• Populus tremuloides seedling establishment: An underexplored vector for forest type conversion after multiple disturbances

      Gill, Nathan S.; Sangermano, Florencia; Buma, Brian; Kulakowski, Dominik (Elsevier, 2017-11-15)
      Ecosystem resilience to climate change is contingent on post-disturbance plant regeneration. Sparse gymnosperm regeneration has been documented in subalpine forests following recent wildfires and compounded disturbances, both of which are increasing. In the US Intermountain West, this may cause a shift to non-forest in some areas, but other forests may demonstrate adaptive resilience through increased quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) dominance. However, this potential depends on ill-defined constraints of aspen sexual regeneration under current climate. We created an ensemble of species distribution models for aspen seedling distribution following severe wildfire to define constraints on establishment. We recorded P. tremuloides seedling locations across a post-fire, post-blowdown landscape. We used 3 algorithms (Mahalanobis Typicalities,Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network, and MaxEnt) to create spatial distribution models for aspen seedlings and to define constraints. Each model performed with high accuracy and was incorporated into an ensemble model, which performed with the highest overall accuracy of all the models. Populus tremuloides seedling distribution is constrained primarily by proximity to unburned aspen forest and annual temperature ranges, and secondarily by light availability, summer precipitation, and fire severity. Based on model predictions and validation data, P. tremuloides seedling regeneration is viable throughout 54% of the post-fire landscape, 97% of which was previously conifer-dominated. Aspen are less susceptible to many climatically-sensitive disturbances (e.g. fire, beetle outbreak, wind disturbance), thus, aspen expansion represents an important adaptation to climate change. Continued aspen expansion into post-disturbance landscapes through sexual reproduction at the level suggested by these results would represent an important adaptation to climate change and would confer adaptive forest resilience by maintaining forest cover, but would also alter future disturbance regimes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services.
    • Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome and Child Development: A Meta-Synthesis

      Blasingame, Jane (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      Exposure to acute stress and maltreatment during the first forty-eight months of life may result in a chain reaction of chemical and biological changes negatively impacting the growth and development of the brain. Especially affected is the neurohormonal structure of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal or HPA axis, which regulates stress hormones. Corpus callosum, the left neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdala are major brain structures which are adversely affected by chronic acute stress. Psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may result from severe stress, neglect and maltreatment especially when acute stress comes about during critical periods of developmental.
    • Preparing Information Literate Teachers: A Review of the Literature

      Ward, Jennifer Diane; Duke, Thomas Scott (Elsevier, 2010)
    • Proof without Words: On Sums of Squares and Triangles

      Piotrowski, Andrzej (Taylor & Francis, 2018-01-30)
      Summary. We visually display a relationship between sums of squares and the sum of an even number of triangular numbers. Connections to some proofs without words appearing in the literature are briefly discussed.
    • A Prospectus on Substantive Change

      University of Alaska Southeast (University of Alaska Southeast, 1987-10)
    • The protandric life history of the Northern spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros: molecular insights and implications for fishery management.

      Levy, Tom; Tamone, Sherry L; Manor, Rivka; Bower, Esther D; Sagi, Amir (Nature, 2020-01-28)
      The Northern spot shrimp, Pandalus platyceros, a protandric hermaphrodite of commercial importance in North America, is the primary target species for shrimp fisheries within Southeast Alaska. Fishery data obtained from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicate that spot shrimp populations have been declining significantly over the past 25 years. We collected spot shrimps in Southeast Alaska and measured reproductive-related morphological, gonadal and molecular changes during the entire life history. The appendix masculina, a major sexual morphological indicator, is indicative of the reproductive phase of the animal, lengthening during maturation from juvenile to the male phase and then gradually shortening throughout the transitional stages until its complete disappearance upon transformation to a female. This morphological change occurs in parallel with the degeneration of testicular tissue in the ovotestis and enhanced ovarian vitellogenesis. Moreover, we obtained the entire mRNA sequence of the yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin, and monitored its transcript levels throughout the entire shrimp life-cycle. Vitellogenin transcript levels in the hepatopancreas increased in the early transitional stage until reaching a peak prior to extruding eggs. Such transcriptomic analyses, coupled with a comprehensive description of the gonad, external sex characters and timing of the reproductive life history of spot shrimps contribute to a better understanding of the hermaphroditic reproduction process in the cold Southeast Alaskan waters. This knowledge can contribute to a revision of current conservation efforts to maintain wild populations sustainable for both commercial and ecological considerations.
    • The Purple Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Demonstrates a Compartmentalization of Gut Bacterial Microbiota, Predictive Functional Attributes, and Taxonomic Co-Occurrence

