• Limited Progress in Improving Gender and Geographic Representation in Coral Reef Science

      Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Cheng, Samantha H.; Andradi-Brown, Dominic A.; Baez, Stacy K.; Barnes, Megan D.; Bennett, Nathan J.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Darling, Emily S.; Estradivari; Gill, David; et al. (Frontiers in Marine Science, 2021-09-29)
      Despite increasing recognition of the need for more diverse and equitable representation in the sciences, it is unclear whether measurable progress has been made. Here, we examine trends in authorship in coral reef science from 1,677 articles published over the past 16 years (2003–2018) and find that while representation of authors that are women (from 18 to 33%) and from non-OECD nations (from 4 to 13%) have increased over time, progress is slow in achieving more equitable representation. For example, at the current rate, it would take over two decades for female representation to reach 50%. Given that there are more coral reef non-OECD countries, at the current rate, truly equitable representation of non-OECD countries would take even longer. OECD nations also continue to dominate authorship contributions in coral reef science (89%), in research conducted in both OECD (63%) and non-OECD nations (68%). We identify systemic issues that remain prevalent in coral reef science (i.e., parachute science, gender bias) that likely contribute to observed trends. We provide recommendations to address systemic biases in research to foster a more inclusive global science community. Adoption of these recommendations will lead to more creative, innovative, and impactful scientific approaches urgently needed for coral reefs and contribute to environmental justice efforts.
    • Local recruitment of humpback whales in Glacier Bay and Icy Strait, Alaska, over 30 years

      Pierszalowski, Sophie P.; Gabriele, Christine M.; Steel, Debbie J.; Neilson, Janet L.; Vanselow, Phoebe B. S.; Cedarleaf, Jennifer A.; Straley, Janice M.; Baker, C. Scott (2016-03-15)
      We provide new information on the scale at which fidelity and recruitment underlie observed increases in humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae populations. We used photoidentification records and DNA profiles from whales in Glacier Bay and Icy Strait (GBIS), southeastern Alaska (SEAK) to investigate 3 sources of population increase over 33 yr (1973−2005): local GBIS recruitment, recruitment from elsewhere in SEAK, and immigration from outside SEAK. We defined 2 temporal strata for these longitudinal records: ‘founder’ individuals identified from 1973 to 1985 (n = 74; n = 46 with DNA profiles) and ‘contemporary’ individuals identified from 2004 to 2005 (n = 171; n = 118 with DNA profiles). To distinguish between local recruitment and recruitment from elsewhere in SEAK, we estimated the proportion of the contemporary stratum that was either a returning founder or descended from a founder female. After excluding 42 contemporary whales without a known mother or genotype to infer maternity, 73.6% of the contemporary stratum was confirmed or inferred through parentage analysis to be either a returning founder or a descendant of a founder mother. Of the 25 females with genotypes in the founder stratum, 24 (96%) were either represented in the contemporary stratum, had at least 1 descendant in the contemporary stratum, or both. We found no significant differences in microsatellite allele or mtDNA frequencies between the strata, suggesting little or no immigration from other feeding grounds. Our results highlight the importance of local habitat protection for a recovering species with culturally inherited migratory destinations.
    • Long-Term Benefits of Early Intervention Services: A Meta-Synthesis

      Barnes, Elizabeth (University of Alaska Southeast, 2013)
      The role of universal preschool programs is being debated in public and political arenas. There is concern that the cost of providing such programs is not in the public's best interest. While they are few, the longitudinal studies into the cost/benefit of such programs show that investments into early childhood interventions and education yield a return to students, taxpayers, and society. These benefits include: a savings in the cost of education through lower retention rates and special education placement, an increase in tax revenue through higher wages, and a savings through lower costs for the welfare and criminal justice systems. This meta-synthesis explores the studies that support the above findings, as well as ways in which current preschool programs can be improved to provide better long-term outcomes for children.
    • MABEL photon-counting laser altimetry data in Alaska for ICESat-2 simulations and development

      Brunt, Kelly M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Amundson, Jason M.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey L.; Moussavi, Mahsa S.; Walsh, Kaitlin M.; Cook, William B.; Markus, Thorsten (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2016-08-10)
      Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is scheduled to launch in late 2017 and will carry the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) which is a photon-counting laser altimeter and represents a new approach to satellite determination of surface elevation. Given the new technology of ATLAS, an airborne instrument, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), was developed to provide data needed for satellite-algorithm development and ICESat-2 error analysis. MABEL was deployed out of Fairbanks, Alaska, in July 2014 to provide a test dataset for algorithm development in summer conditions with water-saturated snow and ice surfaces. Here we compare MABEL lidar data to in situ observations in Southeast Alaska to assess instrument performance in summer conditions and in the presence of glacier surface melt ponds and a wet snowpack. Results indicate the following: (1) based on MABEL and in situ data comparisons, the ATLAS 90m beam-spacing strategy will provide a valid assessment of across-track slope that is consistent with shallow slopes (< 1) of an ice-sheet interior over 50 to 150m length scales; (2) the dense along-track sampling strategy of photon counting systems can provide crevasse detail; and (3) MABEL 532 nm wavelength light may sample both the surface and subsurface of shallow (approximately 2m deep) supraglacial melt ponds. The data associated with crevasses and melt ponds indicate the potential ICESat-2 will have for the study of mountain and other small glaciers.
    • Managing Students' Emotional Behavioral Disorder Inside and Outside of the Classroom: A Meta-Synthesis

