• A Regular Interim Evaluation Report - University of Alaska Southeast - October 25-26, 2004

      Street, Elizabeth; Kinkead, Joyce (Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, 2004)
    • Response to Intervention and Students with Emotional and/or Behavior Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis

      Price, Vicki R. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The reauthorization of IDEA in 2006 mandated RTI programs would be implemented for students with academic and behavioral problems. The multi-tiered approach uses assessments, data collection, and observation to develop and employ appropriate supports and interventions. Students with EBD benefit from RTI data collected using PBIS. Professional development is essential for the success of PBIS. The data collected from RTI using PBIS helps IEP teams who provide support to students with EBD, to develop goals and objectives by designing instructional strategies to help students develop pro-social behaviors. This meta-synthesis of the literature of RTI/PBIS and students with EBD reviews the ways data collected using these interventions are used for professional development and instructional strategies
    • Response to Intervention Effective Practices: A Meta-Synthesis

      Clement, Tracy (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      The purpose of this meta-synthesis is to assess the effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework. This paper reviewed research articles and other literature that explored effective practices within the RtI program, in an effort to properly implement interventions, and expedite the identification of a learning disability. After reviewing the research it was concluded that the RtI process, if implemented correctly could benefit students who are at risk academically and behaviorally. The research indicates that there are many components to RtI, including fidelity of instruction, proven curriculum, effective leadership, and regular progress monitoring, training and professional development. All of these factors are key to the efficiency of the RtI program. Some other components identified for the consideration of an effective RtI program was teacher collaboration, teacher self-efficacy and teacher perceptions; the inclusion of the family were also noted as important.
    • Rett Syndrome: A Place for Angels

      Cox, Deborah Ann (University of Alaska Southeast, 2009-07-14)
      Rett syndrome is a thief! It robs little girls of their projected life. It lulls their families into a false sense of security while their little girls develop normally for 6 to 18 months. Then it insidiously robs them of their skills and abilities until they are trapped in a body that won't respond. These little girls are called "silent angels" (Hunter, 2007). Rett syndrome (RS) was originally identified in 1966 by the Austrian neurologist Andreas Rett, but his research and findings were written in an obscure form of the German language the medical world could not and did not translate. It wasn't until 1983, that Rett syndrome was re-identified and labeled as its own disorder (Hunter, 2007). The Rett Syndrome Research Foundation (2006) summarizes the condition best with: Rett syndrome is a debilitating neurological disorder diagnosed almost exclusively in females. Children with Rett syndrome appear to develop normally until 6 to 18 months of age when they enter a period of regression, losing speech and motor skills. Most develop repetitive hand movements, irregular breathing patterns, seizures and extreme motor control problems. Rett syndrome leaves its victims profoundly disabled, requiring maximum assistance with every aspect of daily living. There is no cure. (Retrieved October 14, 2008 from http://www.rsrf.org/about_rett_syndrome/) Research is ever going to regards to Rett syndrome. What is known as of now is that Rett syndrome is caused by a mutation of the gene MECP2. It is not passed down in families and it knows no ethnic boundaries. The majority of Rett girls live to adulthood (RSRF, 2006). The male child doesn't usually survive birth with Rett syndrome.
    • Rising

      Wall, Emily (Common Ground Review, 2016)
    • The Role of Teacher Bias in the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education Programs: A Meta-Synthesis

      Rae, Hilary (University of Alaska Southeast, 2014)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature on the disproportionate representation of minority students in special education programs examines the extent to which teacher bias impacts that disproportion. The factors that contribute to culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students being overrepresented in special education and underrepresented in gifted education are complex and have deep social and political roots. One such root is that of cultural bias that may be exhibited by teachers working with students whose cultural backgrounds vary from their own. Examining how this bias can impact ways that educators interact with minority students, and how it may affect the assessment and referral of CLD students to special education will help to illuminate ways in which practicing educators can work towards alleviating this bias.
    • The Salinity Threshold of Market Squid Embryos in Southeast Alaska

