• A multidisciplinary approach for generating globally consistent data on mesophotic, deep-pelagic, and bathyal biological communities.

      Woodall, L.C.; Andradi-Brown, D.A.; Brierley, A.S.; Clark, M.R.; Connelly, D.; Hall, R.A.; Howell, K.L.; Huvenne, V.A.I.; Linse, K.; Ross, R.E.; et al. (The Oceanography Society, 2018-04-02)
      Approaches to measuring marine biological parameters remain almost as diverse as the researchers who measure them. However, understanding the patterns of diversity in ocean life over different temporal and geographic scales requires consistent data and information on the potential environmental drivers. As a group of marine scientists from different disciplines, we suggest a formalized, consistent framework of 20 biological, chemical, physical, and socioeconomic parameters that we consider the most important for describing environmental and biological variability. We call our proposed framework the General Ocean Survey and Sampling Iterative Protocol (GOSSIP). We hope that this framework will establish a consistent approach to data collection, enabling further collaboration between marine scientists from different disciplines to advance knowledge of the ocean (deep-sea and mesophotic coral ecosystems).
    • Multisensory Issues in Students with Autism: A Meta-Synthesis

      Chambless, Michelle Lindsey (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
      For students with autism sensory processing issues are not an uncommon experience. There are three types of sensory processing categories. They are sensory under responsiveness, sensory over-responsiveness and sensory seeking. These sensory processing difficulties may affect social communication, impact daily life skills, include self-injurious behaviors, and create or add to anxiety already being felt by autistic students. These categories are not mutually exclusive and some students may experience all of these problems while others may only struggle with one or two. There is no one answer for students with autism but it is a collection of effects that form the student’s identity for their entire life. This meta-synthesis of the literature on sensory issues for students with autism explores the ups and downs of students struggling with sensory issues in hope to make navigating them easier.
    • Music Therapy; The Assisting Power to Manage Disability: A Meta-Synthesis

      Baczuk, Mindi (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      The purpose of this meta-synthesis is to define and describe music therapy and how music therapy can assist individuals with special needs. Defined by the World Federation of Music Therapy, music therapy is “the use of music and/or its musical elements (sound, rhythm, melody and harmony) by a qualified music therapist, with a client or group, in a process designed to facilitate and promote communication, relationships, learning, mobilization, expression, organization and other relevant therapeutic objectives in order to meet physical, emotional, mental, social and cognitive needs.” (Ueda, et al, 2013). A music therapist is a trained individual who works with people with special needs to help assist them with life difficulties. Music therapy, along with other forms of treatment, can benefit an individual by allowing them the greater advantage of a comprehensive intervention program. The articles discussed in this meta-synthesis address the profession of music therapy and the effect it can have on individuals from birth to adulthood.
    • New views of humpback whale flow dynamics and oral morphology during prey engulfment

      Kosma, Madison, M.; Chenoweth, Ellen M.; Straley, Janice M.; Werth, Alexander J. (Marine Mammal Science, 2019-05-14)
      The rise of inexpensive, user-friendly cameras and editing software promises to revolutionize data collection with minimal disturbance to marine mammals. Video sequences recorded by aerial drones and GoPro cameras provided close-up views and unique perspectives of humpback whales engulfing juvenile salmon at or just below the water surface in Southeast Alaska and Prince William Sound. Although humpback feeding is famous for its flexibility, several stereotyped events were noted in the 47 lunges we analyzed. Engulfment was extremely rapid (mean 2.07 s), and the entrance through which the tongue inverts into the ventral pouch was seen as water rushes in. Cranial elevation was a major contributor to gape, and pouch contraction sometimes began before full gape closure, with reverberating waves indicating rebounding flow of water within the expanded pouch. Expulsion of filtered water began with a small splash at the anterior of the mouth, followed by sustained excurrent flow in the mouth’s central or posterior regions. Apart from a splash of rebounding water, water within the mouth was surprisingly turbulence-free during engulfment, but submersion of the whale’s head created visible surface whirlpools and vortices which may aggregate prey for subsequent engulfment.
    • No Teacher Left Behind: The Influence of Teachers with Disabilities in K-8 Classrooms A Meta-Synthesis

