging

      Veitch, Stephen A.; Karplus, Marianne; Kaip, Galen; Gonzalez, Lucia F.; Amundson, Jason M.; Bartholomaus, Timothy C. (Cambridge University Press, 2021-03-26)
      Lemon Creek Glacier, a temperate valley glacier in the Juneau Icefield of Southeast Alaska, is the site of long running (>60 years) glaciological studies. However, the most recent published estimates of its thickness and subglacial topography come from two ∼50 years old sources that are not in agreement and do not account for the effects of years of negative mass balance. We collected a 1-km long active-source seismic line on the upper section of the glacier parallel and near to the centerline of the glacier, roughly straddling the equilibrium-line altitude. We used these data to perform joint reflection-refraction velocity modeling and reflection imaging of the glacier bed. We find that this upper section of Lemon Creek Glacier is as much as 150 m (∼65%) thicker than previously suggested with a large overdeepening in an area previously believed to have a uniform thickness. Our results lead us to reinterpret the impact of basal motion on ice flow and have a significant impact on expectations of subglacial hydrology. We suggest that further efforts to develop a whole-glacier model of subglacial topography are necessary to support studies that require accurate models of ice thickness and subglacial topography.
    • Impact of glacier loss and vegetation succession on annual basin runoff

      Carnahan, Evan; Amundson, Jason M.; Hood, Eran (Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union., 2019-03-21)
      We use a simplified glacier-landscape model to investigate the degree to which basin topography, climate regime, and vegetation succession impact centennial variations in basin runoff during glacier retreat. In all simulations, annual basin runoff initially increases as water is released from glacier storage but ultimately decreases to below preretreat levels due to increases in evapotranspiration and decreases in orographic precipitation. We characterize the long-term ( > 200 years) annual basin runoff curves with four metrics: the magnitude and timing of peak basin runoff, the time to preretreat basin runoff, and the magnitude of end basin runoff. We find that basin slope and climate regime have strong impacts on the magnitude and timing of peak basin runoff. Shallow sloping basins exhibit a later and larger peak basin runoff than steep basins and, similarly, continental glaciers produce later and larger peak basin runoff compared to maritime glaciers. Vegetation succession following glacier loss has little impact on the peak basin runoff but becomes increasingly important as time progresses, with more rapid and extensive vegetation leading to shorter times to preretreat basin runoff and lower levels of end basin runoff. We suggest that differences in the magnitude and timing of peak basin runoff in our simulations can largely be attributed to glacier dynamics: glaciers with long response times (i.e., those that respond slowly to climate change) are pushed farther out of equilibrium for a given climate forcing and produce larger variations in basin runoff than glaciers with short response times. Overall, our results demonstrate that glacier dynamics and vegetation succession should receive roughly equal attention when assessing the impacts of glacier mass loss on water resources.
    • Impact of hydrodynamics on seismic signals generated by iceberg collisions

      Amundson, Jason M.; Burton, Justin C.; Correa-Legisos, Sergio (International Glaciological Society, 2012)
      Full-glacier-thickness icebergs are frequently observed to capsize as they calve into the ocean. As they capsize they may collide with the glaciers’ termini; previous studies have hypothesized that such collisions are the source of teleseismic ‘glacial earthquakes’. We use laboratory-scale experiments, force-balance modeling and theoretical arguments to show that (1) the contact forces during these collisions are strongly influenced by hydrodynamic forces and (2) the associated glacial earthquake magnitudes (expressed as twice-integrated force histories) are related to the energy released by the capsizing icebergs plus a hydrodynamic term that is composed of drag forces and hydrodynamic pressure. Our experiments and first-order modeling efforts suggest that, due to hydrodynamic forces, both contact force and glacial earthquake magnitudes may not be directly proportional to the energy released by the capsizing icebergs (as might be expected). Most importantly, however, our results highlight the need to better understand the hydrodynamics of iceberg capsize prior to being able to accurately interpret seismic signals generated by iceberg collisions.
    • The Impact of Language Acquisition and Language Learning On Learning Process: A Meta-Synthesis