      Sekerak, Vasily J. (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-03-07)
      My initial project focused on the way market squid embryo morphology can possibly be effected by ocean salinity levels during development. This was to be accomplished by testing two sets of embryos with three replicates each. These two sets would comprise a salinity level that matched the ocean conditions of Sitka sound, and a comparative salinity which would represent the low salinity levels of the inner passages of Southeast Alaska. Once the embryos hatched they would be transferred into tanks especially designed to safely contain soft tissue organisms. After several weeks of paralarval development, the squid would then be euthanized in accordance with regulations and their statoliths would be removed and analyzed for and morphological differences. As it currently stands my project has achieved a working prototype of the circulatory current aquarium that I had originally proposed in the beginning. This aquarium system exists on larger scales, however I was able to draft, develop and test my own small scale version. This scaled down aquarium allows for larval stage vertebrates and invertebrates on a focused level that’s optimized for smaller labs.
    • Samantha's Births

      Wall, Emily (Prairie Schooner, 2016)
    • Saturday Creek

      Wall, Emily (Cirque, 2016-07-18)
    • Sayeik

      Holton, Luke (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018-09-02)
      The original purpose of this film project was to document the current sociopolitical attitude towards revitalization of Tlingit place names within Southeast Alaska. Several high-visibility name revitalizations (Utqiagvik, Denali, Tlux’satanjin, etc) have been facilitated by the Alaska Historical Commission in the previous years, and this film addresses the cultural impact that name revitalization might have on Alaska Native populations.
    • Scaling of maneuvering performance in baleen whales: larger whales outperform expectations

      Segre, Paolo S.; Gough, William T.; Roualdes, Edward A.; Cade, David E.; Czapanskiy, Max F.; Fahlbusch, James; Kahane-Rapport, Shirel R.; Oestreich, William K.; Bejder, Lars; Bierlich, K.C.; et al. (Journal of Experimental Biology, 2022-03)
      Despite their enormous size, whales make their living as voracious predators. To catch their much smaller, more maneuverable prey, they have developed several unique locomotor strategies that require high energetic input, high mechanical power output and a surprising degree of agility. To better understand how body size affects maneuverability at the largest scale, we used bio-logging data, aerial photogrammetry and a high-throughput approach to quantify the maneuvering performance of seven species of free-swimming baleen whale. We found that as body size increases, absolute maneuvering performance decreases: larger whales use lower accelerations and perform slower pitch-changes, rolls and turns than smaller species. We also found that baleen whales exhibit positive allometry of maneuvering performance: relative to their body size, larger whales use higher accelerations, and perform faster pitch-changes, rolls and certain types of turns than smaller species. However, not all maneuvers were impacted by body size in the same way, and we found that larger whales behaviorally adjust for their decreased agility by using turns that they can perform more effectively. The positive allometry of maneuvering performance suggests that large whales have compensated for their increased body size by evolving more effective control surfaces and by preferentially selecting maneuvers that play to their strengths.
    • The School-to-Prison Pipeline: How Education Has Failed Our Most Vulnerable Students: A Meta-Synthesis

      Vandivier, Andrew (University of Alaska Southeast, 2018)
      Beginning in the 1980’s, America began a ‘war on crime’, taking a tougher stance with longer sentencing on minor crimes. During this same time, and acting in concert, federal educational legislation began the policy of Zero Tolerance within schools. This meant that disciplinary issues, previously handled within schools, were now being addressed as criminal charges. This increased harshness and severity in punishment for school aged youth created a school-to-prison pipeline in which tens of thousands of students became incarcerated in juvenile and adult correctional facilities. The unintended consequence of creating safer school environments was that a disproportionate number of economically disadvantaged, minority, and youth with emotional disturbances were excluded from their learning environments and locked away in correctional institutions. Over the past four decades increased awareness about this disproportionality, along with a better understanding of mental health issues, has caused an upward trend in alternative educational strategies for our most at-risk and vulnerable student populations. Many of these alternative school settings still lack appropriate behavioral management interventions, social services, and mental health clinicians necessary to deal with root cause issues, but we are gradually trending back away from exclusionary, restrictive, and punitive punishments.
    • Sea otter effects on trophic structure of seagrass communities in southeast Alaska