      Hakim, Joseph A.; Schram, Julie B.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Morrow, Casey D.; Crowley, Michael R.; Watts, Stephen A.; Bej, Asim K. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019-01-26)
      The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (order Camarodonta, family Strongylocentrotidae) can be found dominating low intertidal pool biomass on the southern coast of Oregon, USA. In this case study, three adult sea urchins were collected from their shared intertidal pool, and the bacteriome of their pharynx, gut tissue, and gut digesta, including their tide pool water and algae, was determined using targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA genes and bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut tissue demonstrated Arcobacter and Sulfurimonas (Epsilonproteobacteria) to be abundant, whereas the gut digesta was dominated by Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Propionigenium (Fusobacteria), and Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes). Alpha and beta diversity analyses indicated low species richness and distinct microbial communities comprising the gut tissue and digesta, while the pharynx tissue had higher richness, more closely resembling the water microbiota. Predicted functional profiles showed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Level-2 categories of energy metabolism, membrane transport, cell motility, and signal transduction in the gut tissue, and the gut digesta represented amino acid, carbohydrate, vitamin and cofactor metabolisms, and replication and repair. Co-occurrence network analysis showed the potential relationships and key taxa, such as the highly abundant Arcobacter and Propionigenium, influencing population patterns and taxonomic organization between the gut tissue and digesta. These results demonstrate a trend of microbial community integration, allocation, predicted metabolic roles, and taxonomic co-occurrence patterns in the S. purpuratus gut ecosystem.
    • Quantifying flow and stress in ice mélange, the world’s largest granular material.

      Burton, J. C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Cassotto, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Dennin, M. (PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018-03-29)
      Tidewater glacier fjords are often filled with a collection of calved icebergs, brash ice, and sea ice. For glaciers with high calving rates, this “m ́elange” of ice can be jam-packed, so that the flow of ice fragments is mostly determined by granular interactions. In the jammed state, ice m ́elange has been hypothesized to influence iceberg calving and capsize, dispersion and attenuation of ocean waves, injection of freshwater into fjords, and fjord circulation. However, detailed measurements of ice m ́elange are lacking due to difficulties in instrumenting remote, ice-choked fjords. Here we characterize the flow and associated stress in icem ́elange, using a combination of terrestrial radar data, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. We find that, during periods of terminus quiescence, ice m ́elange experiences laminar flow over timescales of hours to days. The uniform flow fields are bounded by shear margins along fjord walls where force chains between granular icebergs terminate. In addition, the average force per unit width that is transmitted to the glacier terminus, which can exceed 107N/m, increases exponentially with them ́elange length-to-width ratio. These “buttressing” forces are sufficiently high to inhibit the initiation of large-scale calving events, supporting the notion that ice m ́elange can be viewed as a weak granular ice shelf that transmits stresses from fjord walls back to glacier termini.
    • Quasi-static granular flow of ice mélange

      Amundson, Jason M.; Burton, J. C. (American Geophysical Union, 2018-09-11)
      We use Landsat 8 imagery to generate ice mélange velocity fields at Greenland’s three most productive outlet glaciers: Jakobshavn Isbræ, Helheim Glacier, and Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. Winter velocity fields are generally steady and highly uniform. Summer velocity fields, on the other hand, tend to be much more variable and can be uniform, compressional, or extensional. We rarely observe compressional flow at Jakobshavn Isbræ or extensional flow at Helheim Glacier, while both are observed at Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. Transverse velocity profiles from all three locations are suggestive of viscoplastic flow, in which deformation occurs primarily in shear zones along the fjord walls. We analyze the transverse profiles in the context of quasi-static flow using continuum rheologies for granular materials and find that the force per unit width that ice mélange exerts on glacier termini increases exponentially with the ice mélange length-to-width ratio and the effective coefficient of friction. Our estimates of ice mélange resistance are consistent with other independent estimates and suggest that ice mélange may be capable of inhibiting iceberg calving events, especially during winter. Moreover, our results provide geophysical-scale support for constitutive relationships for granular materials and suggest a potential avenue for modeling ice mélange dynamics with continuum models.
    • Rapid submarine melting driven by subglacial discharge, LeConte Glacier, Alaska

      Motyka, R. J.; Dryer, William P.; Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark (American Geophysical Union, 2013-09-27)
      We show that subglacial freshwater discharge is the principal process driving high rates of submarine melting at tidewater glaciers. This buoyant discharge draws in warm seawater, entraining it in a turbulent upwelling flow along the submarine face that melts glacier ice. To capture the effects of subglacial discharge on submarine melting, we conducted 4 days of hydrographic transects during late summer 2012 at LeConte Glacier, Alaska. A major rainstorm allowed us to document the influence of large changes in subglacial discharge. We found strong submarine melt fluxes that increased from 9.1 ± 1.0 to 16.8 ± 1.3 m d1 (ice face equivalent frontal ablation) as a result of the rainstorm. With projected continued global warming and increased glacial runoff, our results highlight the direct impact that increases in subglacial discharge will have on tidewater outlet systems. These effects must be considered when modeling glacier response to future warming and increased runoff.
    • Raven’s Work in Tlingit Ethno-geography