      Allman, Ashley (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-07-20)
      This meta-synthesis explores the correlation between language acquisition and learning. Children who are bilingual have advantages and disadvantages to how they learn. When research first started on this idea, common opinion was that it was a disadvantage to be bilingual. However, as research has progressed more advantages than disadvantages of being bilingual have been found. Furthermore, new ways children can learn language have appeared. Options can include but are not limited to parents and guardians, an immersion program, and/or a dual/multi-language program. An important factor of language acquisition is for children to be fluent in one language before they learn a second language. Children that do not have a firm grasp of their first language combine two language patterns and create a different language. The combining of languages causes them to have challenges throughout their education.
    • The Importance of Play and Developing Executive Functions in Early Childhood Education: A Meta-Synthesis

      Riesenberger, Jesse (University of Alaska Southeast, 2015)
      This meta-synthesis reviews literature on the development of executive functions in early childhood education. This paper focuses on the use of play in the early childhood classroom and the research supporting the use of play as a teaching tool. The author included studies that addressed both typically developing children and children with developmental delays. Papers reviewed had a focus on ages 3-5 with the exception of longitudinal studies which included older participants. The author includes her professional view of this subject and how the literature included in this paper will be used to support her early childhood program.
    • Improving Self-Advocacy Among Students with Exceptionalities through Student-Led IEPs: A Meta-Synthesis

      Ownbey, Rylee (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017)
      This meta-synthesis explores the relationship between developing self-advocacy among students with exceptionalities through student-led IEPs. Students with exceptionalities often have a more difficult time developing and applying skills necessary for exhibiting self-advocacy. By providing students with an authentic opportunity to practice self-advocacy skills within the context of a school environment, educators better allow students to develop an awareness of self including strengths and needs, both of which are necessary to find success both within and outside of the school framework.
    • Inclusion Opinions for the Classroom: A Meta-Synthesis

      Lubken, Carmyn (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      Despite all the information available about inclusion, teachers are still not receiving adequate training and support on how to efficiently execute inclusive practices within their schools. This lack of quality training and preparation, results in inclusion being met with sour attitudes and unrefined implementation. In addition, students are often not represented or given a voice on their feelings towards inclusion. This meta-synthesis of the literature on inclusive education investigates the realities of powerfully carrying out and supporting inclusive practices for the special and general education teachers and students in the general education classroom.
    • Inclusion Or Pull Out? What Is The Answer

      Kowal, Kelly (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on inclusion and pull-out settings for students with disabilities helps find what might be the least restrictive environment for their education. The past laws and the current mandates of IDEA (2004) help guide us to what should be inclusion settings for all students with disabilities and what the access to general education curriculum should look like. However, the lack of training, knowledge and support often restrict and limit the success of students in the inclusion movement present in some special education programs and schools of today. When these students are not given an opportunity, with a team decision, and are placed in their least restrictive environment (LRE), we as an education system cannot claim there is a clear answer if inclusion works. Nor, can we find the best answer for educating all students.
    • Inclusive Education in Japan: A Meta-Synthesis

      Munro, Brooke (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017-08-05)
      The Japanese education system is held in high regards for the quality of public education and the types of careers Japanese students secure once graduating. Unfortunately, students with disabilities in Japan are not able to access the same high-quality education as their peers without disabilities due to a lack of inclusive education practices. Many surveys were gathered from Japanese parents with children with disabilities, mainstream Japanese teachers, Japanese principals, and Japanese students with disabilities regarding the perception of people with disabilities. This meta-synthesis of literature on inclusive education in Japan investigates public education for students with disabilities in Japan and the impact of cultural norms with people who are different.
    • Indigenous uses of wild and tended plant biodiversity maintain ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes of the Terai Plains of Nepal.