      Hauk, Amanda (2009)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on K-8 teachers with disabilities examines the profound influence that teachers with disabilities can have in our classrooms. Teachers with disabilities act as valuable and realistic role models for all students and bring unique qualities to the classroom, including a passion for inclusive education and creative methods of instruction. However, prejudicial barriers to success often restrict these exceptional teachers from access to our classrooms, undermining the inclusion movement present in most special education programs and schools today. When these teachers are denied employment, students with disabilities suffer in and out of the classroom from a lack of identity construction, reduced self-esteem, and nonexistent advocacy skills.
    • No Teacher Left Behind: The Influence of Teachers with Disabilities in the K-8 Classrooms. A Review of the Literature

      Hauk, Amanda (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      This review of the literature examines the profound influence teachers with disabilities can have in our classrooms. Teachers with disabilities act as valuable and realistic role models for all students and bring unique qualities to the classroom, including a passion for inclusive education and creative methods of instruction. However, prejudicial barriers to success often restrict these exceptional teachers from access to our classrooms, undermining the inclusion movement present in most special education programs and schools today. When these teachers are denied employment, students with disabilities suffer in and out of the classroom from a lack of identity construction, reduced self-esteem, and nonexistent advocacy skills.
    • Non-linear glacier response to calving events, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Cassoto, Ryan; Fahnestock, Mark; Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, Martin; Boettcher, Margaret S.; De La Pena, Santiago; Howat, Ian (International Glaciological Society, 2018-11-29)
      Jakobshavn Isbræ, a tidewater glacier that produces some of Greenland’s largest icebergs and highest speeds, reached record-high flow rates in 2012 (Joughin and others, 2014). We use terrestrial radar interferometric observations from August 2012 to characterize the events that led to record-high flow. We find that the highest speeds occurred in response to a small calving retreat, while several larger calving events produced negligible changes in glacier speed. This non-linear response to calving events suggests the terminus was close to flotation and therefore highly sensitive to terminus position. Our observations indicate that a glacier’s response to calving is a consequence of two competing feedbacks: (1) an increase in strain rates that leads to dynamic thinning and faster flow, thereby promoting desta- bilization, and (2) an increase in flow rates that advects thick ice toward the terminus and promotes restabilization. The competition between these feedbacks depends on temporal and spatial variations in the glacier’s proximity to flotation. This study highlights the importance of dynamic thinning and advective processes on tidewater glacier stability, and further suggests the latter may be limiting the current retreat due to the thick ice that occupies Jakobshavn Isbræ’s retrograde bed.
    • Observing calving-generated ocean waves with coastal broadband seismometers, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Amundson, Jason M.; Clinton, John F.; Fahnestock, Mark; Truffer, Martin; Luthi, Martin P.; Motyka, Roman J. (International Glaciological Society, 2012)
      We use time-lapse photography, MODIS satellite imagery, ocean wave measurements and regional broadband seismic data to demonstrate that icebergs that calve from Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, can generate ocean waves that are detectable over 150 km from their source. The waves, which are recorded seismically, have distinct spectral peaks, are not dispersive and persist for several hours. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that calving events at Jakobshavn Isbræ can stimulate seiches, or basin eigenmodes, in both Ilulissat Icefjord and Disko Bay. Our observations furthermore indicate that coastal, land-based seismometers located near calving termini (e.g. as part of the new Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)) can aid investigations into the largely unexplored, oceanographic consequences of iceberg calving.
    • Ocean warming and acidification alter Antarctic macroalgal biochemical composition but not amphipod grazer feeding preferences

