Recent Submissions

  • Water/Wastewater Evaluation for an Arctic Alaskan Industrial Camp

    Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-04)
    Discovery of a huge oil field at Prudhoe Bay in the late 1960's resulted in a great deal of industrial activity on the North Slope of arctic Alaska. This flurry of industrial activity was accompanied by environmental concern across the nation. The fact that Alaska was "the last frontier” placed it high on the list for ecological scrutiny.
  • Report of the Joint U.S.-Canadian Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop

    Carlson, Robert F.; Morgenstern, N. R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-03-20)
    The Joint Canadian-United States Northern Civil Engineering Research Workshop was held at the University of Alberta campus, Edmonton, Alberta on March 20 through 22, 1978. Over 40 participants from government, universities, and private practice from both the U.S. and Canada discussed northern civil engineering research for 2 1/2 days. The results of their effort are presented in this report. The nature of a report coming from spontaneous conversation will be somewhat uneven in coverage, language, and tone. However, we feel obligated to preserve the initial intent and language of the various workshop groups and each report should represent the original conclusion as nearly as possible. We acted as the principal instigators of the workshop and were ably assisted by an excellent group of workshop chairmen: Jack Clark, Lorne Gold, Charles Neill, Daniel Rogness, James Rooney, and Daniel Smith. We particularly want to acknowledge the assistance of the Boreal Institute for organizing and providing much of the administrative and secretarial support for the workshop, and the staff of the Institute of Water Resources for assisting with the organizing and publication processes. The workshop was sponsored by the National Science Foundation of the United States, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs of Canada, the Boreal Institute and Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Alberta, and the Institute of Water Resources of the University of Alaska. R. F. Carlson N. R. Morgenstern
  • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Data

    Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
    The data contained in IWR-67 (Clearing Alaskan Supply Impoundments: Management and Laboratory Study) was collected to determine the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan reservoirs as a function of the extent of clearing in site preparation. The study developed a methodology for such analysis and made recommendations as to the best clearing alternatives for each reservoir site. For graphic presentation and evaluation of the data, refer to IWR-67 and IWR-67-A (Literature Review), published by the Institute of Water Resources, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska.
  • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Literature Review

    Justice, Stanley R.; Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
    This literature review was prepared in conjunction with a research project evaluating the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan Reservoirs and recommending clearing alternatives. For the results of the laboratory study and discussion of impoundment management in northern regions refer to "Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments, Management and Laboratory Study" (IWR-67). The data developed in the laboratory portion of the study is contained in IWR-67-B. Contact the Institute of Water Resources if access to this material is desired. Much of the material in this review was derived from the paper "The Effect of Reservoirs on Water Quality" which was prepared by Stan Justice in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Quality Engineering.
  • The Characteristics and Ultimate Disposal of Waste Septic Tank Sludge

    Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1974-11)
  • Application of the Finite-Element Method for Simulation of Surface Water Transport Problems

    Guymon, Gary L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
  • The Effects of Extreme Floods and Placer Mining on the Basic Productivity of Sub Arctic Streams : A Completion Report

    Morrow, James E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1971)
    The original proposal for this project was submitted to OWRR in the fall of 1967 and envisioned a two year investigation involving the principal investigator and three graduate student assistants, with a first year budget of nearly $25,000.00. However, the project was approved for only one year, with a total budget of $5,757.00. In addition, even these funds did not become available until August 1968. Because of the lateness of availability and the sharp curtailment of the total amount, it was not possible to purchase any equipment. Hence, measurements of rainfall, current velocity, basic productivity, etc., had to be abondoned. All that could be done was to acquire data on the bottom fauna and some physico-chemical characteristics of the water.
  • Evaluation of Water Research Needs in Alaska : Project Completion Report