      Fielding, Estelita D. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2012-06-11)
      This metasynthesis of the literature focuses on managing students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) inside and outside of the classroom. Students with EBD require large amounts of time and attention, often unplanned and in response to disruptive behaviors. Students with EBD can take a heavy emotional and physical toll on teachers, staff and peers involved with them, and instruction time for other students can be shortened or delayed due to disruptive behaviors. School districts find retention more difficult when students with EBD are present due to the high stress factor. When teachers and staff have the appropriate preparation and tools, however, students with EBD can be successful in an inclusive school setting with minimal disruptive behavior. Furthermore, as they make progress, they can practice self-management techniques to achieve more independence.
    • A mass-flux perspective of the tidewater glacier cycle

      Amundson, Jason M. (International Glaciological Society, 2016-04-06)
      I explore the tidewater glacier cycle with a 1-D, depth- and width-integrated flow model that includes a mass-flux calving parameterization. The parameterization is developed from mass continuity arguments and relates the calving rate to the terminus velocity and the terminus balance velocity. The model demonstrates variable sensitivity to climate. From an advanced, stable configuration, a small warming of the climate triggers a rapid retreat that causes large-scale drawdown and is enhanced by positive glacier-dynamic feedbacks. Eventually, the terminus retreats out of deep water and the terminus velocity decreases, resulting in reduced drawdown and the potential for restabilization. Terminus readvance can be initiated by cooling the climate. Terminus advance into deep water is difficult to sustain, however, due to negative feedbacks between glacier dynamics and surface mass balance. Despite uncertainty in the precise form of the parameterization, the model provides a simple explanation of the tidewater glacier cycle and can be used to evaluate the response of tidewater glaciers to climate variability. It also highlights the importance of improving parameterizations of calving rates and of incorporating sediment dynamics into tidewater glacier models.
    • Mathematical Modeling and Simulation with MATLAB

      Buzby, Megan; Lee, Sheldon (2021)
      This textbook attempts to provide you with an overview of the commonly used basic mathematical models, as well as a wide range of applications. It offers a perspective that brings you back to the modeling process and the assumptions that go into it.
    • Meals in the melting-pot: Immigration and dietary change in diversifying cities

      Rule, Nicola Frances; Dring, Colin Charles; Thornton, Thomas F. (Elsevier, 2021-09-30)
      Changes in diets and food practices have implications for personal and planetary health. As these implications have become more apparent, dietary change interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable transitions have proliferated, and the processes and drivers of dietary change have come under increasing scrutiny. In particular, dietary acculturation has been recognised as a driver of dietary change in the context of immigration to expanding, cosmopolitan cities. However, research has largely focused on changes in the diets of immigrants and ethnic minorities. In contrast, this study contributes to our understanding of the process of dietary acculturation among the largest population groups in Vancouver, Canada — Chinese- and European-Canadians — in the context of the rapid diversification of the population and food environments in this city. This is done through the analysis of descriptive and contextualised interview and observational data, and a focus on social practices. These data show that food practices, particularly in cosmopolitan urban contexts, are constantly in flux, as diverse ethnic groups come into contact, and new generations develop their own hybrid food cultures. By demonstrating and theorising this process of dietary acculturation, this research offers insights how cultural interactions relate to dietary transitions. It presents an exploratory model for considering how food practices change through dietary acculturation, which is relevant to the design of interventions that aim to support healthier and more sustainable dietary transitions.
    • Meltwater Intrusions Reveal Mechanisms for Rapid Submarine Melt at a Tidewater Glacier

      Kienholtz, C.; Sutherland, D. A.; Jackson, R. H.; Nash, J. D.; Amundson, Jason M.; Motyka, R. J.; Winters, D.; Skyllingstad, E.; Pettit, E. C. (American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-25)
      Submarine melting has been implicated as a driver of glacier retreat and sea level rise, but to date melting has been difficult to observe and quantify. As a result, melt rates have been estimated from parameterizations that are largely unconstrained by observations, particularly at the near-vertical termini of tidewater glaciers. With standard coefficients, these melt parameterizations predict that ambient melting (the melt away from subglacial discharge outlets) is negligible compared to discharge-driven melting for typical tidewater glaciers. Here, we present new data from LeConte Glacier, Alaska, that challenges this paradigm. Using autonomous kayaks, we observe ambient meltwater intrusions that are ubiquitous within 400 m of the terminus, and we provide the first characterization of their properties, structure, and distribution. Our results suggest that ambient melt rates are substantially higher (×100) than standard theory predicts and that ambient melting is a significant part of the total submarine melt flux. We explore modifications to the prevalent melt parameterization to provide a path forward for improved modeling of ocean-glacier interactions.
    • Membranes Are Decisive for Maximum Freezing Efficiency of Bacterial Ice Nucleators