      Schram, Julie B.; Schoenrock, Kathryn M.; McClintock, James B.; Amsler1, Charles D.; Angus, Robert A. (Inter-Research, 2017-10-13)
      Increased anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 concentrations have resulted in ocean warming and alterations in ocean carbonate chemistry, decreasing seawater pH (ocean acidification). The combination of ocean warming and acidification (OWA) may alter trophic interactions in marine benthic communities along the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Abundant and diverse macroalgae–grazer assemblages, dominated by macroalgae (e.g. chemically defended Desmarestia anceps and D. menziesii) and gammarid amphipods (e.g. Gondogeneia antarctica), occur on the nearshore benthos along the WAP. In the present study, the amphipod G. antarctica and macroalgae D. anceps and D. menziesii were exposed for 39 and 79 d, respectively, to combinations of current and predicted near-future temperature (1.5 and 3.5°C, respectively) and pH (8.0 and 7.6, respectively). Protein and lipid levels of macroalgal tissues were quantified, and 5-way choice amphipod feeding assays were performed with lyophilized macroalgal tissues collected at time zero and following exposure to the 4 temperature-pH treatments. For D. anceps, we found a significant interactive temperature-pH effect on lipid levels and significantly lower protein levels at reduced pH. In contrast, tissues of D. menziesii exhibited significantly greater lipid levels after exposure to reduced pH, but there was no temperature effect on lipid or protein levels. Despite shifts in macroalgal biochemical composition, there were no changes in amphipod feeding preferences. Our results indicate that despite altered macroalgal nutritional quality under OWA, both macroalgae retained their ability to deter amphipod feeding. This deterrent capacity could become an important contributor to net community resistance of macroalgae−mesograzer assemblages of the WAP to predicted OWA.
    • Oceanographic Determinants of the Abundance of Common Dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the South of Portugal.

      Castro, J.; Couto, A.; Borges, F. O.; Laborde, M. I.; Pearson, H. C.; Rosa, R.; Cid, A.; Pearson, Heidi C. (MDPI, 2020-08)
      Off mainland Portugal, the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is the most sighted cetacean, although information on this species is limited. The Atlantic coast of Southern Portugal is characterized by an intense wind-driven upwelling, creating ideal conditions for common dolphins. Using data collected aboard whale-watching boats (1929 sightings and 4548 h effort during 2010–2014), this study aims to understand the relationships between abundance rates (AR) of dolphins of different age classes (adults, juveniles, calves and newborns) and oceanographic [chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST)] variables. Over 70% of the groups contained immature animals. The AR of adults was negatively related with Chl-a, but not related to SST values. The AR of juveniles was positively related with SST. For calves and newborns, although the relationship between SST and AR is similar to that observed for juveniles, the effect could not be distinguished from zero. There was no relationship between Chl-a levels and the AR of juveniles, calves and newborns. These results corroborate previous findings that common dolphins tend to occur in highly productive areas demonstrating linkages between their abundance and oceanographic variables, and that this region may be a potential nursery ground.
    • Old Worlds, New Travels: Jack London’s People of the Abyss, Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises, and the Cultural Politics of Travel

      Maier, Kevin (The International Theodore Dreiser Society and The University of Nebraska Press, 2016)
    • On Becoming Human in Lingít Aaní: Encountering Levinas through Indigenous Inspirations