    Behlke, Charles E. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
    The water resource research requirements for Alaska revolve around the needs of a rapidly expanding population and industrial growth in an unpopulated country. It appears that many of the problems which have been researched elsewhere must be restudied in Alaska because of the extremes of climate which Alaska exhibits . Most of the southern coastal areas of the State exhibit from 70 to 350 inches of runoff per year and in much of the northern part of the State permafrost to great depths and seasonal frost lock virtually all of the water in the solid state for a major part of the year. Alaska Is proving to be an area with vast petroleum reserves. These reserves are being brought into production and are resulting in the development of previously unpopulated areas. The proper management of previously untouched waters requires knowledge of the nature of the existing resources and then an evaluation of the probable effects of alternative water uses in order to optimize the desirable use of Alaskan water resources. This evaluation of present conditions and the analysis of future possible uses provide vast amounts of required research.
  • Inherent and Maximum Microbiological Activity in Smith Lake : Project Completion Report

    Burton, S. (University of Alaska; Institute of Water Resources, 1968)
    POPULAR ABSTRACT: Bacterial populations were examined in a sub-Arctic lake to augment the understanding of the flow of organic material and other nutrients through these waters. Several micro-organisms were isolated, capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into biologically available forms. Also organisms capable of removing organic materials at very low temperatures, psychrophiles, were isolated. Enzymes from these unusual organisms were examined to determine what allows these unusual activity at low temperatures. The activities of these enzymes were not found to be unusual.
  • Handbook for the Alaskan Prospector

    Wolff, Ernest (Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1969)
    It is hoped that this book will be of value to many different classes of men engaged in the search for mineral deposits. These classes might include the experienced practical prospector who would like to learn something of geology; the young geologist who needs information on practical prospecting; the novice who needs a comprehensive reference; and the all around experienced exploration engineer or geologist who might need to refer to some specialized technique, look up a reference in the bibliography, or read a resume of the geology of a particular area, Because this book is aimed at so many different classes, different chapters are written assuming different levels of learning and experience. This, no doubt, will prove troublesome at times, but it is believed to be the best way to insure that the information contained in each chapter will reach with maximum effectiveness the group for whom it is intended.
  • History of Alaskan Operations of United States Smelting, Refining and Mining Company

    Boswell, John C. (Mineral Industries Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1979-03)
  • Research into the safety and efficiency of underground placer mining and frozen ground

    Huang, S.L. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983-09)
    Some of the underground excavation problems encountered in arctic and subarctic environments associated with thermal disturbance are excessive settlement of ground surface and pronounced displacement around openings. This study investigated the possible links between the significant settlement. Ground temperature was found to be the most influential. An empirical equation was developed for the USBM gravel room to predict the effect of temperature on creep of frozen gravel. Separation of the roof gravel and silt was observed as steady heating process increased the gravel temperature by one degree. The temperature dependent material constants were estimated from the laboratory testings. The factors affecting the creep characteristics were temperature and applied stress level. The primary creep behavior of frozen gravel loaded under 18% of unconfined compressive strength at 25° and 29° could be predicted empirically.
  • Preliminary studies of the effectiveness of water jet cutting on frozen ground

    Skudrzyk, F.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983-08)
    Cutting of artificially frozen gravel and ice was performed under laboratory conditions at pressures ranging from 3000 to 15000 psi (20.7 to 103.5 MPa) and flow rates below 4 gpm (0.24 L/s). During the second stage of this preliminary study additional cutting and "drilling" were conducted in the permafrost tunnel at Fox, at pressures ranging from 2000 to 4400 psi (13.8 to 30.4 MPa) and flow rate up to 40 gpm (2.4 L/s). The erodability of the material (energy required to remove a unit volume of material) was calculated and used as a basis for finding the optimum conditions for frozen gravel disintegration. Recommendations for further studies are also included.
  • Preliminary studies of frozen gravel properties related to underground mining

    Skudrzyk, F.J., Barker, C.R., and Mazurkiewicz, M. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982-04)
    This report describes research conducted by Drs. Frank J. Skudrzyk, Clark R. Barker and Marian Mazurkiewicz over a period of time from February 15 to April 15, 1982 for the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The scope of the project, established through discussions with Dr. Chris Lambert, representing the UA, was to conduct pilot studies of frozen gravel properties related to underground mining in permafrost: high pressure water jet cutting characteristics and uniaxial compressive test (uniaxial compressive strength and Young's modulus measurement). It has been agreed that the tests would be conducted on an artificial material simulating the frozen gravel.
  • Occurrence and distribution of barite in the permo-triassic siksikpuk formation along the Brooks Range haul road