      Thorn, J.P.; Thornton, T. F.; Helfgott, A.; Willis, K. J. (BMC, 2020-06-08)
      Background: Despite a rapidly accumulating evidence base quantifying ecosystem services, the role of biodiversity in the maintenance of ecosystem services in shared human-nature environments is still understudied, as is how indigenous and agriculturally dependent communities perceive, use, and manage biodiversity. The present study aims to document traditional ethnobotanical knowledge of the ecosystem service benefits derived from wild and tended plants in rice-cultivated agroecosystems, compare this to botanical surveys, and analyze the extent to which ecosystem services contribute social-ecological resilience in the Terai Plains of Nepal. Method: Sampling was carried out in four landscapes, 22 Village District Committees, and 40 wards in the monsoon season. Data collection was based on transects walks to collect plant specimens, structured and semi structured interviews, and participatory fieldwork in and around home gardens, farms, and production landscapes. We asked 180 farmers to free-list vernacular names and describe use-value of wild and tended plants in rice cultivated agroecosystems. Uses were categorized into eight broad groupings, and 61 biomedical ailment classifications. We assessed if knowledge of plant species diversity and abundance differed with regard to caste, age, and gender. Results: Nepalese farmers have a deep knowledge of the use and management of the 391 vascular plant specimens identified, which provide key provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. Altogether, plants belong to 76 distinct plant species from 49 phylogenetic families: 56 are used to cure 61 ailments, 27 for rituals, 25 for food, 20 for timber, 17 for fuel, 17 for fodder, 11 for soil enhancement, and eight for pesticides. Four caste groups have statistically different knowledge, and younger informants report a lower average number of useful plants. Conclusion: Agricultural landscapes in Nepal are reservoirs of biodiversity. The knowledge of the use of wild and tended plant species in and around these farms differs by the caste and age group of land manager. Conducting research on agroecosystems will contribute to a deeper understanding of how nature is perceived by locals, to more efficient management and conservation of the breadbasket of Nepal, and to the conservation of valuable, but disappearing traditional knowledge and practice.
    • Integral functions of marine vertebrates in the ocean carbon cycle and climate change mitigation

      Martin, A.H.; Pearson, Heidi C.; Saba, G.K.; Olsen, E.M. (Cell Press, 2021-05-21)
      In the last decade, the ocean has absorbed a quarter of the Earth’s greenhouse gas emissions through the carbon (C) cycle, a naturally occurring process. Aspects of the ocean C cycle are now being incorporated into climate change mitigation and adaptation plans. Currently, too little is known about marine vertebrate C functions for their inclusion in policies. Fortunately, marine vertebrate biology, behavior, and ecology through the lens of C and nutrient cycling and flux is an emerging area of research that is rich in existing data. This review uses literature and trusted data sources to describe marine vertebrate C interactions, provides quantification where possible, and highlights knowledge gaps. Implications of better understanding the integral functions of marine vertebrates in the ocean C cycle include the need for consideration of these functions both in policies on nature-based climate change mitigation and adaptation, and in management of marine vertebrate populations.
    • Intellectual Disabilities, Post Secondary Education, and the Law: A Meta-Synthesis

      Harsch, James William (University of Alaska, 2013)
      Regular students contemplating a collegiate education are not hindered by the myriad of obstacles that a student with a cognitive disability experiences. This meta-synthesis explores the availability of collegiate programs for the intellectually disabled, the barriers that they encounter, and the supports available to aid the disabled in their chosen journey. Forty relevant articles were examined to ascertain the colleges with programs, the impediments to admission, and the needed remedies to the barriers. Most collegiate programs developed for the disabled are expensive and in short supply. They are not actively participated in due to the expense, the regulations, and the barriers that the disabled experience. Although there are many agencies and governmental regulations in place which at first seem to support and encourage the disabled to attend college, this is in error and numerous changes need to be instituted to the programs and to their availability in order for the cognitive disabled to fully experience the college life.
    • Interpreting multiscale domains of tree cover disturbance patterns in North America