      Neely, Sol (The Journal of the International Association for Environmental Philosophy, 2016-04)
      Calls for taking up wisdom in its place risk re-inscribing coloniality at the level of signification if attempts to resituate intelligibility in the specificity of place are not enacted through a careful translation of experience between victims and perpetrators of colonial violence. At some level, decolonization ought to be conceived as a kind of translation. Emmanuel Levinas' project to "translate" Judaism into Greek is one way of staging such decolonial translation by providing us an internal critique of coloniality while remaining receptive to indigenous inspirations that enrich eco-phenomenological ways of encountering place. In the final instance, however, this paper calls for encountering place through the indigenous languages that make place ethically legible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Outlet glacier response to forcing over hourly to interannual timescales, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Podrasky, David; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Amundson, Jason M.; Cassoto, Ryan; Joughin, Ian (International Glaciological Society, 2012-09-07)
      The loss of the floating ice tongue on Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, in the early 2000s has been concurrent with a pattern of thinning, retreat and acceleration leading to enhanced contribution to global sea level. These changes on decadal timescales have been well documented. Here we identify how the glacier responds to forcings on shorter timescales, such as from variations in surface melt, the drainage of supraglacial lakes and seasonal fluctuations in terminus position. Ice motion and surface melt were monitored intermittently from 2006 to 2008. Dual-frequency GPS were deployed 20–50 km upstream of the terminus along the glacier center line. Gaps in surface melt measurements were filled using a temperature-index model of ablation driven by surface air temperatures recorded during the same time period. Our results corroborate the premise that the primary factors controlling speeds on Jakobshavn Isbræ are terminus position and geometry. We also observe that surface speeds demonstrate a complex relationship with meltwater input: on diurnal timescales, velocities closely match changes in water input; however, on seasonal timescales a longer, more intense melt season was observed to effectively reduce the overall ice flow of the glacier for the whole year.
    • Parent-Teacher Partnership: Diagnosing the Divide: A Meta-Synthesis

      Martin, Jennifer (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      Relationships between educators and parents are a requirement of IDEA 2004. Often these interactions have been characterized by misunderstanding, tension, and parents’ contentions that teachers do not have the best interests of their child as a focus. This causes a divide in the parent-school relationship. As times have changed, this divide has as well…it has grown. So what are the reasons that the divide continues to grow? What causes parents to distrust teachers and schools or become un-involved in their child’s education? What causes teachers to distance themselves from parents? What can we do about it? This meta-synthesis delves into these questions of the parent/teacher divide, and the implications of what schools need to do to fix the ever-widening gulf. The research suggests that there are many ways that we can bridge this divide. However, to make this happen, schools need to be proactive, family-centered, and be willing to work with parents outside of regular school hours. Both school and parents need to be able and willing to look at their own feelings and preconceived notions about school and parent involvement.
    • Pectoral herding: an innovative tactic for humpback whale foraging

      Kosma, Madison, M.; Werth, Alexander J.; Szabo, Andrew R.; Straley, Janice M. (The Royal Society, 2019-09-23)
      Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) have exceptionally long pectorals (i.e. flippers) that aid in shallow water navigation, rapid acceleration and increased manoeuvrability. The use of pectorals to herd or manipulate prey has been hypothesized since the 1930s. We combined new technology and a unique viewing platform to document the additional use of pectorals to aggregate prey during foraging events. Here, we provide a description of ‘pectoral herding’ and explore the conditions that may promote this innovative foraging behaviour. Specifically, we analysed aerial videos and photographic sequences to assess the function of pectorals during feeding events near salmon hatchery release sites in Southeast Alaska (2016–2018). We observed the use of solo bubble-nets to initially corral prey, followed by calculated movements to establish a secondary boundary with the pectorals—further condensing prey and increasing foraging efficiency. We found three ways in which humpback whales use pectorals to herd prey: (i) create a physical barrier to prevent evasion, (ii) cause water motion to guide prey towards the mouth, and (iii) position the ventral side to reflect light and alter prey movement. Our findings suggest that behavioural plasticity may aid foraging in changing environments and shifts in prey availability. Further study would clarify if ‘pectoral herding’ is used as a principal foraging tool by the broader humpback whale population and the conditions that promote its use.
    • People with Disabilities and the Justice System: A Meta-Synthesis

      West, Erica C. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2016)
      Individuals with disabilities are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. This meta-synthesis explores the experiences of juveniles and adults with disabilities in the criminal justice system. Topics discussed include rates and characteristics of offenders with disabilities in the criminal justice system, experiences of offenders with disabilities within the justice system, recidivism risk factors for offenders with disabilities, and recommendations and needed changes for the criminal justice system.
    • Personal History of the University of Alaska, Southeast