      Raymond, Wendel W.; Schram, Julie B.; Eckert, Ginny L.; Galloway, Aaron W. E. (Inter-Research, 2021-09-16)
      Previous research in southeast Alaska on the effects of sea otters Enhydra lutris in seagrass Zostera marina communities identified many but not all of the trophic relationships that were predicted by a sea otter-mediated trophic cascade. To further resolve these trophic connections, we compared biomass, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope (SI), and fatty acid (FA) data from 16 taxa at 3 sites with high and 3 sites with low sea otter density (8.2 and 0.1 sea otters km−2, respectively). We found lower crab and clam biomass in the high sea otter region but did not detect a difference in biomass of other seagrass community taxa or the overall community isotopic niche space between sea otter regions. Only staghorn sculpin differed in δ13C between regions, and Fucus, sugar kelp, butter clams, dock shrimp, and shiner perch differed in δ15N. FA analysis indicated multivariate dissimilarity in 11 of the 15 conspecifics between sea otter regions. FA analysis found essential FAs, which consumers must obtain from their diet, including 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA), were common in discriminating conspecifics between sea otter regions, suggesting differences in consumer diets. Further FA analysis indicated that many consumers rely on diverse diets, regardless of sea otter region, potentially buffering these consumers from sea otter-mediated changes to diet availability. While sea otters are major consumers in this system, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the differences in biomarkers between regions with and without sea otters
    • Seasonal and interannual variations in ice melange and its impact on terminus stability, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

      Cassotto, Ryan; Fahnestock, Mark; Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, Martin; Joughin, Ian (International Glaciological Society, 2014-09-29)
      We used satellite-derived surface temperatures and time-lapse photography to infer temporal variations in the proglacial ice melange at Jakobshavn Isbræ, a large and rapidly retreating outlet glacier in Greenland. Freezing of the melange-covered fjord surface during winter is indicated by a decrease in fjord surface temperatures and is associated with (1) a decrease in ice melange mobility and (2) a drastic reduction in iceberg production. Vigorous calving resumes in spring, typically abruptly, following the steady up-fjord retreat of the sea-ice/ice-melange margin. An analysis of pixel displacement from time-lapse imagery demonstrates that melange motion increases prior to calving and subsequently decreases following several events. We find that secular changes in ice melange extent, character and persistence can influence iceberg calving, and therefore glacier dynamics over daily-to-monthly timescales, which, if sustained, will influence the mass balance of an ice sheet.
    • Seasonal Characteristics of Humpback Whales {Megaptera novaeangliae) in Southeastern Alaska

      Straley, Janice M.; Gabriele, Christine M.; Baker, C. Scott (National Park Service Alaska System Support Office, 1995-11)
      Humpback whales were studied in southeastern Alaska to assess seasonal distribution and numbers, migration patterns, length of stay, female reproductive histories, and calf survival. A mean annual estimate and 95% confidence interval of whales present in the study areas was 404 ± 54 individuals. The longest length of stay was nearly 7 months, and the shortest transit to the Hawaiian mating and calving grounds was 39 days. Generally, birth intervals did not vary from one calf every two or three years; individual variation ranged from one to five years. There were few resightings of whales first seen as calves. The recovery of North Pacific humpback whales will only occur through an increase in the survival of calves to become sexually mature and reproducing adults.
    • Seasonal presence and potential influence of humpback whales on wintering Pacific herring populations in the Gulf of Alaska

      Straley, Janice M.; Moran, John M.; Boswell, Kevin M.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Heintz, Ron A.; Quinn II, Terrance J.; Witteveen, Brianna Harmony; Rice, Stanley D.; Moran, J. R. (2018-01)
      This study addressed the lack of recovery of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in relation to humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) predation. As humpback whales rebound from commercial whaling, their ability to influence their prey through top-down forcing increases. We compared the potential influence of foraging humpback whales on three herring populations in the coastal Gulf of Alaska: Prince William Sound, Lynn Canal, and Sitka Sound (133–147°W; 57–61°N) from 2007 to 2009. Information on whale distribution, abundance, diet and the availability of herring as potential prey were used to correlate populations of overwintering herring and humpback whales. In Prince William Sound, the presence of whales coincided with the peak of herring abundance, allowing whales to maximize the consumption of overwintering herring prior to their southern migration. In Lynn Canal and Sitka Sound peak attendance of whales occurred earlier, in the fall, before the herring had completely moved into the areas, hence, there was less opportunity for predation to influence herring populations. North Pacific humpback whales in the Gulf of Alaska may be experiencing nutritional stress from reaching or exceeding carrying capacity, or oceanic conditions may have changed sufficiently to alter the prey base. Intraspecific competition for food may make it harder for humpback whales to meet their annual energetic needs. To meet their energetic demands whales may need to lengthen their time feeding in the northern latitudes or by skipping the annual migration altogether. If humpback whales extended their time feeding in Alaskan waters during the winter months, the result would likely be an increase in herring predation
    • Seawater acidification more than warming presents a challenge for two Antarctic macroalgal-associated amphipods