      Riitters, Kurt; Costanza, Jennifer K.; Buma, Brian (Elsevier, 2017-05-08)
      Spatial patterns at multiple observation scales provide a framework to improve understanding of pattern-related phenomena. However, the metrics that are most sensitive to local patterns are least likely to exhibit consistent scaling relations with increasing extent (observation scale). A conceptual framework based on multiscale domains (i.e., geographic locations exhibiting similar scaling relations) allows the use of sensitive pattern metrics, but more work is needed to understand the actual patterns represented by multiscale domains. The objective of this study was to improve the interpretation of scale-dependent patterns represented by multiscale domains. Using maps of tree cover disturbance covering North American forest biomes from 2000 to 2012, each 0.09-ha location was described by the proportion and contagion of disturbance in its neighborhood, for 10 neighborhood extents from 0.81 ha to 180 km2. A k-means analysis identified 13 disturbance profiles based on the similarity of disturbance proportion and contagion across neighborhood extent. A wall to wall map of multiscale domains was produced by assigning each location (disturbed and undisturbed) to its nearest disturbance profile in multiscale pattern space. The multiscale domains were interpreted as representing two aspects of local patterns – the proximity of a location to disturbance, and the interior-exterior relationship of a location relative to nearby disturbed areas.
    • Introductory Diversity Audits

      Cox, David B. II (2021-03)
      Results from some initial diversity audits at the Egan Library, following a professional development course on the topic. Suggestions for developing and conducting your own diversity audit, which is an activity which can be entirely done from home!
    • Investigation of Physiological Similarities Between Pandalus platycerus and Pandalus danae

      Bower, Esther (2017-07-15)
      The original project objective was to determine a suitable model organism to study Pandalus platyceros. I proposed to use the local dock shrimp Pandalus danae to do this research. This project allowed me to further my research on the study of Pandalid shrimps. I have been working with a very large species of shrimp for 3 years and getting experience working with a small shrimp species has greatly influenced my strengths in dissection methods. I feel confident I could isolate almost any tissue in any shrimp species given the correct tools, something I was skeptical about before this project. This project will give my mentor and I the opportunity to publish another gene sequence and further the knowledge of the genus Pandalus. In the future I could use this knowledge to sequence androgenic gland genes in other Pandalus species, potentially becoming part of a master’s project.
    • The influence of ice melange on fjord seiches

      MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Freed-Brown, Julian; Zhang, Wendy W.; Amundson, Jason M. (International Glaciological Society, 2012)
      We compute the eigenmodes (seiches) of the barotropic and baroclinic hydrodynamic equations for an idealized fjord having length and depth scales similar to those of Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland, into which Jakobshavn Isbræ (also known as Sermeq Kujalleq) discharges. The purpose of the computation is to determine the fjord’s seiche behavior when forced by iceberg calving, capsize and melange movement. Poorly constrained bathymetry and stratification details are an acknowledged obstacle. We are, nevertheless, able to make general statements about the spectra of external and internal seiches using numerical simulations of ideal one-dimensional channel geometry. Of particular signifi- cance in our computation is the role of weakly coupled ice melange, which we idealize as a simple array of 20 icebergs of uniform dimensions equally spaced within the fjord. We find that the presence of these icebergs acts to (1) slow down the propagation of both external and internal seiches and (2) introduce band gaps where energy propagation (group velocity) vanishes. If energy is introduced into the fjord within the period range covered by a band gap, it will remain trapped as an evanescent oscillatory mode near its source, thus contributing to localized energy dissipation and ice/melange fragmentation.
    • Is There a Place for Cursive Handwriting in the Elementary Classroom? A Meta-Synthesis

      Lennon, Holly (University of Alaska Southeast, 2013)
      Everyone will agree that some sort of handwriting is a necessary skill for every person to obtain. People use some form of writing as a way to communicate their thoughts to others. The style of handwriting a person uses is most often based on what they learned in primary and secondary school so what is taught is very important. Throughout the decades the style of handwriting taught in schools has changed in order to reflect the needs of society. Today in the United States every child starts school learning manuscript , but there is no consistency as to if cursive or the use of a keyboard is introduced. This meta-synthesis of the literature on handwriting explores whether or not cursive handwriting and/ or the use of a keyboard should be taught to elementary students as well how fluent, accurate and neat each style is.
    • Ketchikan Cup O' News 2017-04

      Ledford, Marianne (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017-04)
    • Ketchikan Cup O' News 2017-05

      Ledford, Marianne (University of Alaska Southeast, 2017-05)