      Thornton, Thomas F.; Deur, Douglas; Adams, Bert (University of Hawaii Press, 2019-01-01)
    • Receding Glacier: Memories in Rock Walls

      Meadow, Olive (Brend); Brend, Olive Mallory (2022-04)
    • Recycling Attitudes and Behavior among a Clinic-Based Sample of Low-Income Hispanic Women in Southeast Texas

      Pearson, Heidi C.; Dawson, Lauren, N.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki (2012-04-06)
      We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18–55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (P,0.05), lower acculturation (P,0.01), knowing what to recycle (P,0.01), knowing that recycling saves landfill space (P,0.05), and disagreeing that recycling takes too much time (P,0.001). A Sobel test revealed that acculturation mediated the relationship between recycling knowledge and recycling behavior (P,0.05). We offer new information on recycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population.
    • A Regular Interim Evaluation Report - University of Alaska Southeast - October 25-26, 2004

      Street, Elizabeth; Kinkead, Joyce (Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, 2004)
    • Response to Intervention and Students with Emotional and/or Behavior Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis

      Price, Vicki R. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The reauthorization of IDEA in 2006 mandated RTI programs would be implemented for students with academic and behavioral problems. The multi-tiered approach uses assessments, data collection, and observation to develop and employ appropriate supports and interventions. Students with EBD benefit from RTI data collected using PBIS. Professional development is essential for the success of PBIS. The data collected from RTI using PBIS helps IEP teams who provide support to students with EBD, to develop goals and objectives by designing instructional strategies to help students develop pro-social behaviors. This meta-synthesis of the literature of RTI/PBIS and students with EBD reviews the ways data collected using these interventions are used for professional development and instructional strategies
    • Response to Intervention Effective Practices: A Meta-Synthesis

      Clement, Tracy (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The purpose of this meta-synthesis is to assess the effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework. This paper reviewed research articles and other literature that explored effective practices within the RtI program, in an effort to properly implement interventions, and expedite the identification of a learning disability. After reviewing the research it was concluded that the RtI process, if implemented correctly could benefit students who are at risk academically and behaviorally. The research indicates that there are many components to RtI, including fidelity of instruction, proven curriculum, effective leadership, and regular progress monitoring, training and professional development. All of these factors are key to the efficiency of the RtI program. Some other components identified for the consideration of an effective RtI program was teacher collaboration, teacher self-efficacy and teacher perceptions; the inclusion of the family were also noted as important.
    • Rett Syndrome: A Place for Angels

      Cox, Deborah Ann (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      Rett syndrome is a thief! It robs little girls of their projected life. It lulls their families into a false sense of security while their little girls develop normally for 6 to 18 months. Then it insidiously robs them of their skills and abilities until they are trapped in a body that won't respond. These little girls are called "silent angels" (Hunter, 2007). Rett syndrome (RS) was originally identified in 1966 by the Austrian neurologist Andreas Rett, but his research and findings were written in an obscure form of the German language the medical world could not and did not translate. It wasn't until 1983, that Rett syndrome was re-identified and labeled as its own disorder (Hunter, 2007). The Rett Syndrome Research Foundation (2006) summarizes the condition best with: Rett syndrome is a debilitating neurological disorder diagnosed almost exclusively in females. Children with Rett syndrome appear to develop normally until 6 to 18 months of age when they enter a period of regression, losing speech and motor skills. Most develop repetitive hand movements, irregular breathing patterns, seizures and extreme motor control problems. Rett syndrome leaves its victims profoundly disabled, requiring maximum assistance with every aspect of daily living. There is no cure. (Retrieved October 14, 2008 from http://www.rsrf.org/about_rett_syndrome/) Research is ever going to regards to Rett syndrome. What is known as of now is that Rett syndrome is caused by a mutation of the gene MECP2. It is not passed down in families and it knows no ethnic boundaries. The majority of Rett girls live to adulthood (RSRF, 2006). The male child doesn't usually survive birth with Rett syndrome.
    • Rising

      Wall, Emily (Common Ground Review, 2016)
    • The Role of Teacher Bias in the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education Programs: A Meta-Synthesis

      Rae, Hilary (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on the disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs examines the extent to which teacher bias impacts that disproportion. The factors that contribute to culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students being overrepresented in special education and underrepresented in gifted education are complex and have deep social and political roots. One such root is that of cultural bias that may be exhibited by teachers working with students whose cultural backgrounds vary from their own. Examining how this bias can impact ways that educators interact with minority students, and how it may affect the assessment and referral of CLD students to special education will help to illuminate ways in which practicing educators can work towards alleviating this bias.