    Payne, M.W. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
    Barite commonly occurs in Permian to Triassic age rocks along the north flank of the Brooks Range. The Siksikpuk Formation (Wolfcampian to lowest Guadalupian age) is noted for its barite and is well exposed in the vicinity of Galbraith Lake along the pipeline haul road (Figure 1). The proximity of these barite deposits to an existing road made them a logical selection for investigation. The study was designed to provide detailed stratigraphic information on barite quantity and quality, associated clay mineralogy, and relationship of barite to environments of deposition.
  • Uranium exploration methodology in cold climates

    Sims, J.M. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
    The uranium prospecting boom of the past decade had, as a major consequence, the rapid development and proliferation of exploration methods for source materials. Numerous established methods were developed and refined whilst new techniques were introduced proving, in some instances, to be highly successful. To the explorationist the proliferation of instrumental hardware and detection systems was something of a headache with the result that in uranium exploration, more so than in other types of prospecting, the choice of exploration method at the appropriate stage of prospecting was frequently ill founded. The situation also spawned ‘black box’ purveyors who made extravagant claims for their equipment. Money was wasted through over kill applications of exploration method accompanied in many instances by deficiencies in the interpretation of results. This project was originally conceived as a means of evaluating, reviewing and filtering from a burgeoning array of systems the most appropriate exploration techniques applicable to cold climate environments. This goal has been trimmed somewhat since it had been hoped to incorporate site investigation data assembled in the field by the writer as appropriate case history material. This was not possible and as a consequence this report is a 'state of the art review' of the applicability of currently available techniques in Arctic and Subarctic environments. Reference is made to published case history data, where appropriate, supportive of the techniques or methods reviewed.
  • Application of portable delayed neutron activation analysis equipment in the evaluation of gold deposits

    Sims, J.M. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
    The attributes of a gold analysis system which could act as a panacea for the needs of the explorationist and the miner alike would include: i) The capability of being used as a qualitative as well as a quantitative tool yielding accurate results in respect of large samples. ii) The capability of generating results on site either in the field or within a prospect or mine. iii) An identifiable cost effectiveness in relation to other methods. iv) The capability of being housed in an equipment package which combines ruggedness, portability and reliability with operational options which permit measurements to be made on outcrops, mine faces, borehole cores as well as direct in-situ down-the hole determinations. The portable x-ray fluorescence gold analyser is on the threshold of meeting all the criteria cited above. Since the system is non-destructive in so far as the sample is concerned check assays employing conventional techniques can be run on a small percentage of the sample population. This report by its very nature is a state of the art review which sets out to describe the current instrument package, the principles by which it functions, its performance compared with detailed chip channel sampling and then suggests how the system may evolve in terms of its application to the investigation of hard-rock and placer deposits.
  • Application of palynological techniques for correlation of coal seams in the Lower Lignite Creek area, Nenana Coal Field

    McFarlane, R., Sanders, R., and Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
    This study concerns spores and pollen in the coals of the lower Lignite Creek area in the Nenana Coal Field, which is operated by Usibelli Mining Company. The seams studied are part of the Suntrana Formation which contains a large portion of the coal reserves of Nenana coal. These coals are mid-Miocene in age and are separated from each other by cyclic sandstone, clay and silt deposits, which reflect alternating periods of coal forming swamps and depositing streams. A preliminary study of the mega and micro botanical fossils of this area was made in 1969 by Wolfe and Leopold (Wahrhaftig et al, 1969). Palynological investigation was done on 26 samples of the Suntrana Formation and evidence from this and fossil leaves indicate that the formation should be placed in the Seldovian stage.
  • Tunnel lining studies II

    Johansen, N.I. and Chalich, P. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1980-03)
    In the CRREL tunnel (Fig. B1, B2), sublimation is extremely apparent, but because of the tunnels limited usage it poses no significant problems. However, in an operating mine with forced air ventilation and continuously operating machinery, the problems associated with sublimation may no longer be insignificant. The dust released by the evaporating ice poses not only the obvious respiratory threat, but an additional safety threat, as fine silt suspended in the air reduces visibility, and removal or suppression of the dust will be of importance.

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