      Jones, William Russell (University of Alaska Southeast, 2003)
      Written by Dr. W. Russell Jones, Professor Emeritus, University of Alaska Southeast. Dr. Jones joined the University of Alaska in Juneau in 1971 as Associate Professor of Education. He went on to hold a number of administrative positions. Dr. Jones retired from the position of Vice Chancellor of the University of Alaska Southeast in 1984. This volume covers the history of higher education institutions in Southeast Alaska from 1969 through 1988, including the mergers of the University of Alaska, Juneau with Juneau-Douglas Community College, Islands Community College, and Ketchikan Community College and the formation of University of Alaska Southeast.
    • pH effects on the molecular structure and charging state of b-Escin biosurfactants at the air-water interface

      Glikman, Dana; Rey, Natalia García; Richert, Manuela; Meister, Konrad; Braunschweig, Björn (Elsevier, 2021-09-20)
      Saponins like b-escin exhibit an unusually high surface activity paired with a remarkable surface rheology which makes them as biosurfactants highly interesting for applications in soft matter colloids and at interfaces. We have applied vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) to study b-escin adsorption layers at the air-water interface as a function of electrolyte pH and compare the results from SFG spectroscopy to complementary experiments that have addressed the surface tension and the surface dilational rheology. SFG spectra of b-escin modified air-water interfaces demonstrate that the SFG intensity of OAH stretching vibrations from interfacial water molecules is a function of pH and dramatically increases when the pH is increased from acidic to basic conditions and reaches a plateau at a solution pH of > 6. These changes are attributable to the interfacial charging state and to the deprotonation of the carboxylic acid group of b-escin. Thus, the change in OAH intensity provides qualitative information on the degree of protonation of this group at the air-water interface. At pH < 4 the air-water interface is dominated by the charge neutral form of b-escin, while at pH > 6 its carboxylic acid group is fully deprotonated and, consequently, the interface is highly charged. These observations are corroborated by the change in equilibrium surface tension which is qualitatively similar to the change in OAH intensity as seen in the SFG spectra. Further, once the surface layer is charge neutral, the surface elasticity drastically increases. This can be attributed to a change in prevailing intermolecular interactions that change from dominating repulsive electrostatic interactions at high pH, to dominating attractive interactions, such as hydrophobic and dispersive interactions, as well as, hydrogen bonding at low pH values. In addition to the clear changes in OAH intensity from interfacial H2O, the SFG spectra exhibit drastic changes in the CAH bands from interfacial b-escin which we relate to differences in the net molecular orientation. This orientation change is driven by tighter packing of b-escin adsorption layers when the b-escin moiety is in its charge neutral form (pH < 4).
    • Pilot investigation into the age structure of market squid, Doryteuthis opalescens, in the Gulf of Alaska

      Navarro, Michael; Wehde, Dawn (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-03-08)
      The objective of my URECA funded project was to conduct a pilot investigation that aimed to provide a data set of the age, size, and maturity of market squid, Doryteuthis opalescens, collected in the Gulf of Alaska. The information I collected was used to infer the establishment of a residential or transient population of market squid in the sampled area. I hypothesized that squid collected offshore (> 100m from the shoreline) would be less sexually mature and younger than squid collected inshore which supports the establishment of a residential population. In comparison, no significant differences between size, maturity, and age between squid collected offshore and inshore supports that the squid are from a transient population.
    • Place Names as Evidence for Historic Resource and Property Rights Among the Tlingit: An Interactive Approach

      Sorum-Birk, Elise (2017-07-15)
      My goal was to create an interactive app of Tlingit place names in the Juneau area in order to use it as a tool for education and resource management. The secondary objective was to write an academic paper about the project and to present at the Alaska Native Studies Conference in Fairbanks.