      Schram, Julie B.; Schoenrock, Kathryn M.; McClintock, James B.; Amsler, Charles D.; Angus, Robert A. (Inter-Research, 2016-07-08)
      Elevated atmospheric pCO2 concentrations are triggering seawater pH reductions and seawater temperature increases along the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). These factors in combination have the potential to influence organisms in an antagonistic, additive, or synergistic manner. The amphipods Gondogeneia antarctica and Paradexamine fissicauda represent prominent members of macroalgal-associated mesograzer assemblages of the WAP. Our primary objective was to investigate amphipod behavioral and physiological responses to reduced seawater pH and elevated temperature to evaluate potential cascading ecological impacts. For 90 d, amphipods were exposed to combinations of seawater conditions based on present ambient (pH 8.0, 1.5°C) and predicted end-of-century conditions (pH 7.6, 3.5°C). We recorded survival, molt frequency, and macroalgal consumption rates as well as change in wet mass and proximate body composition (protein and lipid). Survival for both species declined significantly at reduced pH and co-varied with molt frequency. Consumption rates in G. antarctica were significantly higher at reduced pH and there was an additive pH−temperature effect on consumption rates in P. fissicauda. Body mass was reduced for G. antarctica at elevated temperature, but there was no significant effect of pH or temperature on body mass in P. fissicauda. Exposure to the pH or temperature levels tested did not induce significant changes in whole body biochemical composition of G. antarctica, but exposure to elevated temperature resulted in a significant increase in whole body protein content of P. fissicauda. Our study indicates that while elevated temperature causes sub-lethal impacts on both species of amphipods, reduced pH causes significant mortality.
    • Secondary Transition Planning: Reponsibilities and Strategies. A Meta-Synthesis

      Arnold, Art (University of Alaska Southeast, 2011-08-02)
      This meta-synthesis of the literature, on transition planning for youth with disabilities, examines several important facets that impact the post school outcomes for students with disabilities. Eight specific areas have been highlighted that point out the common theme areas of this metasynthesis. Research recognizes the responsibilities of the regular and special education teachers to the secondary transition process and the roles of the student and parent are not minimized at all. Professional development and continuous training are needed and highlighted for teachers, counselors, administrators, parents and students. There are specific successful strategies and methods to apply to the transition planning process. Raising expectations will likely result in positive post school outcomes as well. However, it is only too often that teachers, counselors, parents, and students are ill prepared for secondary transitions from high school to employment or further training. Expectations are too low and students are not prepared to make decisions about their employment or training in spite of the fact that self determination and self advocacy are strong tools that can and will promote positive outcomes for students. Indeed, individualized transition planning and person centered planning are valuable tools.
    • Sediment redistribution beneath the terminus of an advancing glacier, Taku Glacier (T’aakú Kwáan Sít’i), Alaska.

      Zechmann, Jenna M.; Truffer, Martin; Motyka, R. J.; Amundson, Jason M.; Larsen, Christopher F.; la (Cambridge University Press, 2020-12-23)
      The recently-advancing Taku Glacier is excavating subglacial sediments at high rates over multidecadal timescales. However, sediment redistribution over shorter timescales remains unquantified. We use a variety of methods to study subglacial and proglacial sediment redistribution on decadal, seasonal, and daily timescales to gain insight into sub- and proglacial landscape formation. Both excavation and deposition were observed from 2003 to 2015 (2.8 ± 0.9ma−1 to +2.9 ± 0.9ma−1). The observed patterns imply that a subglacial conduit has occupied the same site over the past decade. Outwash fans on the subaerial end moraine experience fluvial sediment reworking almost year-round, with net sediment gain in winter and net sediment loss in summer, and an overall mass gain between 2005 and 2015.We estimate that tens of meters of sediment still underlie the glacier terminus, sediments which can be remobilized during future activity. However, imminent retreat from the proglacial moraine will limit its sediment supply, leaving the moraine vulnerable to erosion by bordering rivers. Retreat into an over-deepened basin will leave the glacier vulnerable to increased frontal ablation and accelerating retreat.