• Agricultural limestone demand requirements and supply production in Alaska, a thesis

      Sanusi, A.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      The need for agricultural limestone to neutralize acidic soils and enhance plant growth in the Agricultural Project Areas of the state has prompted this research project on limestone demand requirements and production in Alaska. Based on the possible maximum agricultural lands (500,000 acres) available for production within the next 10 years <1983-1992) and the average agricultural limestone requirements of 2 tons per acre, the maximum requirements of 1,000,000 tons or an average of 100,000 tons per year over the period have been determined. This study identifies limestone deposits in the State of Alaska and suggests three suitable outcrops for use as agricultural limestone. It further describes economic methods of mining, crushing and transporting the finished product from anyone of the selected outcrops to the agricultural areas and thereby arriving at the delivered cost per ton for each of three alternatives of $77.68, $78.00 and $91.24 respectively and $81.26 per ton when production is from one outcrop supplying all three agricultural areas. A simulation of cost benefit to Alaskan farmers under various scenarios is also presented. The evaluation of agricultural limestone production from native Alaskan limestone has shown that locally produced limestone is more economic for and attractive to Alaskan farmers than imported limestone costing $200 per ton.
    • Alaska coal-a bibliography

      Triplehorn, J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Coal has been mined and used in Alaska for more than a century, and still is the principal source of energy for power generation for the interior Alaska region. Recent events that have caused increases in the cost of energy have spurred new world-wide interest in greater use of lower cost coal in place of oil. In the past few years, there has been increased interest in Alaska coal by private investors, evidenced by stepped-up exploration activity. Interest from the Pacific Rim nations is shown by the signing of contracts between Korean buyers and the Usibelli Coal Mine; and the entrance of Korean capital into exploring the Bering River Field. Japan is continuing pilot plant testing of Beluga coal. All of this indicates a rapidly growing interest in Alaska's coal and it seemed appropriate to have a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coals available to help the emerging coal mining industry in Alaska. Since a literature search is the first task of every company that wants to enter the Alaskan coal. mining industry, the time seemed appropriate to compile a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coal to eliminate duplication of effort and guarantee the industry the most comprehensive source of information. Julia Triplehorn is uniquely qualified for this task. She is a reference librarian by profession, with background in both geology and library science, and long experience in bibliographic searches on numerous other subjects. She has done an admirable job in searching all available sources, and has added an inclusive index that took time, dedication, and patience--a job well done. The School of Mineral Industry, Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, is pleased to make this bibliography available to industry and all those involved in research working toward the development of Alaskan resources.
    • Alaska mining and water quality

      Zemansky, Gil M.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Cook, Donald J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-06)
      The Institute of Water Resources has sought financial assistance for some time in an attempt to initiate research relative to the impact of mining on water quality. Attempts were made as early as 1971 by Dr. Timothy Tilsworth and later by Dr. Donald Cook and Dr. Sage Murphy. These investigators anticipated growth in placer gold mining and the development of natural resources in Alaska during a period of national and environmental concern. The subsequent energy "crisis," the major increase in the price of gold on the world market, and dwindling nonrenewable resource supplies have resulted in large-scale mineral exploration in Alaska. This exploration, coupled with development of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, has attracted considerable capital for potential investment and development in Alaska. Expected industrial growth has already started and major new projects are "just around the corner." Yet, as of 1976, no major research effort has occurred to determine the extent of or potential for water quality impacts from mining operations in Alaska. Recently a series of interdisciplinary research projects have been completed in Canada; however, the application of Canadian data to Alaskan problems is uncertain. Although, state and federal government agencies have been advised and are aware of this potential problem and lack of baseline data they have not sought out new information or rational solutions. Even now, with deadlines of Public Law 92-500 at hand, some regulatory agencies give the impression of attempting to ignore the situation. Interim limitations are proposed and permits are issued with no discernible rationale or basis. Data have not been obtained relative to the Alaskan mining operations and thus are not available for use in seeking solutions compatible with mining and environmental protection. Numbers appear to have been arbitrarily assigned to permits and water quality standards. When permits are issued, self-monitoring requirements are negligible or nonexistent. Nor have regulatory agencies demonstrated the ability or inclination to monitor mining operations or enforce permits and water quality standards. It was hoped that the project would bring together miners, environmentalists, and regulators in a cooperative effort to identify the problems and seek solutions. The investigators recognized the political sensitivity of the subject matter but proceeded optimistically. Relatively good cooperation, though not total, occurred early in the project. In April 1976, a symposium was held to exchange ideas and determine the state-of-the-art. Although the symposium had good attendance and an exchange of information occurred, the symposium itself was somewhat of a disappointment. With few exceptions, the participants aligned on one side or the other in preconceived fixed positions. Some even chose not to attend and were therefore able to avoid the issues. Little hard data was presented. Optimistically, some of the miners, environmentalists, and regulators are prepared to resolve their differences. This report, hopefully, will be of benefit to them. It is our experience that miners and environmentalists share a love of the land that is uniquely Alaska. We feel that technology is available for application to this problem for those who care about doing the job right in the "last frontier." Whether or not it will be effectively applied to protect Alaska's water resources is a question which remains unanswered.
    • Alaska Mining and Water Quality: Proceedings of the Symposium