      Schwidetzky, R.; Sudera, P.; Backes, A. T.; Pöschl, U.; Bonn, M.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Meister, Konrad (American Chemical Society, 2021-11-01)
      Ice-nucleating proteins (INPs) from Pseudomonas syringae are among the most active ice nucleators known, enabling ice formation at temperatures close to the melting point of water. The working mechanisms of INPs remain elusive, but their ice nucleation activity has been proposed to depend on the ability to form large INP aggregates. Here, we provide experimental evidence that INPs alone are not sufficient to achieve maximum freezing efficiency and that intact membranes are critical. Ice nucleation measurements of phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides show that these membrane components are not part of the active nucleation site but rather enable INP assembly. Substantially improved ice nucleation by INP assemblies is observed for deuterated water, indicating stabilization of assemblies by the stronger hydrogen bonds of D2O. Together, these results show that the degree of order/disorder and the assembly size are critically important in determining the extent to which bacterial INPs can facilitate ice nucleation.
    • Message from the Chancellor: 2020-07-15

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2020-07-15)
    • Message from the Chancellor: 2020-08-10

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2020-08-10)
    • Message from the Chancellor: 2020-09-14

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2020-09-14)
    • Message from the Chancellor: 2020-11-12

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2020-11-12)
    • Message from the Chancellor: 2021-02-19

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2021-02-19)
    • Message from the Chancellor: 2021-05-03

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2021-05-03)
    • Message from the Chancellor: 2022-03-03

      Carey, Karen (University of Alaska Southeast, 2022-03-03)
    • Morainal Bank Evolution and Impact on Terminus Dynamics During a Tidewater Glacier Stillstand

      Eidam, E. F.; Sutherland, D. A.; Duncan, D.; Kienholz, Christian; Amundson, Jason M.; Motyka, R. J. (American Geophysical Union, 2020-09-25)
      Sedimentary processes are known to help facilitate tidewater glacier advance, but their role in modulating retreat is uncertain and poorly quantified. In this study we use repeated seafloor bathymetric surveys and satellite‐derived terminus positions from LeConte Glacier, Alaska, to evaluate the evolution of a morainal bank and related changes in terminus dynamics over a 17‐year period. The glacier experienced a rapid retreat between 1994 and 1999, before stabilizing at a constriction in the fjord. Since then, the glacier terminus has remained stabilized while constructing a morainal bank up to 140 m high in water depths of 240–260 m, with rates of sediment delivery of 3.3 Å~ 105 to 3.8 Å~ 105 m3 a−1. Based on repeated interannual surveys between 2016 and 2018, the moraine is a dynamic feature characterized by push ridges, evidence of active gravity flows, and bulldozing by the glacier at rates of up to meters per day. Beginning in 2016, the summertime terminus has become increasingly retracted, revealing a newly emerging basin potentially signaling the onset of renewed retreat. Between 2000 and 2016, the growing moraine reduced the exposed submarine area of the terminus by up to 22%, altered the geometry of the terminus during seasonal advances, and altered the terminus stress balance. These feedbacks for calving, melting, and ice flow likely represent mechanisms whereby moraine growth may delay glacier retreat, in a system where readvance is unlikely.
    • The morphology of supraglacial lake ogives

      Darnell, K.N.; Amundson, Jason M.; Cathles, L.M.; MacAyeal, D.R. (International Glaciological Society, 2013-02-12)
      Supraglacial lakes on grounded regions of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets sometimes produce ‘lake ogives’ or banded structures that sweep downstream from the lakes. Using a variety of remote-sensing data, we demonstrate that lake ogives originate from supraglacial lakes that form each year in the same bedrock-fixed location near the equilibrium-line altitude. As the ice flows underneath one of these lakes, an ‘image’ of the lake is imprinted on the ice surface both by summer- season ablation and by superimposed ice (lake ice) formation. Ogives associated with a lake are sequenced in time, with the downstream ogives being the oldest, and with spatial separation equal to the local annual ice displacement. In addition, lake ogives can have decimeter- to meter-scale topographic relief, much like wave ogives that form below icefalls on alpine glaciers. Our observations highlight the fact that lake ogives, and other related surface features, are a consequence of hydrological processes in a bedrock-fixed reference frame. These features should arise naturally from physically based thermodynamic models of supraglacial water transport, and thus they may serve as fiducial features that help to test the performance of such models.