      University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-04
      Very little information on Alaska mining activities and resulting environmental changes has been available. The objectives of this research were to: 1) review the literature pertinent to water quality deterioration resulting from mining activities, and 2) conduct a symposium, "Alaska Mining and Water Quality," in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Mining and Water Quality (IWR Report 74) was published in June 1976. The report covers effluent limitations and water quality standards, physical parameters, chemical/biological parameters, and effects of Alaska mining on water quality. Over 300 references are cited, and a description of settling pond theory is appended. The literature review Focused primarily on mining activities in Canada and the contiguous portion of the United States. The main emphasis of the literature review was directed at gold mining and coal mining operations; however, other mining activities relevant to Alaska were examined. The April 9, 1976, symposium was meant to achieve: 1) information dissemination, 2) increased and more effective communication, 3) env1ronmental awareness, and 4) identification of environmental problems and potential solutions associated with mining activities in Alaska. Although there was good attendance and an exchange of information, the other objectives of the symposium were not attained. With few exceptions, both speakers and participants were aligned in extreme positions, and they presented little actual data to support their conclusions. The purpose of this publication is to present differing viewpoints on important and controversial issues in Alaskan water resources with the hope that effective solutions can be achieved through consideration of all facets of the problems.
    • Alaska Wastewater Treatment Technology

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      This report is intended to be an assessment of wastewater treatment technology in Alaska today. It is not a study of the politics of environmentalists vs. industry, the environmental laws now existing, nor of the design of utilidors in the Arctic. These and other important topics have been dealt with elsewhere. The study is subdivided into three major areas: 1) individual home treatment systems, 2) municipal and military systems, and 3) industrial wastewater treatment. With each category, the existing situation in Alaska is summarized and examples of technology currently being used are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are discussed with suggestions made for methodologies particularly appropriate to Alaska. Although the bulk of the report is drawn from the "Alaskan experience," results obtained in other parts of the world are cited where appropriate.
    • Alaska Water Resources Research Needs for the 70's: A seminar, Oct. 27-28 Anchorage, Alaska

      Carlson, Robert F.; Butler, Jacqueline (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • Alaska's Water: A Critical Resource

      Bredthauer, Stephen R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1984-11)
    • Alaskan water resources: Selected abstracts, 1974

      Hartman, Charles; Finch, Sheila (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-02)
      As one of the 51 Water Resources Research Institutes administered under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964, IWR receives a semimonthly journal entitled Selected Water Resources Abstracts. The bulletin, published by the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) of the Office of Water Research and Technology, includes abstracts of documents covering the water-related aspects of the life, physical, and social sciences as well as related engineering and legal aspects of the characteristics, conservation, control, use, or management of water. Each abstract in the bulletin is classified into 10 fields and 60 groups of water research categories (see page iii). In addition, the journal contains a subject, author, and organizational index. In an attempt to keep interested parties abreast of the research being done in water resources in Alaska, the Institute of Water Resources is planning to publish yearly all abstracts listed under the subject index "Alaska." This report covers all citations for 1974.
    • Analysis of Alaska's water use act and its interaction with federal reserved water rights

      Curran, Harold J.; Dwight, Linda Perry (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-02)
      Since the passage of Alaska's Water Use Act in 1966, the amount of water required by Alaska's growing population and resource development has increased very rapidly. The need to review the adequacy of existing water use laws and their administration has been expressed both by those trying to comply with regulations and by those attempting to enforce standards and permit requirements. This report summarizes the historical development of the doctrine of prior appropriation in Alaska. The statutory authority, regulations, and administration of Alaska's Water Use Act by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources are presented. Overlapping state agency authorities are discussed, and existing and proposed regulations are analyzed. The application of federal reserved water rights to Alaska and the status of quantification of these rights is explained. The report presents options for the State of Alaska to manage water use on federal lands, and for preserving minimum stream flows for maintenance of fish and wildlife habitats.
    • An Analysis of the Demands for Water from the Private Sector in a Sub-Arctic Urban Area

      Haring, Robert C. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-04)
      Manufacturing and domestic uses of water are very important to local communities throughout Alaska, although manufacturing typically represents relatively high levels of consumption in terms of population use equivalents. This study is concerned principally with the present water use practices and associated problems in the private sector of the North Star Borough, Alaska.
    • Annotated Keys to the Genera of the Tribe Diamesini (Diptera: Chironomidae), Descriptions of the Female and Immatures of Potthastia iberica Tosio, and Keys to the Known Species of Potthastia

      Doughman, Jan S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources and Engineering Experiment Station, 1985-08)
      A review of available information on the tribe Diamesini led to the construction of generic keys to most life stages. Serra-Tosio (1971b) first described Potthastia iberica from an adult male from the Spanish Pyrenees. Evaluation of specimens collected in the Nearctic, from Idaho (in 1967) and Georgia (in 1981 and 1983), indicate that this species is extant in eastern and western highland streams that appear to be typical trout streams. This new group of specimens contained a mature male and female pupa and immatures, and associations made it possible to describe the female and the immatures for the first time. Adult specimens conform very closely to the holotype. The known species of Potthastia are keyed.
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      The great importance of minerals to a state's sound economy can be no better illustrated than by the discovery of oil and gas in Alaska in 1957 in the Kenai Peninsula. This event has led to the establishment of local basic and secondary industries which in turn will enrich the coffers of the state. In a parallel manner, the discovery of oil and gas on the North Slope in 1968 will not only produce basic and allied industries but will also be a catalyst assisting the development of other mineral resources to provide a diversification of industry--so important to the long range economic strength of a state. Also, further economic development of mineral resources is, to a large degree, dependent on mineral science research in the same way that research and development were necessary to develop the jet engine and hence, give a break-through in air transportation; thus, without geological and mineral processing research, mines cannot continue to be found and developed. The following pages will provide evidence of a significant contribution toward the shortening of the knowledge gap in mineral search instrumentation, gold size distribution, coal processing, prospector education, resource evaluation, and exploration oriented computer techniques. The demand by the Alaskan public, industry, and governmental agencies for this information has justified the reprinting of several of this year's research reports. This response by industry and the public has given increased impetus to the goal of MIRL: to aid in the expansion of Alaska's mineral economy through a program of applied and basic research--to seek knowledge today for use tomorrow. Earl H. Beistline, Dean, CESMI
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1966)
      The mineral and human resources of a state and/or nation are to a large extent the basis of a strong and flourishing economy. In Alaska this is currently illustrated by the activities of the oil and gas industry and the resulting large sums of money that have gone into the state Treasury to help give a sound financial basis to Alaska. The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory has concentrated its efforts on research that will help in the more complete utilization of Alaska's mineral resources for work in the state's mineral industry. This report describes in moderate detail the projects that have been undertaken. These are in the areas of mineral economics, exploration, mining, mineral benefication, beach and ocean mining, utilization of nonmetallics, use of coal resources, and the solving of numerous' specific problems posed by mining people of the state. Training of young men and women for the mineral industry is stimulated by their having the opportunity to work on projects as a part of their graduate program under the supervision of the staff of MIRL. Theses completed offer a considerable amount of information to the public. Recent completed theses are listed in this report. The laboratory has been supported financially by the state of Alaska and various grants and work in kind from individuals and agencies. Private industry has helped in purchasing equipment and cooperative projects are underway with government agencies. Personnel and facilities of the College of Earth Sciences and Mineral Industry supplemented by other professional personnel are involved in teaching and research as set forth in enabling legislation for the Laboratory. The Staff MIRL
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1965)
      Continuous research is the key to problem solutions and also to new developments in winning minerals from any environment, be it the land, the air, or the sea. Strong research programs yield both present and future benefits and are part of any vigorous, dynamic development. In Alaska, new mineral deposits must be searched for; marginal and submarginal deposits must be reviewed in terms of sophisticated methods of mining, benefication and extraction; and greater utilization must be developed for Alaska's industrial minerals, fuels, and off-shore mineral deposits. Continuous research, directed toward solving problems of present mineral production and uses, yields a technology which will solve future problems, and is essential if a vigorous mineral industry is to continue to play its basic role in Alaska's growing economy. Since mineral resources are of limited value without human resources, the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory is also dedicated to the development of Alaska's young men and women for careers in the mineral industry. The Staff MIRL
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (1967)
      This year the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory has concentrated its efforts on projects relating to the more complete utilization of Alaska's mineral resources. This report briefly describes the projects that have been undertaken. These are broad in scope including topics such as mineral economics, exploration, mining, mineral beneficiation, beach and ocean mining, use of coal resources, resource evaluation, and market research analysis. Studies have been undertaken which investigate problems or topics in nearly all areas of the state, including Southeastern Alaska, Anchorage area, Northern Alaska and the Fairbanks area. In the future the MIRL Annual Report will be presented on a fiscal basis. To bridge the gap this year, an addendum to this report will be prepared in the Spring. Staff of the MIRL University of Alaska
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (1964)
      Research that will lead to the utilization of Alaska's mineral resources and hence create new wealth must be 1::ontinued at an increased rate in the future if a strong mineral industry is to be developed and maintained. Current investment in minerals research is a judicious practice that will pay dividends to the State in the future. The Engineering Council for Professional Development, in their 1964 report which continued the accreditation of the engineering curri1:: ula at the University of Alaska, emphasized this concept when they stated: ''Regardless of the mining industry's present size, the State clearly needs a mining center in its State University not only for teachi} 1g but also for research and for service to prDspectors and mine operators." The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory is dedicated to those objectives of research, instruction and service which will help build the mineral economy of Alaska. Staff of the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory University of Alaska
    • Annual report of research progress

      MIRL (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1970)
    • Applicability of siberian placer mining technology to Alaska

      Skudrzyk, F.J.; Barker, J.C.; Walsh, D.E.; MacDonald, Rocky (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      The result of Perestroyka and Glasnost has been an awakening of potential for cooperation between East and West. Nowhere has that been better demonstrated than between Alaska and Magadan Province, USSR. This report summarizes a one year effort financed by ASTF, with participation from several technical organizations, to establish contacts with the Siberian placer mining industry. The purpose of the project was to provide initial assessment of the Soviet technology for placer mining in permafrost. A ten day trip to Magadan province by an ASTF team and a similar length visit to Alaska by the Soviet mining group representing the All Union Scientific and Research Institute of Gold and Rare Metals, (VNII-I), Magadan are described. The report also reviews translated data on mining in permafrost and describes surface and underground placer mining technology developed by the Soviets. The report also lists relevant publications on Soviet mining research and state of the art Soviet mining technology and expertise.
    • Application of Artificial Recharge Technology for Managing the Water Resources - Anchorage, Alaska

      Guymon, Gary L. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
      The purpose of this report is to explore the usefulness of artificial recharge in Alaska where there are significant known water supply problems, specifically Anchorage, Alaska. More importantly, however, this report is intended as a vehicle for updating what is known about artificial recharge and for making this information available to water resources agencies and water supply planners in Alaska. The report is not intended to be an original scientific research but is a synthesis of new knowledge developed by the writer and others within the last half-decade. This report concentrates primarily on artificial recharge by off-stream basins in an effort to narrow what is a rather broad field. The concepts discussed under this restricted heading, however, are generally applicable to other recharge methods such as on-stream artificial recharge. Artificial recharge by basins is defined for purposes of this report as the practice of ponding water in constructed off-stream ponds with the explicit intention of allowing water to infiltrate into the underlying aquifer.
    • Application of hydrocyclones for recovery of fine gold from placer material

      Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N.; Maneval, D.R. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Alaska and other gold areas have seen a sharp resurgence of placer mining in the last few years. Mines using sluice boxes usually recover gold down to 100 mesh, but recovery of gold finer than this size is a function of particle shape factor, sluice box design and operating parameters. It is felt that a concentrating device is needed to recover gold finer than 100 mesh that may not be recoverable in a sluice box. The device should be capable of processing a large volume of water and solids discharged from the sluice-box. Compound water cyclones, successfully used in the coal processing industry, seem to offer solutions. A system using these devices could recover a concentrate which would be one twenty fifth the size of the original solids in a two stage process. It is not intended to produce a finished product with cyclones, but to reduce bulk so that the reduced concentrate, free of slimes, could further be treated by flotation, gravity methods, or cyanidation to isolate the gold. This report addresses only the application of hydrocyclones for concentrating gold from placer material.